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Colonel J. B. Richardson commanding.

Brigadier-General T. Runyon, commanding. Second regiment Michigan volunteers, Lieutenant-Colonel First regiment New Jersey militia, Colonel Johnson. Chipman.

Second regiment New Jersey militia, Colonel Baker. Third regiment Michigan volunteers, Colonel McConnell. Third regiment New Jersey militia, Colonel Napton. First regiment Massacbusetts volunteers, Colonel Cowdin. Fourth regiment New Jersey militia, Colonel Miller. Twelfth regiment New York volunteers, Colonel Walrath. First regiment New Jersey volunteers, Colonel Montgomery. SECOND DIVISION.

Second regiment New Jersey volunteers, Colonel McLean. Colonel David Hunter, commanding.

Third regiment New Jersey volunteers, Colonel Taylor.

Colonel Andrew Porter, commanding.

Colonel Dixon S. Miles, commanding.
Pattalion United States infantry (Second, Third and
Eighth), Major G. Sykos.

Colonel Lewis Blencker, commanding.
Battalion United States marines, Major J. G. Reynolds.

Eighth regiment New York volunteers, Lieutenant-Colonel Eighth regiment New York State militia, Colonel Lyons.

Stahel. Fourteenth regiment New York State militia, Colonel

Twenty-ninth regiment New York volunteers, Colonel Von Wood.

Steinwehr. Twenty-seventh regiment New York volunteers, Colonel

Garibaldi Guard Now York volunteers, Colonel d’Ulassy. W. H. Slocum.

Twenty-seventh regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, Colonel Second regiment United States cavalry, companies G and

Max Einstein,
L, Major T. N. Palmer.
Fifth regiment United States artillery, company —, light

Colonel T. A. Davies, commanding. battery, Captain Ransom.

Sixteenth regiment New York volunteers, LieutenantWest Point battery, Captain C. Grifin.

Colonel S. Marsh.

Seventeenth regiment New York volunteers, Colonel
Colonel A. E. Burnside, commanding.

Lansing. First regiment Rhode Island volunteers, Lieutenant-Colo

Eighteenth regiment New York volunteers, Colonel Jackson. nel J. S. Pitman.

Thirty-first regiment New York volunteers, Colonel C. C. Second regiment Rhode Island volunteers, Colonel Slocum.

Pratt. Seventy-first regiment New York State militia, Colonel

Thirty-second regiment New York volunteers, Colonel Mat. Martin.

teson. Second regiment New Hampshire volunteers, Colonel

Second regiment United States artillery, company G., light Marston.

battery, Lieutenant Greer. Second regiment Rhode Island volunteers, (light battery)

Second regiment United States artillery, company A, batCaptain W. H. Reynolds..

tery, Captain W. F. Barry. Second regiment United States artillery, section of compa

This general organization was maintained ny A, Lieutenant A. S. Webb.

Siege Train, battery of eight rifled thirty-two pounders, throughout the succeeding conflict, though Captain T. Seymour, of Fort Sumter.

several brigades were strengthened much by THIRD DIVISION.

additional regiments, while the division of Colonel S. P. Heintzelman, commanding.

Colonel Miles was detached as the re-
Colonel W. B. Franklin, commanding.

serve after Centreville was occupied. Fourth regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, Colonel Hart

By the order of march, ranft.

Order of the March. Fifth regiment Massachusetts volunteers, Colonel Law July 16th, Tyler's division rence.

pushed out from Falls Church, where it had First regiment Minnesota volunteers, Colonel Gorman.

for some days been quartered, with instrucSecond regiment United States cavalry, company E, Captions to pass by way of Vienna to Germantain Lowe.

First regiment United States artillery, company I, (light town. Tuesday night (16th) it bivouacked battery.)

at and around Vienna, four and a half miles

from Fairfax Court House. Colonel O. B. Wilcox, commanding. First regiment Michigan volunteers, Lieutenant-Colonel L.

Hunter's division pressed to the same point R. Comstock.

