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smaller than were confirmed by the surgeon | dinary avocation, with the full assurance that they, and regimental returns. McCullough's statis- their families, their homes, and their property shall tics never were regarded as worthy of much be carefully protected. credence where his own vanity or personal importance was concerned.
This disaster was followed by an inroad of the enemy, as Lyon foresaw, which soon gave them possession of that portion of the State. It cost much blood and treasure, and many months of hard campaigning to dislodge them. Had Lyon been reenforced all would have been well. Even two or three fresh regiments of infantry and one of cavalry would have filled up the ranks of the retiring three-months men, and have afforded forces enough to have kept the enemy at bay until Fremont could come on in force. The loss of Springfield inflicted untold suffering upon the Unionists of that section. It was a disaster for which the country did not cease to hold Fremont responsible, although the General urged the strong plea that what men he had were totally unfit for the field from want of arms, transportation, &c.
"I at the same time warn all evil-disposed persons who may support the usurpations of any one
claiming to be provisional or temporary Governor
This had the effect to throw into his ranks a large number of those people in the southwestern portion of the State who awaited the result of this conflict before determining their allegiance. It also forced acquiescence from all settlers who did not flee with the Federal army; but, even that acquiescence did not protect their farms from devastation by the hordes of veritable vagabonds of which the invading army was largely composed. It is certain that the army brought by McCullough into Missouri was composed almost exclusively of Texan and Arkansas Rangers-men as wild as Indians and as ferocious as hyenas. They never, in all their service in the Confederate ranks, were brought under subjugation to discipline. The "border ruffians" who also gathered around Price were but little better. It was of such ele
The army under my command has been organ-ments that the armies of Price, Van Dorn, ized under the laws of the State for the protection McCullough and Rains were afterwards in a of your homes and firesides, and for the maintegreat degree composed. nance of the rights, dignity, and honor of Missouri. It is kept in the field for these purposes alone, and
to aid in accomplishing them our gallant Southern
brethren have come into our State.
The State Convention ac
Assemblage of the
cording to call of the Committee, assembled at Jeffer"We have just achieved a glorious victory over son City, July 20th, to provide for the reorganithe foe, and scattered far and wide the appointed zation of the State Executive pending a regu army which the usurper at Washington has been lar election of State officers. The Convenmore than six months gathering for your subjuga- tion, as elected early in the year, was comtion and enslavement. This victory frees a large posed of secessionists and loyalists--the latportion of the State from the power of the invaders, ter in the majority. Its proceedings were of and restores it to the protection of its army. It course accompanied with much excitement, consequently becomes my duty to assure you that and the presence at the Capitol of a strong it is my firm determination to protect every peacea-guard was deemed necessary to prevent a de
ble and law-abiding citizen in the full enjoyment of
all his rights, whatever may have been his sympathies in the present unhappy struggle, if he has not taken an active part in the cruel warfare which has been waged against the good people of this State by the ruthless enemies whom we have just defeated. I therefore invite all good citizens to return to their homes and the practice of their or
scent on, and the seizure of, the delegates by
THE CONVENTION'S ADDRESS TO THE PEOPLE.
al Federal regiments, whose retention, though | on the 3d Monday in De-
The Resolutions of State Reorganization.
"1. Declares the offices of Governor, LieutenantGovernor, Secretary of State, and members of the Legislature, as heretofore recognized, vacant.
2. That a Governor, Lieutenant-Governor and Secretary of State shall be appointed by the Convention to hold these offices until the first Monday
in November next.
3. That on that day a Governor, LieutenantGovernor and Secretary of State and members of the Legislature shall be chosen, and the precise manner of election is set forth.
"4. That certain laws passed at the last session of the Legislature, referring to the organization of the militia; to raising money to arm the State to repel invasion, and to protect the lives and property of the people of the State; to suspend the apportionment of the school fund, and other less important laws, are repealed, and declared to have | no validity whatever. That all commissions under any of such laws are repealed and annulled, and all soldiers and other persons are disbanded and discharged. That certain other laws for the organiza
tion of the volunteers are revived and declared to be in force, and under this law (December 31, 1850) volunteer forces may be enrolled-such act being declared to have full force and effect.
