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-suggested the propriety of his being au- overpowered by rebel troops at thorized to issue, as a source of immediate the command of disloyal Gov
Report of the
Secretary of War. revenue, small treasury notes to the amount ernors. The Government arof $50,000,000, redeemable in one year, with-senals at Little Rock, Baton Rouge, Mount Vernon, out interest. The Secretary anticipated no
Apalachicola, Augusta, Charleston and Fayetteville;
the ordnance depot at San Antonio, and all the other necessity of looking abroad for purchasers of
Government works in Texas, which served as the the bonds, hoping that the sure basis of redemption created would, added to the patri- have been surrendered by the commanders or seized
depots of immense stores of arms and ammunition, otism of the people, suffice to absorb the en
hy disloyal hands. Forts Macon, Caswell, Johnson, tire amount required over and above the clinch, Pulaski, Jackson, Marion, Barrancas, Mckee, $80,000,000 obtained from duties and direct Morgan, Gaines, Pike, Macomb, St. Phillip, Livingtaxation.
ston, Smith, and three at Charleston ; Oglethorpe By studying the exhibit above it will be Barracks, Barrancas Barracks, New Orleans Barseen that the resources of the treasury were to racks, Fort Jackson on the Mississippi; the battery be created almost anew. From having a sur
at Bienvenue, Dupre, and the works at Ship Island, plus of $60,000,000—as during the early part have been successively stolen from the Govern. of Mr. Buchanan's term-it rested upon the
ment or betrayed by their commanding officers. verge of bankruptcy before the close of his The Custom Houses at New Orleans, Mobile, Sa. Administration, and was only saved from vannah, Charleston, and other important points, con
taining vast amounts of Government funds, have that disgrace by the energy of, and confi
been treacherously appropriated to sustain the cause dence inspired among capitalists by, Mr. Dix
of rebellion. In like manner the Branch Mints at during his brief service in the Department, New Orleans, at Charlotte, and at Dahlonega, (see Vol. I, pages 388–92.] Mr. Chase as- have been illegally seized, in defiance of every prin. sumed the chest to find it in a “shinning" ciple of common honesty and honor. The vio. condition, with such demands upon it as lent seizure of the United States Marine Hospital at never before were made of the Department. New Orleans was only wanting to complete the His early conduct of the finances challenged catalogue of crime. The inmates, who had been the admiration of friends, and turned the disabled by devotion to their country's service, and sneers of Foreign journals to exclamations who there had been secured a grateful asylum,
were cruelly ordered to be removed, without the of surprise.
slightest provision being made for their support Congress approved the Secretary's views
or comfort. In Texas the large forces detailed and suggestions and afterwards adopted
upon the frontier for protection of the inhabitants them with slight modifications.
against the attacks of marauding Indians, were To the report from Mr. ignominiously deserted by their commander, BrigReport of the Secre
Cameron, Secretary of War, adier-General Twiggs. tary of War.
To the infamy of treason public attention was par- to his flag was added the crowning crime of delibticularly directed. As it embodied a resume erately handing over to the armed enemies of his of War affairs from his assumption of office Government all the public property entrusted to up to July 1st, we transcribe those portions his charge, thus even depriving the loyal men unfound to possess permanent historical interest: der his command of all means of transportation “ It forms no part of the duty of this Department
out of the State. to enter upon a discussion of the preliminary cir- “A striking and honorable contrast with the cumstances which have contributed to the present recreant conduct of Brigadier-General Twiggs and condition of public affairs. The secession ordinance other traitorous officers has been presented in the of South Carolina was passed on the 20th of Deecmber heroic and truly self-sacrifising course pursued by last, and from that period until the majesty of the Major Robert Anderson and the small and gallant Government was made manifest, immediately after band of officers and men under his command at you had assumed the chief magistracy, the conspi. Fort Sumter, and also by Lieutenant Adam J. rators against its Constitution and laws have left noth- Slemmer, his officers and men, at Fort Pickens. ing undone to perpetuate the memory of their infamy. In referring, with strongest commendation, to the Revenue steamers have been deliberately betrayed conduct of these brave soldiers, under the trying by their commanders, or, where treason could not be circumstances which surrounded them, I only echo brought to consummate the defection, have been the unanimous voice of the American people. In
this connection it is a pleasura- | which are on duty in the field. Report of the ble duty to refer to the very In a similar patriotic spirit, the
Report of the Secretary of War.
Secretary of War. gallant action of Lieutenant loyal people of Missouri raised a Roger Jones at Harper's Ferry, and the handsome force of eleven thousand, four hundred nd forty-five and successful manner in which he executed the officers and men, making, in round numbers, twelve orders of the Government at that important post. organized regiments, to sustain the Government and
“ The determination of the Government to use to put down rebellion in that State. And so, also, the its utmost power to subdue the rebellion, has been citizens of the District of Columbia, emulating these sustained by the unqualified approval of the whole honorable examples, furnished no less than two people. Heretofore theleaders of this conspiracy thousand, eight hundred and twenty-three officers have professed to regard the people of this country and men, making in all four full regiments, all of as incapable of makiug a forcible resistance to re- which are yet in the field, doing active and efficient bellion. The error of this conclusion is now be service. Thus, notwithstanding the refusal of dising made manifest. History will record that men loyal Governors to respond, the Government, in. who, in ordinary times, were solely devoted to the stead of having been furnished with only the num. arts of peace, were yet ready, on the instant, to ber of troops called for under your proclamation of rush to arms in defense of their rights when as- the 15th of April last, has received and has now in sailed. At the present moment the Government service under that call, in round numbers, at least presents the striking anomaly of being embarrass- eighty thousand. ed by the generous outpouring of volunteers to Under your second proclamation of the 4th of sustain its action. Instead of laboring under the May last, calling for volunteers to serve during the difficulty of monarchical Governments—the want of war, there have been accepted up to this date two men to fill its armies (which in other countries hundred and eight regiments. A number of other has compelled a resort to forced conscriptions)-regiments have been accepted, but on condition of one of its main difficulties is to keep down the pro- being ready to be mustered into the service within portions of the army, and to prevent it from swelling a specified time, the limitation of which has, in beyond the actual force required.
