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THE LAST STRUGGLE IN THE SOUTH AGAINST SECESSION. TEN.
NESSEE'S VOTE, JUNE 8TH. THE GREENVILLE CONVENTION. ITS UNCOMPROMISING UNION ACTION. THE ADDRESS, PROTEST AND RESOLUTIONS. THEIR FUTILITY.
The Vote of June 8th.
The vote of June 8th.
The Union Convention
TENNESSEE, though press- / a Union sentiment; in
ed into the Southern Con- Middle Tennessee it subfederacy by the hand of treason and the bay-jected the person to such persecutions as ouets of the insurrectionists, still struggled few cared to challenge; in East Tennessee for a hearing. The vote of June 8th, as pro- the loyal sentiment was so immensely in the claimed by Governor Harris in his proclama- ascendant, through the labors of such men as tion of June 24th, was:
Andrew Johnson, Judge Nelson, Parson Separation. No Separation. Brownlow, Emerson Etheridge, Horace May. East Tennessee, 14,780 32,923
nard, and their fellow-laborers, that the vote Middle
polled on the 8th, was over eighteen thousand West
majority against separation.* Military Camps, 2,741
Finding themselves pow
erless before the tyranny 104,913 47,238 Giving a majority for “separation” of fifty- inaugurated, the Unionists seven thousand six hundred and seventy-five.
of East Tennessee resolved, as a last resort, to How this vote was obtained we are well in-hold a Convention at Greenville, to consult formed. The election in February had re
as to the best course to pursue. This Consulted in a majority of about sixty thousand vention met June 17th. The attendance was (see page 24) against calling a Convention to very large-thirty-one counties having deleconsider an ordinance of secession-showing gates present on the first day. Judge Nelson the Union sentiment to overwhelmingly pre- presided. After a four days’ session it adoptdominate. Without any further action what
ed a Declaration of Grievances and Resoluever, with no indication from the people of a
tions which, emanating from a body comchange of sentiment, the loyal voters of the posed of enlightened and substantial SoutiState were astounded, on the morning of May
en men, deserve particular consideration. 8ih, to learn that, on the 6th, their Common- Occupying a position in the physical centre wealth had been transferred to the keeping of the guns of Davis, but that they (the vot
* Brownlow, in his " Experiences among the ers) were to be permitted the unusual privi- Rebels,” says: “For Separation and Representa. lege of voting upon the Ordinance of Seces- tion at Richmond, East Tennessee gave fourteen sion—which was proclaimed on the morning number were rebel troops, having no authority under the
thousand and seven hundred votes. One half of that of said May 8th (see pages 152, 153). That
Constitution to vote at any election. For No Separation vote having been ordered for June 8th, time
and No Representation, East Tennessee gave thirtywas thus allowed for the State to pass under three thousand straight-out Union votes, with at Confederate military rule. When that day least five thousand quiet citizens deterred from comcame it was equivalent to immediate military ing out by threats of violence and by the presence arrest in West Tennessee for a man to express of drunken troops at the polls to insult them.”
of the Union's area ; originally settled almost | provision is made by law for
Declaration of Griev. exclusively by citizens of the Slave States an examination of the vote by
disinterested persons, or even adjoining, (Virginia and North Carolina); allied to the Southern States by sympathy for contesting the election. For these and other with “ Southern Institutions” as well as by causes, we do not regard the result of the election as
expressive of the will of a majority of the freemon of commercial relations; intelligent, law-abid
Tennessee. * The Union men of East Tennessee, ing and conservative, East Tennessee, it
anxious to be neutral in the contest, were content may be presumed, represented the voice of
to enjoy their own opinions and to allow the utmost an arbiter, whose decision and views history latitude of opinion and action to those who differed will sustain. We quote from the Declar- from them. Had the same toleration prevailed in ation such sentences and sentiments as seem other parts of the State, we have no doubt that a to demand repetition :
majority of our people would have voted to remain “ We, the people of East in th Union. But, if this view is erroneous, wo Declaration of Griev.