"5. That at the election for Governor, and other
officers, on the first Monday of November next, polls shall be opened, and the people shall vote for the action of the Convention, or against the action of the Convention; and if a majority of the legal voters shall vote in favor of the amendment of the Constitution, then the officers before referred to shall hold their offices as provided in this ordinance; but if a majority be against such amendments, then the election of State officers shall be null and void, and they shall not take their seats."
These resolutions were adopted by a vote of 56 to 25-the first, only, varying, viz.: 52 to 28.
On the 31st July the Convention elected Judge Hamilton R. Gamble, Governor; Willard P. Hall, Lieutenant-Governor; Mordecai Oliver, Secretary of State. The inauguration took place during the afternoon, after which the Convention adjourned to convene again
Address to the People.
ment an address to the people was prepared, giving an exposition of affairs and defending its action in legislating for the loyal Government of the State. It was a document of much importance as well as of interest, and served greatly to strengthen the Union sentiment among the people. After recurring to the sad change in the peace of the State, since the adjournment in March, the address proceeded to show what had brought about the state of war then existing within their borders. Governor Jackson was found to be deeply implicated in the conspiracy, as the documents cited by the Address fully proved. As showing how the treacherous and unprincipled few dominated over the many, particularly in the States of Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Arkansas, we may quote, from the Convention's statement, the revelations regarding the conspiracy concocted to carry Missouri over to the Confederacy. Several letters were cited from Governor Jacksonone dated April 19th, to the President of the Arkansas Convention, and another, date: April 28th, to the editor of a secession paper in St. Louis-in both of which he declared for secession, notwithstanding the action of the Convention in March [see pages 29-31]. The Conventionists then say:
"Here we have the fixed mind and purpose of the Governor, that Missouri shall leave the Union. He wants time-a little time to arm the State. He
thinks secrecy should be preserved by the parties with whom he acts in keeping their counsels. He suggests that nothing should be said about the time or the manner in which Missouri should go out; manifestly implying that the time and manner of going out, which he and those with whom he acted proposed to adopt, was some other time and manner than such as was to be fixed by the people through their Convention. It was no doubt to be a time and manner to be fixed by the Governor and General As
sembly, or by the Governor and a military body to
be provided with arms during the little time needed by the Governor for that purpose.
"There have been no specific disclosures made to the public of the details of this plan, but the Governor expresses his strong conviction that at the proper time the State will go out.
"This correspondence of the Governor occurred at a time when there was no interference by soldiers of the United States with any of the citizens, or with
organization of a military
the peace of the State. The Address to the People. event which produced exasperation through the State, the capture of camp Jackson, did not take place until the 10th of May. Yet the evidence is conclusive that there was at the time of this correspondence a secret plan for taking Missouri out of the Union without any assent of the people through their Convention. An address to the people of Missouri was issued by Thomas C. Reynolds, the Lieutenant Governor, in which he declares that in Arkansas, Tennessee and Virginia his efforts "Without referring more particularly to the prohave been directed unceasingly, to the best of his visions of these several acts, which are most extraor limited ability, to the promotion of our interests, in- dinary and extremely dangerous as precedents, it is dissolubly connected with the vindication of our lib- sufficient to say that they display the same purpose erties and our speedy union with the Confederate to engage in a conflict with the General GovStates. Here is the second executive officer of Mis- ernment and to break the connection of Missouri souri avowedly engaged in travelling through States with the United States, which had before been maniwhich he must regard, while Missouri continues infested by Governor Jackson. The conduct of these the Union, as foreign States, and those States endeavoring, as he says, to promote the interest of our State.
