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ing long experienced the mildness of the General Government, still feel confident that this mildness cannot be overtaxed even by factious hostilities, having in view its overthrow; but lest, as in the case of the late Camp Jackson affair, this clemency shall still be misconstrued, it is proper to give warning that the Government cannot always be expected to indulge in it to the compromise of its evident welfare." He then added:
vance fell back. Marmaduke placed his force consisting of two regiments and a strong detachment of cavalry-in good position to receive the attack. Totten opened with his guns, the infantry filed left and right along the road, and opened with musketry. It was but a brief matter, however, for the rebels soon gave way and fled with much precipitation to their partially fortified quarters. Upon that place, a howitzer on board one of the steam transports was made to bear, and planted its shots so cleverly that Marmaduke's men incontinently scattered in disorder, leaving as spoils for the Union army a large amount of camp equip-ranny, I hereby give notice to the people of this age, much stores, considerable clothing, arms, &c., &c. A battery of two guns commanding the river, abandoned by the rebel infantry, was taken, together with its horses, equipments and men. The howitzer on the transport, having a good view of the flying foe, added to their terror by a few shots, which did some havoc.
Thus ended the "battle of Booneville"-a mere farce of a fight at best. Jackson viewed the smoke of the battle from afar, and fled to the west with all the haste of a bearer of dispatches. Price "retired" toward Warsaw, whither many of the troops made their way - their design being eventually to form a junction with the advancing forces of McCullough and Rains. The Federal loss was two killed and ten wounded. The enemy's loss was about forty killed and wounded and a large number of prisoners. From Booneville Lyon issued his first military proclamation to those in arms and to the citizens. After referring to the treasonable act of Jackson in his late proceedings, the General recurred to his own procedure in suppressing the insurrection sought to be created. His descent on that point had resulted in his seizure of a number of the troops who had gathered to the standard of rebellion, most of whom were "prisoners of immature age" who had been, by their own professions, induced to take up arms against the Government through the calumnies and falsehoods of the rebel lead
"Hearing that those plotting against the Government have falsely represented that the Government troops intended a forcible and violent invasion of Missouri for purposes of military despotism and ty
State that I shall scrupulously avoid all interference with the business, right and property of every description recognized by the laws of the State, and belonging to law-abiding citizens. But it is equally my duty to maintain the paramount authority of the United States with such force as I have at my command, which will be retained only so long as opposition makes it necessary, and that it is my wish, and shall be my purpose, to visit any unavoidable rigor arising in this issue upon those only who pro
"All persons who, under the misapprehensions above mentioned, have taken up arms, or who are now preparing to do so, are invited to return to their homes and relinquish their hostilities toward the Federal Government, and are assured that they may do so without being molested for past occurrences."
Onslaught at Cole.
This dispersion of the rebels was followed by their hasty retreat towards the south. A strong detachment of the "State Guard," retreating towards Warsaw, on the 18th, fell upon a half-organized regiment of Home (Federal) Guards commanded by Captain Cook, at Cole, killing twenty-three of them, wounding twenty and bearing off thirty as prisoners. This savage onslaught by over twelve hundred men upon a surprised and only partially armed foe, mustering, all told, about four hundred muskets, was the revenge the ruffians wreaked for their defeat on the previous day. They found the unsuspecting Unionists in a barn, and shot into it at their pleasure, from behind trees and fences, picking off every man who ventured in sight. A gallant sally was made by Captain Cook, by which the remnant of his little force escaped slaughter entire.
Colonel Boernstein issued his proclamation at Jefferson City on the 17th of June, announcing the flight of the Governor and State officers. He declared his purpose to co-operate with the judicial and civil authorities to preserve law and order.
