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The Second Day's Bombardment.

On the morning of the 29th, the cannonade opened early. A cloudless sky and a clear sea blessed the cause of the assailants. During the night a transport heavily ladened with troops reenforced the fort, running down the Sound which was yet open. Fort Clark was occupied by the Federal forces, and refused its aid to assist its late confederate. The conflict soon raged with extreme vigor on both sides. At eleven o'clock the Confederate flag fluttered uneasily a moment-then ran down the halyards and a white flag was slowly ran to the ,peak. Butler put ashore in the tug Fanny to learn the Confederates' wish. He said: "I then went with the Fanny over the bar into the inlet. At the same time the troops under Colonel Wilder marched up the beach, and signal was made from the flagship to cease firing.

"As the Fanny rounded in over the bar, the rebel steamer Winslow went up the channel having a large number of rebel troops on board, which she had not landed. We threw a shot at her from the Fanny, but she proved to be out of range. I then sent Lieutenant Crosby on shore to demand the meaning of the white flag. The boat soon returned, bringing Mr. Wiegel, with the following written communication from Samuel Barron, late Captain in the United States Navy:

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"Benjamin F. Butler, Major General United States Army commanding, in reply to the communication of Samuel Barron, commanding forces at Fort Hatteras, cannot admit the terms proposed. The terms offered are these: "Full capitulation.

"The officers and men to be treated as prisoners of war. "No other terms admissable.

The Surrender of the Forts.

with him Commodore Barron, Major Andrews and Colonel Martin. They came to accept the terms, and to surrender themselves, their forts and forces, to the Federal commander. Articles of capitulation were signed on board the flag-ship Minnesota. Butler then landed and took formal possession of the largest fortification. The number of prisoners surrendered was six hundred and fifteen, who were all placed on the Minnesota. In four days time they were in New York harbor. Butler stated his captures and measures, in the following congratulatory strain, in his report to General Wool:

"I may congratulate you and the country upon a glorious victory in your department, in which we captured more than seven hundred prisoners, twenty five pieces of artillery, a thousand stand of arms, a large quantity of ordnance stores, provisions, three valuable prizes, two lightboats and four stands of colors, one of which had been presented within a week by the ladies of Newbern, N. C., to the North Carolina defenders.

"By the goodness of that Providence which watches over our nation, no one, either of the fleet or army, was in the least degree injured. The enemy's loss was not officially reported to us, but was ascertained to be twelve or fifteen killed and died of wounds, and thirty-five wounded."

The first design, it would appear, was to destroy the forts, stop up the channel with old hulks and to return, temporarily at least, to Fortress Monroe with the entire force; but, the place proved to be so strong that Butler left Weber and Hawkins' commands in possession. The Pawnee and Monticello drew inside, over the bar, to provide against any attempt by the Confederates to recapture their lost prize. No immediate effort, however, was made by the rebels to regain the place. The loss of the six hundred men, and the fear of further advances up and down the Sounds, threw the Confederates, for some time, on the defensive.

For a number of days succeeding the capture,


vessels running the blockade continued to reach the Inlet with their valuable cargoes.

“Commanding officers to meet on board flugship Minne In all cases they fell a prey to the gunboats

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snugly moored inside. The losses of English merchants, and of their "Southern friends" whose headquarters were at Nassau and Hali

fax, were serious. A fine ship, loaded with | the Sumter again skimmed the water to the cotton, was found in the Inlet and seized on great destruction of shipping and goods. the 29th. Seven vessels slipped into Federal | After much endeavor to force her into close hands in the course of the two weeks fol- quarters, the U. S. gunboat Tuscarora suclowing. ceeded in catching the privateer in the English harbor of Gibraltar, where she had put in for supplies and to communicate with her friends. The Federal gunboat anchored in the harbor of Algesiras, opposite, where she lay for many weeks, holding the pirate craft a close prisoner. The Tuscarora, was after several weeks, relieved of her guard duty by the Kearsage' and betook herself to English harbors to watch the course of the Nashville

The blockade continued to be enforced as well as the extensive and intricate coast line would permit; but August and September saw a great number of rebel merchantmen abroad, while the occasional capture of vessels floating the stars and stripes proved that Jefferson Davis' Letters of Marque were rendered available to legalize piracy and murder on the high seas.