The mode of promoting our interests is disclosed in another passage of the address, in which he gives the people assurance that the people of the Confederate States, though engaged in a war with a powerful foe, would not hesitate still further to tax their energies and resources at the proper time and on a proper occasion in aid of Missouri. The mode of promoting our interests, then, was by obtaining military aid, and this while Missouri continued in the Union. The result of the joint action of the first and second executive officers of the State has been that a body of the military forces of Arkansas has actually invaded Missouri, to carry out the schemes of our own officer, who ought to have conformed to your will, as you had made it known at elections, and had expressed it by your delegates in Convention.
officers of the Legislative and Executive Depart ments has produced evil and dangers of vast magnitude, and your delegates in Convention have addressed themselves to the important and delicate duty of attempting to free the State from these evils.
"The high executive officers have fed from the State, leaving us without the officers to discharge the ordinary necessary executive functions. But, more than this, they are actually engaged in carry. ing on a war within the State, supported by troops from States in the Southern Confederacy, so that the State, while earnestly desirous to keep out of the war, has become the scene of conflict without any action of the people assuming such hostility. Any remedy for our present evil, to be adequate, must be one which shall vacate the offices held by the officers who have thus brought our troubles upon us."
This is a dark record for the honesty and "Still further to execute the purpose of severing good faith of those in authority, during April
the connection of Missouri with the United States, the General Assembly was called, and when assembled sat in secret session and enacted laws which had
for their object the placing in the hands of the Governor large sums of money, to be expended in his discretion for military purposes, and a law for the
and May; but is it not in perfect keeping with the dishonor and treachery successfully practiced upon the people of Virginia, Tennessee, North Carolina, Texas, and Arkansas by a few base spirits ?
THE LAST STRUGGLE IN THE SOUTH AGAINST SECESSION. NESSEE'S VOTE, JUNE 8TH. THE GREENVILLE CONVENTION. ITS UNCOMPROMISING UNION ACTION. THE ADDRESS, PROTEST AND
The Vote of June 8th.
The vote of June 8th.
TENNESSEE, though press- a Union sentiment; in ed into the Southern Con- Middle Tennessee it subfederacy by the hand of treason and the bay-jected the person to such persecutions as ouets of the insurrectionists, still struggled few cared to challenge; in East Tennessee for a hearing. The vote of June 8th, as pro- the loyal sentiment was so immensely in the claimed by Governor Harris in his proclama- ascendant, through the labors of such men as tion of June 24th, was: Andrew Johnson, Judge Nelson, Parson Brownlow, Emerson Etheridge, Horace Maynard, and their fellow-laborers, that the vote polled on the 8th, was over eighteen thousand majority against separation.*
Giving a majority for "separation" of fiftyseven thousand six hundred and seventy-five. How this vote was obtained we are well informed. The election in February had resulted in a majority of about sixty thousand [see page 24] against calling a Convention to consider an ordinance of secession-showing the Union sentiment to overwhelmingly predominate. Without any further action whatever, with no indication from the people of a change of sentiment, the loyal voters of the State were astounded, on the morning of May 8th, to learn that, on the 6th, their Commonwealth had been transferred to the keeping of the guns of Davis, but that they (the vot ers) were to be permitted the unusual privilege of voting upon the Ordinance of Secession-which was proclaimed on the morning of said May 8th [see pages 152, 153]. That vote having been ordered for June 8th, time was thus allowed for the State to pass under Confederate military rule. When that day came it was equivalent to immediate military arrest in West Tennessee for a man to express
The Union Convention at Greenville.
Finding themselves powerless before the tyranny inaugurated, the Unionists of East Tennessee resolved, as a last resort, to hold a Convention at Greenville, to consult as to the best course to pursue. This Convention met June 17th. The attendance was very large-thirty-one counties having delegates present on the first day. Judge Nelson presided. After a four days' session it adopted a Declaration of Grievances and Resolutions which, emanating from a body composed of enlightened and substantial Southern men, deserve particular consideration. Occupying a position in the physical centre
*Brownlow, in his "Experiences among the Rebels," says: "For Separation and Representation at Richmond, East Tennessee gave fourteen thousand and seven hundred votes. One half of that number were rebel troops, having no authority under the
Constitution to vote at any election. For No Separation
and No Representation, East Tennessee gave thirtythree thousand straight-out Union votes, with at least five thousand quiet citizens deterred from coming out by threats of violence and by the presence of drunken troops at the polls to insult them."