Movement of Troops
A concentration of NaLyon's Policy. tional troops followed Lyon's occupation of Jefferson and Booneville. A quick campaign was to be prosecuted, in order, if possible, to crush the Secessionists before they could receive aid from the Confederacy or could effect a thorough organization among themselves. Lyon's policy was characterized by decision. His perceptions were clear, his movements rapid, his enthusiasm inspiring. He was the right man in the right place. Had Government thrown men and means into Missouri to his call, he would have swept the rebels from the State in a few weeks' time. But, Government was so deeply absorbed in affairs around Washington that Lyon's plans were left to be consummated with no further help than the adjoining States could bestow in furnishing a few regiments of partially armed men. The first regiments of Missouri volunteers were armed chiefly through the exertions of Gen-way of Rolla, until July 2d, when, with three eral Lyon and Colonel Frank Blair; but the inadequate supply of arms soon restricted the usefulness of the Missouri Unionists, and thus crippled Lyon to a serious degree.*
* To show how slowly arms were supplied to the several States, for placing their volunteers in the
field, we may give the following table of the deliveries from the Springfield. (Massachusetts) Armory
from April 1st to July 1st, 1861 :
To States, for arming volun
teers and Home
Colonel Siegel arrived at Springfield, in the southwestern section of the State, June 23d, and was quickly followed by the regiments of Colonels Salomon and Brown. On the 24th, five companies of cavalry, six companies of infantry and dragoons, and two companies of volunteers, in all about one thousand five hundred men, with one battery, all under the command of Major S. D. Sturgis, left Kansas City destined for the same point. Lyon's forces at Booneville lacked so much for transportation as to be unable to move southward after Price, and to co-operate with the troops already passed down by
thousand men, he took up his march via Smithton for Osceola, there to effect a junction with Sturgis' force. He left the northwestern section of the State in the keeping of three regiments-the Second and Third Iowa and Sixteenth Illinois-all under the general command of Colonel Smith, with head-quarters at Palmyra. This force was deemed amply sufficient to control the secession element and to protect the railway property in that region.
Learning that Jackson was coming down through Cedar county, from the north, with his "gathered bands of ragamuffins and cut8,405 throats," Siegel pushed out from Springfield to Mount Vernon to prevent his junction with 3.704 Price, who was then near Neosho, with about
Pennsylvania...5,000 4,000 2,000
7,500 14,220 62,952 2,462 1,853 88.987 During the same time there were delivered to the several Government arsenals the following, for Government disposition and use: New York Arsenal, 2,200 muskets, patent of '42; 2,600 rifle muskets, patent of '55; ten Coehorn mortars-total, 4,810. Washington Arsenal, 802 rifle muskets of '55. Alleghany Arsenal, 1,000 rifle muskets of '55.
St. Louis Arsenal, 2,500 muskets of '22; 2,500 muskets of '40--total, 5,000.
West Point Cadets, 300 rifle muskets of '55. Carlisle Barracks, two twelve-pound howitzerstotal to the regular army, 11,914.
As the Springfield armory was the chief source of reliance, it will be seen how utterly inadequate the supply was to the demand. The deficit was made up by the purchase of all arms manufactured by the several extensive private factories of Colt's arms, the Ames' rifle works, &c. Agents were also dis patched to Europe, and by July 1st large importations of Enfield rifles and Belgian arms began to flow in.
Siegel After Price.
THE BATTLE OF CARTHAGE.
eight hundred "State | disposed his forces for Guards" and Secessionists attack. The artillery was enlisted in that vicinity. The presence there, at that early day, of the General, proves that his "illness" at Booneville, if it did prevent his sharing the honors of that fight, was not serious enough to retard his rapid transit to the south. Siegel, arriving at Mount Vernon, pressed on to Neosho, June 30th, hoping to engage and destroy Price's command, then to turn and crowd Jackson and his General commanding, Parsons, back upon Lyon's advance. This dashing movement failed-the valiant Price again having taken the alarm and fled toward Maysville. Siegel then turned his face to the north in quest of Jackson. Ere he could reach the vicinity of Carthage, the entire commands of Rains, Parsons, Slack and Jackson had united at Rupes Creek, (July 4th,) eight miles north of Carthage.
Battle of Carthage.