Tennessee, again assembled in have the same--and, as we think, a much better
a Convention of our delegates, right to remain in the Government of the United make the following declaration in addition to that States than the other divisions of Tennessee have to heretofore promulgated by us at Knoxville, on the secede from it.” 30th and 31st days of May last: So far as we can Thus far in regard to the character of thut learn, the election held in this State on the 8th day “election"—the second instance, in all the Seof the present month was free, with but few excepceded States, in which an Ordinance of Secession tions, in no part of the State, other than in East was submitted to the people for their acceptance Tennessee. In the larger parts of Middle and West
or rejection !* The Declaration then proceeds Tennessee no speeches or discussions in favor of the to give the Convention's views of National Union were permitted. Union papers were not al- obligations and relations, and to express its lowed to circulate. Measures were taken in some parts of West Tennessee, in defiance of the Consti- opinion of the secession movement. We may tution and laws, which allow folded tickets, to have quote: the ballot numbered in such manner as to mark and
“We prefer to remain attached to the Govern.
ment of our fathers. The Constitution of the United expose the Union votes. A disunion paper, the Nashville Gazette, in urging the people to vote an
States has done us no wrong. The Congress of the open ticket, declared tható a thief takes a pocket- United States has passed no law to oppress us. The book or effects an entrance into forbidden places by President of the United States has made no threat stealthy means—a tory, in voting, usually adopts against the law-abiding people of Tennessee. Under
the Government of the United States we have enjoy. pretty much the same course of procedure.' Disunionists, in many places, had charge of the polls, ed, as a nation, more of civil and religious freedom and Union men, when voting, were denounced as
than any other people under the whole heaven. We
believe there is no cause for rebellion or secession Lincolnites and Abolitionists. The unanimity of the votes in many large counties, where, but a few
on the part of the people of Tennessee. None was weeks ago, the Union sentiment was so strong, assigned by the Legislature in their miscalled Declar
ation of Independence. No adequate cause can be proves beyond doubt that Union men were overawed by the tyranny of the military power and the assigned. The Select Committee of that body asstill greater tyranny of a corrupt and subsidized
serted a gross and inexcusable falsehood in their
address to the people of Tennessee when they depress. Volunteers were allowed to vote
clared that the Gov in and out of the State, in flagrant violation of the
ment of the United States has Constitution. From the moment the election was
made war upon them.
“ The secession cause has thus far been sustaine 1 over, and before any detailed statement of the vote in the different counties had been published, and by deception and falsehood : hy falsehood as to the before it was possible to ascertain the result, it was
action of Congress ; by false dispatches as to battles exultingly proclaimed that separation had been * The Virginia vote of May 23d, 1861, was taken carried by from fifty to seventy thousand votes. under like circumstances; the hordes of the Con. This was to prepare the public mind to enable the federacy being everywhere in Eastern Virginia, to Secessionists to hold possession of the State though prick with the bayonet any man presumptuous they should be in a minority.' The final result is to enough to entertain Union sentiments. We do not be announced by, a disunion Governor, whose exist- name the vote allowed in Texas : it was & mockery ence depends upon the success of secession, and no too base to be called a vote.
that were never fought and victories that were never
“ It has called upon the peo
Declaration of Griey. won; by false accounts as to the purposes of the ple in the State of Georgia, and President; by false representations as to the views may soon require the people of of Union men, and by false pretenses as to the facil. Tennessee, to contribute all their surplus cotton. ity with which the secession troops would take pos- wheat, corn, bacon, beef, &c., to the support of session of the Capital and capture the highest offi- pretended governments alike destitute of money cers of the Government. The cause of secession or and credit. rebellion has no charms for us, and its progress has " It has attempted to destroy the accountability been marked by the most alarming and dangerous of public servants to the people by secret legislaattacks upon the public liberty. In other States, as tion, and set the obligation of an oath at defiance. well as our own, its whole course threatens to anni. “ It has passed laws declaring it treason lo say or hilate the last vestige of freedom. While peace and do anything in favor of the Government of the Uni. prosperity have blessed us in the Government of the ted States, or against the Confederate States, and United States, the following may be enumerated as
such a law is now before, and we apprehend will some of the fruits of secession :
soon be passed by, the Legislature of Tennessee. “It was urged forward by
“ It has attempted to destroy, and we fear will Declaration of
members of Congress who soon utterly prostrate the freedom of speech and of Grievances.
sworn to support the Constitution of the United States, and were them
“ It has involved the Southern States in a war selves supported by the Government.
whose success is hopeless, and which must ulti“ It was effected without consultation with all the mately lead to the ruin of the people. States interested in the slavery question, and with
“ Its bigoted, overbearing and intolerant spirit out exhausting peaceable remedies.