(Fairfax C. H.) by the direct road from ArFourth regiment Michigan volunteers, Colonel D. A. Woodbury.

lington. McDowell accompanied this division. E venth regiment New York volunteers, Colonel N.

Heintzelman's division proceeded from AlFarnham.

exandria by the old Fairfax and Pohick road, Second regiment United States artillery, company D.

and bivouacked Tuesday night at Pohick Colonel 0.0. Howard, commanding.

Creek. At three A. m. Wednesday morning Third regiment Maine volunteers, Lieutenant-Colonel I. N. the division moved on to the Sangster StaTucker.

tion Cross-Roads, Franklin's brigade on the Fourth regiment Maine volunteers, Colonel Berry. Fifth regiment Maine volunteers, Colonel Dounell.

advance. Several rebel battalions fell back Second regiment Vermont volunteers, Colonel Whitney. before this brigade, passing Sangster's Sta

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Court House.

Attack on Fairfax

Court House.


tion only a short time previous to Franklin's | mishers, firing at them one

Attack on Fairfax arrival. Franklin had turned off at the rifle shot, which did no Cross-Roads to cut off communication on harm." the railway at Sangster. Wilcox's brigade At this point it was ascertained that, one pushed on to Fairfax Station, while Heint- half-mile ahead, a regular fortification, with zelman with Howard's brigade and Captain a strong battery, was planted, defended by Lowe's cavalry remained at the Cross-Roads. about two thousand men. Further reports About two P. M. Wilcox occupied Fairfax by the people magnified the rebel force in Station, securing eleven prisoners. He re- and around Fairfax Court House until three ported that a large number of infantry and regiments were made to number ten or borse escaped towards his left. As Frank- twelve thousand. McDowell resolved to lin was in that direction, he hoped for their drive in directly upon them, let them numcapture, but no further prisoners were se- ber any amount-feeling secure in the mettle cured.

of his men.

The reported fortification was Miles marched by the Little River turn- encountered about half a mile from the Court pike. This division found much obstruction House. It consisted of a single intrenchin the way, but moved rapidly forward and ment, extending for about four hundred kept pace with the other columns.

yards on each side of the road, pierced for On the morning of the eight guns. The embrasures were formed 17th McDowell ordered a of sand-bags, and so placed as to command

direct movement upon Fair- the road. The works stretched along the fax, where the enemy, it was supposed, would top of a steep hill, at the foot of which meanmake a firm stand. The place was repre- dered a muddy creek. The trees upon the sented as fortified, and held by a heavy body hill-side for a distance of an eighth of a mile of troops under General Bonham, of South had been cut down to allow no cover from Carolina. Hunter's division was chosen for the guns. These works had been occupied the maiu attack, and the second brigade for about three weeks by the Second and (Colonel Burnside) was given the advance. Third South Carolina regiments, under Bou“ The first barricade, made of trees felled and ham. The Second Rhode Island men were thrown across the road, delayed the head of the first in the intrenchments. The whole the division only a few minutes. This was rebel force fell back toward Centreville-but encountered about three miles from the Court one prisoner being secured, a South Carolina House. It was cautiously examined by the officer. Abundant evidence abounded to skirmishers, (Second Rhode Island,) but no prove how rapid must have been the retreat, sign of a rebel force was discovered. The Sacks of flour, meat, clothing, arms, equippioneers soon cleared the road with their ments and camp utensils, everywhere were

The barricade was erected at the foot scattered over the ground, and the campof a long hill, the top of which was covered fires, prepared for the noon meal, were still with a dense thicket, affording an excellent brightly burning. The main body of Boncovert for sharp-shooters. The second barri- ham's force had left with haste only about cade, of a similar character, was quickly two hours before the arrival of the head of cleared. The third barricade was more form- Burnside's column. idable. It was at the entrance of a deep cut At the moment of its occupation firing was in the road, commencing about half-way up heard off to the left, where Miles' division a steep hill, crowned on one side with a thick encountered and quickly sent flying the Fifth woods and on the other by an open field. Alabama regiment, securing all its tents, To pass this a road was made through the stores, &c. Tyler's brigades reached Gerfield, enabling the army to pass around it. mantown (one mile west of Fairfax) but a At this point there were stationed two hun- few moments too late to bag the South Carodred rebel cavalry, who, without waiting to linians, who passed through the village only ascertain the strength of the advancing force, about one half-hour prior to the arrival of fled upon the first appearance of the skir- | Keyes' regiments. The enemy had appeared