On the 1st of July, 1861, The Privateer Sumter. the privateer Sumter, Captain Semmes, cleared the blockading squadron, off the Mississippi river passes, to enter upon a career of unexampled boldness and success. She made captures in the waters of the West Indies to the number of twelve or fifteen, in three weeks time; then stood in for the English port of Nassau, New Providence, where she was kindly permitted to take in coals and all necessary supplies, at the same time disgorging her hold of its heavy treasures. She then put to sea to become quite a terror to commerce. fast steamers were dispatched in her pursuit -one of which found her at Nassau, but was refused the rights of harbor tarry; and the pirate, after leisurely coaling and refitting, passed out to sca one dark night-an English steamer, similar in appearance, putting out before her to daw away the vigilant Federal cruiser.* The ruse succeeded, and


* The English authorities openly served "the cause" on another more remarkable occasion, when the rebel steamer Nashville was permitted to leave Southampton, and the Federal gunboat Tuscarora was detained for the space of twenty-four hours to give the rebel craft an opportunity for escape. An English frigate lay alongside the Tuscarora, with fires up and guns shotted, to prevent the gunboat from pursuit. This act was by decision of the Ministry. It was only one of many instances where neutrality was practiced to aid the rebel cause. Without having formally recognized the Southern States as a power, the English Government conceded them all the rights of a belligerent. The Nashville having put into Southampton November 21st, 1861, after having burnt the clipper ship Harvey Birch, within

with what success we detail in the foot. note below. The Sumter, thus confined, was abandoned by her captain and crew, who sought for and found in English ship yards another craft with which to prey upon commerce. It is consoling to know that Captain Semmes' second ship, the Alabama, destroyed much property belonging to Her Majesty's subjects, afloat in American bottoms.

The Confederates hast

Blockade of the Po


ened, after their success at Bull Run, to the lines of the Potomac below Washington, erecting powerful batteries at Acquia Creek, Pig Point, and at other positions commanding the approach to the Capital by the river. The navigation of the river, in consequence, soon became dangerous, though the Union gunboats, by their constant vigilance, kept the Confederates, up to the middle of October, from closing the stream to transportation. The vast army around the Capital required supplies which the river was requisite to furnish with economy and dispatch. Its blockade, therefore, became a serious matter to the Commissariat; yet, week after week witnessed the growth of batteries and the gradual sealing of the stream and no special effort was made to check their progress. By October 20th the blockade was quite complete, and so re

mained until after the evacuation of Manassight of the English coast, (November 19th,) was allowed to sail February 3d, 1862; the rebel Commissioners, Mason and Slidell, arrived in London January 30th. Their friends pointed to their release by English threats, and to the Federal gunboat ly ing under British guns, as evidence of the spirit of the Ministry.

Blockade of the Po


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Affairs at Pensacola.


Pensacola harbor, for many months after the fall of Sumter, became a point of unabated interest. Fort Pickens, nder command of Colonel Harvey Brown, assumed a position of efficiency which defied the power of General Bragg and his batteries. Lining the low sand beach for several miles with

ens the centre of a circle into which to pour his hail of iron; but, the storm, though threatened and expected, never occurred― why, is among the unwritten mysteries of Bragg's Pensacola campaign.

sas (February 8th. 1862)—| a period of over three months-during which time the navigation of the Potomac was almost entirely suspended. Only an occasional adventurer, favored by wind and tide and covered by darkness, passed up or down. Even the powerful gunboats were driven from their old haunts—so completely were the Confed-powerful guns, the rebel General made Pickerates entrenched. As the line of the Baltimore and Ohio railway was in Confederate hands, at Harper's Ferry the isolation of Washington became a painful reality-the remaining avenues of approach being by the single railway from Baltimore and by the outof-the-way Annapolis track-both located in a State secure from insurrection by the constant presence of heavy Federal columns at commanding points. Who was responsible for the blockade? Not the Navy Department, since its gunboats and tugs struggled against the batteries, unaided, until powerless before the multitude of guns. The hope of the War Department was to open the Potomac by forcing the rebels back from Manassas; but, the long delay in obtaining Manassas proved disastrous to that hope, and to the General-in-Chief of the Army wholly belongs the credit or discredit of that long continued and mortifying blockade.

Operations of the Blockading Squadron.

The Attack on Wilson's Zouaves.