allotted: on our left two six-pounders; centre, two six-pounders and two twelvepounders; two six-pounders on our right. The enemy, occupying the highest ground in the prairie, had in position one six-pounder on the right and left, and in his centre one twelve and two six-pounders. The fight commenced at half-past nine, when large bodies of infantry began to appear. The firing of the enemy was wretched. I have seen much artillery practice, but never saw such bad gunnery before. Their balls and shells went over us, and exploded in the open prairie. At eleven o'clock we had silenced their twelve-pounder and broken their centre so much that disorder was apparent. After the first five shots, the two secession flags which they carried were not shown. They displayed the State flag, which we did not fire at. At about two o'clock the cavalry attempted to outflank us, on both right and left. As we had left our baggage trains three miles in the rear, not anticipating a serious engage. ment, it was necessary to fall back to prevent their capture. Colonel Siegel then ordered two six-pounders to the rear, and changed his front, two six-pounders on the flanks, and the twelve and six-pounders in the rear, and commenced falling back in a steady and orderly manner, firing as we went. We proceeded, with hardly a word to be heard except the orders of the officers, until we reached our baggage wagons, which had apAt nine o'clock, on a Battle of Carthage. proached with the two companies left in refine prairie, three miles serve. They were formed (fifty wagons) into beyond Dry Fork Creek, the rebels were disa solid square, and surrounded by the incovered at a halt-they, too, having broke fantry and artillery, as before. The retreat camp early on that morning to "find and was without serious casualty, until we apwipe out the Dutch hirelings," as one of their proached the Dry Fork Creek, where the leading officers afterwards wrote. The ene-road passes between bluffs on either side. my's force comprised State troops and volunteers to the number of fifty-five hundrednearly one half mounted-and a battery of
Brigadier-General Sweeny having, in the meantime, reached Springfield, assumed command of the National forces, awaiting the arrival of General Lyon. He ordered Siegel to attack the foe, which he was quite ready to do,* though fearing for the result owing to the great disparity of numbers. On the morning of July 5th he broke camp near Carthage and started to find the enemy. His force consisted of nine companies of his own (Third) regiment, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Hassendeubel, Missouri volunteers; seven companies of the Fifth regiment, Colonel Salomon; and eight field pieces under command of Major Backof.
"Approaching to within eight hundred yards" wrote one who was present, "Siegel
* There is some doubt on this point. By some authorities Siegel is said to have acted on his own respousibility entirely. His official report to General Sweeny would seem to indicate as much.
The cavalry of the enemy, eight hundred strong, had concentrated on the opposite side of the creek, to cut us off. Colonel Siegel ordered two more cannon to the right and left oblique in front, and then by a concentrated cross-fire poured in upon them a brisk fire of canister and shrapnell shell. The confusion which ensued was terrific. Horses, both with and without riders, were
Battle of Carthage.
galloping and neighing about the plain, and the riders in a perfect panic. We took here two or three prisoners, who, upon being questioned, said their force numbered about five thousand five hundred, and expressed their astonishment at the manner in which our troops behaved."
Intense Excitement in the State.
pointed to the "Department of the West," July 9th, but did not assume an active command until late in the month. meantime, the State was in the throes of an extroardinary excitement. Innumerable conflicts occurred between detached bodies of rebels and Unionists-several of which asThe retreat upon Carthage was continued. sumed the magnitude of well performed batSeveral brief conflicts occurred at the creek tles. Proclamations flew around as briskly crossings. A stand at Carthage would have as new commanders came into the field. Major been made but for fear of the exhaustion of Sturgis issued one at Clinton, July 4th. The artillery ammunition, which already was same day General Sweeny promulgated his running low. The enemy disputed the pas- manifesto at Springfield. General Hurlburt sage at the village, when a severe encounter addressed the people of North-eastern Misfollowed, in which the rebels suffered so se souri July 15th. Brigadier-General Pope, the verely as to prevent them from any further people of North Missouri, July 19th. Colonel pursuit in that masterly retreat before im- McNeil suppressed the State Journal at St. mensely superior numbers.* The Federalists Louis, July 11th, and a proclamation immefell back upon Sarcoxie. It was a most for- diately followed. These documents are chieftunate escape, indeed, for during the evening ly valuable as showing under what orders the of the 5th, and the morning of the 6th, Jack-various commanding officers acted. All proson, Parsons and Rains were joined by mised protection to citizens, respect for proPrice, Ben McCullough and General Pierce-perty and State laws, &c., &c., and asserted whose united commands of Texan and Ark- the purposes of the General Government to ansas troops amounted to about five thou- be the suppression of all acts of rebellion, visand, with heavy reenforcements on the way. olence and treason. This extraordinary conjunction of notable Southern leaders gave promise of desperate work. If defeated, the Secessionists' power in Missouri would be broken effectually; if successful in overcoming Lyon and Sweeny, or in compelling their retreat, the way to Jefferson City and the Government would | be opened. Lyon at once comprehended his great danger and moved with all celerity upon Springfield, whither Siegel's little band of heroes also retired by way of Mount Vernon, soon after the affair at Carthage.