A flank movement

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in considerable force all along Tyler's route | in burning and pillaging, which, however, was soon from Vienna, and several fresh earthworks checked. It distressed us all greatly. I go to Cenwere found, proving that the rebels designed treville in a few moments." to make a stand, but had not time to perfect

McDowell, feeling certain their intrenching.

that Beauregard would

designed Fairfax Court House village was fully oc

make a stand on Bull Run, cupied on the 17th.

three miles beyond Centreville, ordered TyTyler's brigade occupied | ler on to the latter place, on the morning of McDowell's Report.

Germantown and the road the 18th, which, being taken, he was to hold, towards Centreville. McDowell reported, on preparatory to the concentration there of the morning of the 18th, as follows:

the several divisions, except Heintzelman's. “ The First division, under General Tyler, is be- With this fine division the General designed tween Germantown and Centreville.

a flank movement upon Manassas Junction, The Second (Hunter's) is at this place, just by way of Brentsville. He (Mc D.) was at about to move forward to Centreville.

Sangster's station, arranging with Heintzel“ The Fifth (Miles') is at the crossing of the old man for the movement, when news came of a Braddock road with the road from this to Fairfax heavy fight going on at Bull Run. This sudStation, and is ordered forward to Centreville by den and unlooked-for encounter compelled the old Braddock road.

a change of plans, and Heintzelman was orBarrey's battery has joined it.

dered to Centreville to await the result of “One of Colonel Heintzelman's brigades (Wil the demonstrations which it was thought cox's) is at Fairfax Station.


had determined to make upon “ Colonel Heintzelman and his other brigade are

that point. below the Station, but he has not reported to me since we have been here, and I have not been able

Tyler, in bis report of the affair of the to communicate with him. I think they are at 18th, states that, at nine A, M., Richardson's Sangster's Station. The four men wounded yester. brigade reached Centreville to find that the day belonged to Colonel Miles' division, who had place had been evacuated during the previous some slight skirmishing in reaching the position. night-one division having moved away by

“ Each column encountered about the same ob- the Warrenton turnpike, in the direction of structions, trees felled across the road, but the axe Gainsville, and the others towards Blackmen cleared them out in a few moments,

burn's Ford, over Bull Run “ There were extensive breastworks thrown up Creek. Richardson hastat this place, and some of them with embrasures resetted with sand-bags. Extensive breastworks the Ford, halting his brigade on an emi

ened on, however, towards were also thrown up at the Fairfax railroad station, and the road leading to Sangster's.

nence one mile beyond Centreville. There “A great deal of work has been done by them, he was joined by Tyler, when the two comand the number and size of their camps show they manders started forward for a reconnoissance, have been here in great force.

accompanied by two companies of infantry “ Their retreat, therefore, must have a damaging and a squadron of cavalry. The enemy was effect upon them. They left in such haste, that discovered in position behind batteries, over they did not draw in their pickets, who came into the Run-their batteries enfilading the apone of our camps, thinking, as it occupied the same proach to the Ford. A battalion of light inplace, that it was their own.

fantry was ordered forward to skirmish, while “ The obstructions to the railroad, in the vicinity Ayres' battery of rifled guns was put in readiof the station, including the deep cut filled in with

ness for action on the crest of the hill occuearth, &c., can be cleared out in a few hours. The

pied by the brigade. Sherman's brigade was telegraph poles are up, with the wires on them. I look to having railroad and telegraph communica

detailed as a reserve. Ayres opened on the tion in a very short time.

enemy, but elicited only a few return shots-" Moch flonr, some arms, forage, tents, camp thus failing to “ draw out” the covert force. equipage, &c., were abandoned by them.