of the Union's area; originally settled almost exclusively by citizens of the Slave States adjoining, (Virginia and North Carolina); allied to the Southern States by sympathy with "Southern Institutions" as well as by commercial relations; intelligent, law-abiding and conservative, East Tennessee, it may be presumed, represented the voice of an arbiter, whose decision and views history will sustain. We quote from the Declaration such sentences and sentiments as seem to demand repetition :
Declaration of Griev
"We, the people of East Tennessee, again assembled in a Convention of our delegates, make the following declaration in addition to that heretofore promulgated by us at Knoxville, on the 30th and 31st days of May last: So far as we can learn, the election held in this State on the 8th day of the present month was free, with but few exceptions, in no part of the State, other than in East Tennessee. In the larger parts of Middle and West Tennessee no speeches or discussions in favor of the Union were permitted. Union papers were not allowed to circulate. Measures were taken in some
parts of West Tennessee, in defiance of the Constitution and laws, which allow folded tickets, to have
the ballot numbered in such manner as to mark and. expose the Union votes. A disunion paper, the Nashville Gazette, in urging the people to vote an open ticket, declared that a thief takes a pocketbook or effects an entrance into forbidden places by
stealthy means--a tory, in voting, usually adopts pretty much the same course of procedure.' Dis
unionists, in many places, had charge of the polls,
and Union men, when voting, were denounced as Lincolnites and Abolitionists. The unanimity of the votes in many large counties, where, but a few weeks ago, the Union sentiment was so strong, proves beyond doubt that Union men were overawed by the tyranny of the military power and the still greater tyranny of a corrupt and subsidized press. Volunteers were allowed to vote in and out of the State, in flagrant violation of the Constitution. From the moment the election was over, and before any detailed statement of the vote
* * *
Declaration of Griev
provision made by law for an examination of the vote by disinterested persons, or even for contesting the election. For these and other causes, we do not regard the result of the election as expressive of the will of a majority of the freemen of Tennessee. * *The Union men of East Tennessee,
anxious to be neutral in the contest, were content
to enjoy their own opinions and to allow the utmost latitude of opinion and action to those who differed from them. Had the same toleration prevailed in other parts of the State, we have no doubt that a majority of our people would have voted to remain in the Union. But, if this view is erroneous, we have the same-and, as we think, a much betterright to remain in the Government of the United States than the other divisions of Tennessee have to secede from it."
Thus far in regard to the character of that "election”—the second instance, in all the Seceded States, in which an Ordinance of Secession was submitted to the people for their acceptance or rejection!* The Declaration then proceeds to give the Convention's views of National obligations and relations, and to express its opinion of the secession movement. We may quote:
"We prefer to remain attached to the Government of our fathers. The Constitution of the United States has done us no wrong. The Congress of the United States has passed no law to oppress us.
President of the United States has made no threat
against the law-abiding people of Tennessee. Under the Government of the United States we have enjoy
ed, as a nation, more of civil and religious freedom
than any other people under the whole heaven. We believe there is no cause for rebellion or secession on the part of the people of Tennessee. None was assigned by the Legislature in their miscalled Declaration of Independence. No adequate cause can be assigned. The Select Committee of that body as
serted a gross and inexcusable falsehood in their address to the people of Tennessee when they declared that the Government of the United States has made war upon them.
"The secession cause has thus far been sustained
in the different counties had been published, and by deception and falsehood: by falsehood as to the action of Congress; by false dispatches as to battles before it was possible to ascertain the result, it was exultingly proclaimed that separation had been carried by from fifty to seventy thousand votes. This was to prepare the public mind to enable the Secessionists to hold possession of the State though they should be in a minority.' The final result is to be announced by a disunion Governor, whose existence depends upon the success of secession, and no
* The Virginia vote of May 23d, 1861, was taken under like circumstances; the hordes of the Confederacy being everywhere in Eastern Virginia, to prick with the bayonet any man presumptuous enough to entertain Union sentiments. We do not name the vote allowed in Texas: it was a mockery too base to be called a vote.