The dreary monotony of that sleepy region was disturbed on the night of October 9th, (1861,) when the Confederates, about fifteen hundred strong, crossed to Santa Rosa island for the purpose of destroying the camp of Wilson's Zouaves (the Sixth New York volunteers) lying about two miles away from Fort Pickens. The enterprise was regarded as an offset to the bold affair of Sept. 13th, when Lieutenant Russel, with his boat's crew, destroyed the privateer Judah, under the guns of the Navy Yard. The rebel design was to rout the Zouaves, and, if successful, to make a bold dash for the Fort, from the east or land side, spiking the outlying batteries and following the Zouaves into the fortification. The night chosen was one of inky darkness, during which the Confederates passed over, and, having landed at a point some eight miles away, came down cautiously upon the camp. The transports remained close in upon the beach, in order to be on hand for emergencies. The camp contained but two hundred and fifteen of the Zouaves-the remainder of the regiment being absent at Tortugas and intermediate localities. The attack was made by the enemy in three columns of about five hundred each. The soft sand of the island so deadened the

During all the hot season, when it was supposed operations on the Gulf coast were impossible to unacclimated men, the blockade was not intermitted. Off New Orleans, Galveston, Mobile, Pensacola, Apalachicola, as well as up the Atlantic coast to Beaufort, North Carolina, the squadrons hovered, everywhere striving to do their arduous duty. If many fleet steamers, with valuable cargoes of supplies to the Confederate army and people, passed in and out-if an occasional privateer eluded the vigilance of the Federal look-outs-it was owing to the intricate nature of a coast line numbering hun-sound of approaching feet that the sentinels dreds of harbors-many of them having several entrances. A fleet, numerous enough to have guarded every inlet, pass, bayou, gulf, and river mouth, would have counted its keels by hundreds. The many captures made all along the coast, attested the alertness of those on the wearisome duty.

were engaged at their posts and the camp assailed at three points before they were aroused. Colonel Wilson and his men instantly turned out, and measures were taken to repel the assault. Detachments were detailed to meet the flanking columns, while another body prepared to meet the centre.


The Attack on Wilson's Zouaves.

General Anderson led on his men with loud cries of "No quarter to Wilson's men." He penetrated to the Quartermaster's department, in the rear of the Colonel's quarters. The conflict was of the most desperate and stubborn character. It raged from four o'clock in the morning until half-past eight. Colonel Wilson's quarters were totally destroyed, as were those of most of his men. About five o'clock reenforcements of regulars from the Fort came to their assistance, Captain Hildt's and Captain Robertson's companies, and two companies under Major Arnold, in all about one hundred and fifty men. Captain Dobie, with company A, of Colonel Wilson's regiment, also came up at the same time. The total number of the Union troops at this time was about four hundred and fifty men -none of the companies on Santa Rosa Island, either regulars or volunteers, being full. As the day began to break the rebels | sadly realized that the chance to carry out their original plan of annihilating Colonel Wilson's regiment was gone, and as the Union forces at this time made several brilliant charges, the enemy sounded a retreat.

Then commenced a contest in which both parties showed remarkable valor and tenacity. The regulars fought with a steady will that greatly served to tone down the desperate courage of the Zouaves who were, at all moments, ready for the hand to hand encounter. The line of the retreat was contested, for eight miles, when the Confederates gained the shore and commenced their reembarkation. They sought to cover their escape but suffered severely. Charge after charge was made by the Zouaves and regulars-in all instances with success. The steamer and scows used as transports were fairly riddled by the rifle balls of the Federalists. One scow finally swamped under its over load, and the steamer had to receive, under fire, the bulk of the rebel force-or so much of it as had not been killed, wounded, taken prisoners or scattered over the sand wastes. Thirty were secured as prisoners and twentyone were buried by Wilson's men. The entire rebel loss, in killed, wounded, drowned and prisoners, was ascertained to exceed three hundred. The Federal loss was: Zouaves,

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This affair served, for the moment, to break the ennui of that lonely island occupation. It greatly inspirited the field forces and the garrison. Their only pastime, for months, had been alligator hunting and snake chases --the islands and adjacent lagunes bearing prolific crops of these loathesome creatures. After the fight, however, matters subsided again, and Bragg's five thousand men did little else than fight the coast fever and mosquitoes during their further stay in that vi cinity. The rebel commander, notwithstanding his long line of batteries, enveloping Pickens like a terrible half-moon, never essayed the task of "driving the Federals out like hornets" from their frowning fortress.