Tyler then ordered Richardson to advance “ I am distressed to have to report excesses by his entire brigade, at the same time ordering our troops. The excitement of the men found vent out skirmishers to scour the thick woods

The Battle of Black

burn's Ford.

The Battle of Black

burn s Ford.

The Battle of Black

buru's Ford.

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that covered the entire rapidly pressing, hastened, as they had been, valley through which the by the unexpected contest of the advance. creek swept.

The skir- Beauregard was in commishers did their duty with alacrity, and, ere mand, in person, over the long, came out near the Ford, on the road, hav- stream. In his report he acing discovered no enemy. Still assured of the knowledged the presence of “several brig. presence of the foe, and resolved to unmask ades," and mentioned those of Ewell, Long. his position, as well as to determine his street, D. R. Jones, Bonham, Cocke, Evans, and force, Tyler ordered two twelve-pound how. Early-naming the regiments, batteries, &c. itzers from Ayres' battery, to a position close Twenty regiments were indicated, sixteen de. to the stream, with Captain Brackett's squad-tached gans and two full batteries, with over ron of calvary as a support. This movement twenty companies of cavalry. Besides this called out Beauregard's fire. In a brief pe- force, he says he ordered up, as a reserve, “ the riod the entire bottom along the creek was effective men of six companies of the Eighth alive with fire, front and flank, indicating Louisiana and the Eleventh North Carolina the considerable force of the Confederates, regiments," which had just then reached Mashowing their artillery to be numerous, and

nassas en route for Winchester to reenforce occupying effective positions. Tyler stated Johnston. It will appear from this summary in his report, that, having secured the ex- that Tyler encountered the full strength of posure by the enemy of their whereabouts, Beauregard, whose troops were posted with the reconnoissance would have ended; but skill in such positions as to sweep every apRichardson, having ordered the Twelfth proach and to command every creek and ford. New York, Colonel Walrath, to deploy into It was well that the retreat was sounded ; the line and advance in the woods, the fight be entire Federal force might not only have came furious for the moment. The enemy, been “bagged,” but Centreville might have well masked, received the advance with been reoccupied, though it is not probable such a searching fire as put most of the regi- that the rebel commander would have sncriment to rout-parts of companies A., Cap- ficed his admirable positions over the creek tain M. H. Church, and I., Captain H. A. for any partial advance. He knew the charBarnum, only keeping the field. Richardson, acter of McDowell's force and was well into press hie advance, had ordered the First formed of the Federal programme; he thereMassachusetts, and the Second and Third fore chose to await the grand attack. That Michigan, to the support, designing to force design was the secret of his not pushing and the enemy out of their positions by assault. punishing Tyler more severely. But Tyler, having ordered Ayres and Cap- McDowell, as stated, was at Sangster's Statain Brackett from the field, and seeing the tion when the engagement occurred. Heimrout of the Twelfth, recalled the advancing mediately, on hearing of it, hurried off to regiments with the command to fall back Centreville, to arrest it, if possible. The reupon the brigade position on the hill. Rich- treat had been ordered, however, when he ardson begged hard to be permitted to make reached the ground. the attack, and was zealously seconded by The Federal loss, as reported by Richard the regimental officers; but Tyler forbade it. son, was nineteen killed, thirty-eight woundThe division commander already had ex-ed, twenty-six missing, and four horses killed ceeded his orders in challenging an engage and eleven wounded. Beauregard reported ment. Ayres, after reaching the brigade posi- his casualties at fifteen killed and fifty-three tion, opened fire on the enemy's two well wounded a large proportion of them mormasked batteries, with two twenty-pounders. tally. The rebel commander in this report Over four hundred shots were exchanged— betrayed the failing for which he afterwards the rebels answering gun for gun in the iron became distinguished - exaggerating the duel. No particular results followed. At Federal losses and disasters. He said: “In night fall the brigade fell back upon Centre- the cursory examination which was made by ville, around which the other divisions were details from Longstreet's and Early's bri.