has already subjected the people of East Tennessee “ It has plunged the country into civil war, para
to many petty grievances : our people have been lyzed our commerce, interfered with the whole trade insulted; our flags have been fired upon and torn and business of our country, lessened the value of down; our houses have been rudely entered; our our property, destroyed many of the pursuits of life,
families subjected to insult; our peaceable meetand bids fair to involve the whole nation in irre. ings interrupted; our women and children shot at trievable hankruptcy and ruin.
by a merciless soldiery; our towns pillaged; our “ It has changed the entire relations of States, and citizens robbed, and some of them assassinated and adopted Constitutions without submitting them to a
murdered. vote of the people, and where such a vote has been “No effort has been spared to deter the Union authorized, it has been upon the condition pre
men of East Tennessee from the expression of their scribed by Senator Mason, of Virginia, that those
free thoughts. The penalties of treason have been who voted the Union ticket must leave the State.'
threatened against them, and murder and assassina“ It has advocated a constitutional monarchy, a
tion have been openly encouraged by leading seces. king and a dictator, and is, through the Richmond sion journals. press, at this moment recommending to the Conven
“ As secession has been thus overbearing and in. tion in Virginia a restriction of the right of suffrage, tolerant while in the minority in East Tennessee, and in severing connection with the Yankees, to nothing better can be expected of the pretended abolish every vestige of resemblance to the institu- majority than wild, unconstitutional and oppressive tions of that detested race.'
legislation ; an utter contempt and disregard of “ It has formed military leagues, passed military law; a determination to force every Union man in bills, and opened the door for oppressive taxation, the State to swear to the support of a Constitution without consulting the people ; and then, in mock- he abhors; to yield his money and property to aid ery of a free election, has required them by their
a cause he detests, and to become the object of votes to sanction its usurpations, under the penalties
scorn and derision as well as the victim of intoleraof moral proscription or at the point of the bayonet. ble and relentless oppression.” " It has offered a premium for crime in directing
In view of these considerations, and of the the discharge of volunteers from criminal prosecu- fact that the people of East Tennessee had tions, and in recommending the Judges not to hold declared their fidelity to the Union by a matheir courts.
jority of nearly twenty thousand votes, the " It has stained our statute book with the repudia. Convention resolved and declared their wishes tion of Northern debts, and has greatly violated the and purposes as follows: Constitution by attempting, through its unlawful
“1. That we do earnestly desire the restoration extension, to destroy the right of suffrage.
of peace to our whole country, and most especially
that our own section of the requested to open and hold The Resolutions.
The Resolutions. State of Tennessee should not said election, or cause the be involved in civil war.
same to be so held, in the usual manner and at 6 2. That the action of our State Legislature in the usual places of voting, as prescribed by law ; passing the so-called . Declaration of Independence' and in the event the sheriffof any county should fail and in forming the “Military League with the Con- or refuse to open and hold said election, or cause federate States, and in adopting other acts looking the same to be done, the coroner of such county is to a separation of the State of Tennessee from the requested to do so, and should such coroner fail or Government of the United States, is unconstitutional refuse, then any constable of such county is hereby and illegal, and therefore not binding upon us as authorized to open and hold said election, or cause loyal citizens.
the same to be held. And if in any county none of "3. That in order to avert a conflict with our
the above-named officers will hold said election, brethren in other parts of the State, and desiring then any Justice of the Peace or freeholder in snch that all constitutional means shall be resorted to for county is authorized to hold the same, or cause it to the preservation of peace, we do, therefore, consti- be done. The officer or other person holding said tute and appoint 0. P. Temple, of Knox, John election shall certify the result to the President of Netherland, of Hawkins, and James P. McDowell, this Convention, or to such officer as may have diof Greene, commissioners, whose duty it shall be to
rected the same to be holden, at as early a day prepare a memorial and cause the same to be pre. thereafter as practicable; and the officer to whom sented to the General Assembly of Tennessee, now
said returns may be made, shall open and compare in session, asking its consent that the counties com
the polls and issue certificates to the delegates
elected." posing East Tennessee, and such counties in Middle Tennessee as desire to co-operate with them, may
Vain protest! It was not
Tho Closing Scan?. form and erect a separate State.