The blockading squad- Commander Hollins' ron off the Mississippi river Attack on the Blockmouths was excited by a ading Vessels. rather unique diversion of the redoubtable Commander Hollins, whose bombardment of the adobe huts of San Juan was his latest naval exploit. The Commander planned an expedition of fire rafts, gunboats and a ram, against the blockading vessels then infesting the river above the passes, to the entire exclusion of commerce with the Southern metropolis. He proposed to "raise the blockade" by sinking the squadron. The rebel gunboat Iey came down the river on the 9th of October (1861) to reconnoitre and challenge the vessels to a long range fight. As she had performed the same service several times, no unusual importance was attached to her visit, although the evidence of a new rifled gun of long range on her decks, was rendered rather unpleasantly evident to the Federal steamer, Richmond, and the ships Preble and Vincennes. The 10th and 11th passed without any further demonstration; but, at three A. M. of the 12th, the Richmond was startled by a shock from an ugly looking monster, which suddenly burst out of the darkness and came steaming down like a messenger of vengeance. She struck the Richmond abreast the port channels, raking a coal transport from the steamer's lashings, and making an ugly hole in the ship's side-three planks being stove in two

Commander Hollins Attack on the Blockading Squadron.




Hollins' Report.

feet below the water line. | present a broadside. She had, therefore, to The men were quickly at fight with her head down stream. their quarters, and, as the On the success of this ram passed abreast the ship, the entire port "expedition" the New Orbattery gave the adventurer a salute of iron leans people counted with confidence. It was hail. The Richmond's cable was then slipped a well conceived plan for ridding the river and she proceeded to drop down the river- of a provoking. obstruction; but, it was so the other ships of the blockade being signal- badly executed as to result in nothing. The ed to pass on ahead, while the Richmond cov-report of Commodore Hollins, however, made ered their exit by way of the S. W. pass, to it a grand success. It read: the Gulf. The ram did not again make her appearance. The river above presented a somewhat startling spectacle. A line of blazing fire rafts stretched entirely across the channel, bearing down upon the squadron with the current. Behind them, to assist in the consummation of the proposed destruction, were five steamers, well armed and of light draught, ready to play upon the Federal ships from any quarter. The Preble passed the bar in safety, but the Vincennes and Richmond grounded. Captain Pope in his report said:

"This occurred about eight o'clock, and the enemy, who were now down the river with the fire steamers, commenced firing at us, while we returned the fire from our port battery and rifled gun on the poop-our shot, however, falling short of the enemy, while their shell burst on all sides of us, and several passed directly over the ship.

FORT JACKSON, Oct. 12th, 1861. "Last night I attacked the blockaders with my little ficet. I succeeded, after a very short struggle, in driving them all aground on the Southwest Pass bar, except the Preble, which I sunk.

"I captured a prize from them, and after they were fast in sand I peppered them well. "There were no casualties on our side. It was a complete success. HOLLINS."

The prize referred to was the coal transport cut away from the Richmond's sile on the first shock of the ram. No Federal vessel was sunk nor any disabled. The Commodore rested on his honors, and was heard of no more.

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Escape of the Nashville, &c.

But to him belongs the credit of having first tried the principle of the water ram, and his partial success served to incite those other efforts, in the same direction, which resulted in the introduction of a new and most powerful agent of destruction. "At half-past nine Commander Handy, of the Vin- The Confederates were cennes, mistaking my signal to the ships outside the further delighted, at this bar to get under way for a signal to abandon his time, by the escape from ship, came on board the Rumond with all his of- Charleston S. C. harbor, (October 11th,) of ficers and a large number of the crew, the remain- the steamer Nashville, having on board a valder having gone on board the Water Witch. Capuable cargo of cotton and turpentine. Also tain Handy before leaving his ship had placed a slow match at the magazine. Having waited a reasonable time for an explosion, I directed Commander Handy to return to his ship with his crew, to start his water, and if necessary, at his own request, to throw overboard his small guns, for the purpose of lightening his ship, and to carry out a kedge with a cable to heave off by. At ten A. M. the enemy ceased firing, and withdrew up the river. During the engagement a shell entered our quarter port, and one of the boats was stove by another shell."

The two ships were dragged over the bar safely during the day. Captain Pope stated that he would have stopped at Pilot-town (the junction of the passes), and there have given battle, but the great length of the flag ship would not allow her to wind so as to

of the steamer Theodora, October 12th, with the Commissioners extraordinary of the Southern Government to the Courts of St. James and St. Cloud, viz: James M. Mason of Virginia, and John Slidell of New Orleans. The Nashville passed out of the harbor on the night of Friday, October 11th, under command of Captain Robert B. Pegram, formerly of the United States navy. She was a fine fleet craft, stolen from her New York owners by the South Carolina "authorities," before the date of President Lincoln's proclamation of April 13th, with the design of making her the nucleus of the proposed Confederate navy. Could those authorities have been as successful in "appropriating" Government vessels

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