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McDowell's Prelimi

Order of Battle.

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gades, on the 18th of July, of that part of the burn's Ford, so as to provide for the contin. field immediately contested, and near Black- gencies of a demonstration on his left. Senburn's Ford, some sixty-four corpses were ator Chandler, in his speech on the causes of found and buried, and at least twenty prison. the disaster at Bull Run,* imputes the defeat ers were also picked up, besides one hundred in part to that three days' delay; but his ciand seventy-five stand of arms, a large quan- tations of reasons for it are too meagre to do tity of accoutrements and blankets, and quite the commanding General justice. The assurone hundred and fifty hats.” He also added ance that General Scott and the War Dewhat was strictly true:

partment gave, that Patterson would so en" The effect of this day's conflict was to notify gage Johnston as to prevent his junction with the enemy that he could not force a passage across Beauregard, unquestionably led McDowell Bull Run in the face of our troops, and led him into into the delay: if that assurance had been the flank movement of the 21st of July and the bat- sustained, an Patterson had done as ordered tle of Manassas."

and expected, the three days could have After this affair McDow- done nothing for the Confederates, but much

ell massed his troops at for the Federal army. nary Arrangements.

and around Centreville pre- The Secretary of War, paratory to forcing Beauregard back upon his assistant, and one of and out of Manassas Junction. That he did | General Scott's aids, visited Centreville, Saturnot attack his antagonist on the morning of day, to consummate all needful arrangements the 19th, was owing to several causes, not prior to the engagement. They returned the least of which was the general disorder Saturday evening, confident of McDowell's that reigned in the march and trains. The ability to sustain his position, and satisfied troops being new, with brigade commanders with his plans to force the rebels out of their whose only experience had been in single chosen positions. A council of war was held regiments—with division commanders of Saturday evening, at which McDowell uncomparatively small experience in such ex- folded his plans and promulgated his orders tended capacity-with regimental officers of (General Order, No. 22), as follows: whom very few knew military duty from ac- “ The enemy has planted a battery on the War tive service in time of war-it is not strange renton turnpike to defend the passage to Bull Run; that the army resembled a half-trained, ra- has seized the stone bridge and made a heavy ther than a finely ordered, legion, working abattis on the right bank, to oppose our advance in with precision, and available for duty at an

that direction. The ford above the bridge is also hour's warning. McDowell also desired to guarded, whether with artillery or not is not posi. determine the enemy's disposition and force tively known, but every indication favors the belief with more definitiveness than had resulted that he proposes to defend the passage of the from Tyler's reconnoissance at the Ford. He

" It is intended to turn the position, force the further proposed to avoid the batteries which | enemy from the road that it may be re-opened, and, Tyler had unmasked, and, by turning Beaure- if possible, destroy the railroad leading from Manasgard's lines, to strike upon his rear, thus to sas to the valley of Virginia, where the enemy has a reach the Manassas Gap railway and cut off large force. As this may be resisted by all the the expected reenforcements from Win-force of the enemy, the troops will be disposed as chester. This programme necessitated care-follows:

“ The First division, General Tyler's, with the ex. ful disposition of the forces to cover his exposed left, and the presence of a full force ception of Richardson's brigade, will, at half-past

two o'clock in the morning precisely, be on the of artillery for the advance and the reserves.

Warrenton turnpike to threaten the passage of the There was delay in this disposition, owing to bridge, but will not open fire until daybreak. some confusion in the commands and to the

“ The Second division (Hunter's) will move from non arrival of munitions and rations for a its camp at two o'clock in the morning precisely, long sustained conflict. The interval was

and led by Captain Woodbury, of the Engineers, devoted to throwing up defenses at Centre- will, after passing above the ford at Sudley's ville, and on the hill commanding Black

* See Appendix, page 494.


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