long before those Unionists " 4. Desiring, in good faith, that the General As- and protestants against wrong were flying sembly will grant this our reasonable request, and for their lives, and were hunted down like still claiming the right to determine our own des- wilu beasts. The leaders disappeared from tiny, we do further resolve that an election be held observation, and the people could only acquiin all the counties of East Tennessee, and in such esce in a state of affairs which, in the presother counties in Middle Tennessee adjacent thereto
ence of the armed minions of the Southern as may desire to co-operate with us, for the choice Confederacy, they were powerless to prevent. of delegates to represent them in a Generai Conven. Exiled, outlawed, scourged, imprisoned, contion, to be held in the tows of Kingston at such
signed to the gallows in companies, the story time as the President of this Convention, or, in case of his absence or inability, any one of the Vice of East Tennessee is written in tears ani Presidents, or, in like case with them, the Secretary
blood; and if all other recor«ls of the wrong of this Convention may desiguate; and the officer so and outrage perpetrated by the Confederaty designating the day for the assembling of said Con. on Southern citizens were blotted out, the vention shall also fix the time for holding the elec- persecutions inflicted upou loyal men in Tentjou lierein provided for, and give reasonable notice nessee would sufice to consign the memory thereof.
of the secession movement aur its leaders tu 5. In order to carry out the foregoing revolu- eternal infanıy. 110., ibu sherits of the different counties are hereby | Alas that deliverance was so long dulasee! CHAPTER VI
MEETING OF THE CONFEDERATE CONGRESS AT RICHMOND. THR
PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE. IMPORTANT DOCUMENTS LAID BEFORE THE CONGRESS. THE MISSION OF COLONEL TAYLOR TO WASHINGTON. OPERATIONS OF SOUTHERN AGENTS IN EUROPE. ACT OF CONGRESS SEQUESTRATING THE PROPERTY OF ALIENS. GENERAL VIEW OF AFFAIRS IN THE SOUTH DURING JULY AND
The adjourned session | lation of hic forces on the Poo Davis' Message of
Davis' Message of of the Confederate Congress tomac sufficiently demonstrated July 20th, 1861.
July 20th, 1861. was resumed at Richmond that his efforts were to be diJuly 20th, when Jefferson Davis laid before the rected against Virginia, and from no point could ne
cessary measures for her defense and protection be so assembled members important documents.
effectively decided, as from her own capital. The rap. His Message-forming, as it does, an import
progress of events, for the last few weeks, has fully ant link in the chain of history of the Rebel. sufficed to lift the veil, behind which the true policy lion-we give at length:
and purposes of the Government of the United States “ Gentlemen of the Congress of the Confederate States of had been previously concealed. Their odious feaAmerica :
tures now stand fully revealed. The message of “My Inessage addressed to you at the commence their President and the action of their Congress ment of the last session contained such full inform during the present month, confess their intention ation of the state of the Confederacy as to render it of the subjugation of these States, by a war, by unnecessary that I should now do more than call which it is impossible to attain the proposed result, your attention to such important facts as have oc. while its dire calamities, not to be avoided by us, curred during the recess, and the matters connected will fall with double severity on themselves. with the public defense.
“ Commencing in March last, with the affectation “ I have again to congratulate you on the access of iguoring the secession of seven States, which first sion of new members to our Confederation of free organized this Government; persevering in April in and equally sovereign States. Our loved and hon the idle and absurd assumption of the existence of ored brethren of North Carolina and Tennessee have a riot, which was to be dispersed by a posse comitatus ; consummated the action foreseen and provided for continuing in successive months the false representat your last session, and I have had the gratification ation that these States intended an offensive war, in of announcing, by proclamation, in conformity with spite of conclusive evidence to the contrary, furlaw, that these States were admitted into the Con- nished as well by official action as by the very basis federacy. The people of Virginia, also, by a major on which this Government is constituted, the Presi. ity previously unknown in our history, have ratified dent of the United States and his advisers succeeded the action of her Convention uniting her fortunes in deceiving the people of those States into the bewith ours. The States of Arkansas, North Carolina lief that the purpose of this Government was not and Virginia have likewise adopted the permanent peace at home, but conquest abroad; not defense Constitution of the Confederate States, and no doubt of its own liberties, but subversion of those of the is entertained of its adoption by Tennessee, at the people of the United States. The series of ma. election to be held early in next month.
næuvres by which this impression was created; the “I deemed it advisable to direct the removal of art with which they were devised, and the perfidy the several executive departments, with their ar- with which they were executed, were already known chives, to this city, to which you have removed the to you, but you could scarcely have supposed that seat of Government. Immediately after your ad- they would be openly avowed, and their success journment, the aggressive movements of the enemy made the subject of boast and self-laudation in an required prompt, energetic action. The accumu. executive message. Fortunately for truth and his.