The Affair at Munroe
These numerous small engagements embraced the affair at Munroe Station, on the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railway. Colonel Smith, learning of the gathering in that vicinity of a large body of Secessionists under command of General Harris, moved from Palmyra upon that place, July 10th, and thence to Palmyra, where the insurgents were encamped. A sharp fight occurred at that point, when the enemy fell back upon Munroe. A detachment under Colonel Owens (rebel), of mounted men, preceded their retreat and destroyed a large amount of railroad property at the Station. Smith followed to the Station, and, taking possession of the female seminary building, prepared to hold it until a force could reach him sufficient to clear out the enemy. He dispatched a call for help to Quincy, and was soon in a state of siege. His guns, however, kept the wouldbe assailants at bay, and help arriving in
The Federal loss on the 5th was thirteen killed and thirty-one wounded-all of which were brought off. The rebel loss was confessed by the prisoners to have been very heavy, but no authentic report has been made. A letter written by Colonel Hughes, commanding the First regiment of the Missouri State Guards, confessed the loss of his own regiment to have been fifteen killed and forty wounded. Major-General John C. Fremont was ap-good season, General Harris soon found it too * See Appendix, page 508, for diagrams and inci
dents of this retreat.
hot for him. Being pressed front and rear he disappeared, leaving seventy-five prisoners.
Suppression of the
It was for rejoicing over this temporary success of Harris, that the State Journal at St. Louis was suppressed by Colonel McNeil. That paper sought to inspire an insurrectionary spirit in St. Louis; its office became the rendezvous of the most violent and dangerous Secessionists; Lyon proceeded, therefore, to suppress it. The excitement in St. Louis, at that period, was intense, and it required all the watchfulness of the military to preserve the peace. As in Baltimore, many leading families were uncompromisingly hostile to the General Government, and secretly labored to perfect organizations which should be ready, at the first propitious moment, to fly to arms in behalf of Governor Jackson's Affairs were managed with great discretion by Colonel McNeil, pending the arrival of Fremont, who lingered in the East to arrange for the stupendous campaign which he had resolved upon prosecuting down the Mississippi valley.
one gun and a large number of horses in the | foes drawn chiefly from the vagabonds of hands of the Unionists. Arkansas, Texas and Missouri; yet, no succor came, and Lyon resolved to strike with his weak ranks rather than to end his brief campaign in dishonor, by retreat-thus opening an easy path to the North for the enemy. Hearing of the concenThe Expedition tration at Forsyth of a rebagainst Forsyth. el force, which formed the nucleus of a corps there being enlisted, Lyon dispatched General Sweeny thither to disperse the enemy, break up the rendezvous and to hold the place for further orders. Forsyth is at the head of navigation of White River, about twelve miles north of the Arkansas State line. Sweeny moved from Springfield, July 20th, with two companies of regular cavalry, Captain Stanley; one section of Captain Totten's battery, Lieutenant Solaski; one company of Kansas rangers, Captain Wood; five hundred of the First Iowa, Colonel Merritt; and five hundred of the Kansas Second, Colonel Mitchell. A squad of eighty Home Guards afterwards joined the expedition. The vicinity of Forsyth, (fifty miles away from Springfield,) was not reached until the 22d, when the place was occupied. The rebels, who had taken to the bluffs overlooking the town, made a sharp resistance, but the cavalry and rangers soon turned them out of their covert by dashing charges and flank movements. The artillery flung a shell or two into the Court House, but was not called into further requisition. The expedition resulted only in scattering the foc, to gather at some other point.
Lyon's Position at
Lyon reached Springfield July 10th. He was soon followed by Major Sturgis. With these united commands he prepared at once to meet McCullough and his confederates, then menacing Springfield in great force. But, his resources were so utterly inadequate to the task in hand, and af- | fairs at St. Louis so disordered, that he could only await, in the consummation of his work, for the advent of Fremont. Clothed with most absolute authority, it was believed After the battle at Carthage the rebel that he could give Lyon the men and guns chiefs possessed themselves of all the points needed to stay the march of the Southern surrounding Springfield. Ben McCullough armies upon Jefferson City and St. Louis. assumed the chief direction of their How that loyal, spirited soul must have movements-Governor Jackson having rechafed at its prison-bars as day by day roll- tired towards New Madrid for an easy escape ed away and no help came! Around him into the Confederate States in event of disaswere gathered a few trusty souls-a brigade ter to his cause, while Price traveled neror two of brave fellows who would follow vously and ceaselessly through the central their leader to the death-alas! that they and northern portions of the State (generally did so!-but, of all the one hundred and in secrecy), to arouse and organize the seceseighty thousand men rushing to the field, a sion elements. The bubbling and seething mere handful only were turned towards of the cauldron was owing primarily to the Springfield. There that band of heroes stood almost ubiquitous presence of that emissary during all July, far in the interior, facing of the rebellion. The labors of the State Cona huge army of infuriated and reckless vention-which convened July 20th, to take