some instances, not expired. It is not possible to “ The commanding officers of the regiments in the state how many of these may be ready before the volunteer service, both for the three months' ser meeting of Congress. Of the regiments accepted, vice and for the war, have, in many instances, not all are infantry and riflemen, with the exception of yet furnished the Department with the muster rolls two battalions of artillery and four regiments of of their regiments. For the want of these returns it cavalry. A number of regiments mustered as inis impossible to present as accurate an enumeration fantry have, however, attached to them one or of the volunteer force accepted and in the field as more artillery companies, and there are also some could be desired. Under the proclamation issued regiments partly made up of companies of cavalry. by you on the 15th of April last, the Governors of Of the two hundred and eight regiments accepted different States were called upon to detach from the for three years, there are now one hundred and fifmilitia under their command a certain quota, to ty-three in active service, and the remaining fiftyserve as iufantry or riflemen, for the period of three five are mostly ready, and all of them will be in the months, unless sooner discharged. The call so made field within the next twenty days. amounted in the aggregate to ninety-four regiments, “ The total force now in the field may be como making 73,391 officers and men. Of the States call. / puted as follows: ed upon, the Governors of Virginia, North Carolina, Regulars and volunteers for three months
and the war.... Tennessee, Arkansas, Kentucky and Missouri, per
Add to this fifty-five regiments of vol. emptorily refused to comply with the requirements
unteers for the war, accepted and made by the Department. All the other States not yet in service.....
.50,000 promptly furnished the number required of them, Add new regiments of regular army..25,000
75.000 except Maryland, whose Governor, though manife-ting entire readiness to comply, was prevented Total force now at command of Governfroin so doing by the outbreak at Baltimore.
310.000 In the States of Virginia and Missouri, notwith
Deduct the three months' volunteers.. 80,000
Force for service after the withdrawal of the standing the positive refusal of their executive offi.
three months' men.
.....230,000 cers to co-operate with the Government, patriotic
“It will thus be perceived that after the discharge citizens voluntarily united together and organized of the three months' troops, there will be still an regiments for the Government service. Delaware available force of volunteers amounting to one hun and Virginia furnished each a regiment, both of | dred and eighty-eight thousand, which, added to
the regular army, will consti- | regiment. Each battalion is Report of the tute a total force of two hundred commanded by a Major, with a
Report of the Secretary of War.
Secretary of War. and thirty thousand officers and Colonel and Lieutenant-Colonel inen. It will be for Congress to determine whether for the general command of the regiment. This, it is this army shall, at this time, be increased by the believed, is the best organization now existing. The addition of a still larger volunteer force.
number of field officers is less than under the old “ The extraordinary exigencies which have called plan, and, therefore, much less expensive. Whether this great army into being have rendered necessary this organization may not advantageously be exalso a very considerable augmentation of the regu- tended to the old army, after the passage of a law lar arm of the service. The demoralization of the providing for a retired list, is a question which may regular army, caused by the treasonable conduct properly engage the attention of Congress. of many of its Commanding-officers, the distant “In making the selection of officers for the new posts at which the greater part of the troops were regiments, two courses only seemed to be openstationed, and the unexampled rapidity of the
viz: to make the appointments from the regular spread of the rebellion, convinced those high in service by seniority or by selection. The first ap. command of the service, as well as this Depart-peared liable to the objection that old, and in some ment, that an increase of the regular army was in instances inefficient men would be promoted to dispensable. The subject was accordingly brought places which ought to be filled by younger and to your attention, and after careful examination an more vigorous officers. The second was liable to increase was authorized by your proclamation is the grave objection that favoritism might prejudice sued on the 4th of May last.
the claims of worthy officers. “ This increase consists of one regiment of cav.
“ After the fullest consideration it was determinalry, of twelve companies, numbering, in the maxi. ed, under the advice of the General-in-Chief, to apmum aggregate, eleven hundred and eighty-nine offi- point one-half of them from the regular army and cers and men ; one regiment of artillery of twelve
the other half from civil life. Of the civilians apbatteries, of six pieces each, numbering, in the maxi- pointed as regimental commanders, all except one mum aggregate, nineteen hundred and nine officers are either graduates of West Point, or have before and men; nine regiments of infantry, each regiment served with distinction in the field; and of the containing three battalions of eight companies each, Lieutenant-Colonels, Majors, Captains and Firstnumbering, in the maximum aggregate, two thou. Lieutenants, a large proportion have been taken sand four hundred and fifty-two officers and men, from the regular army and the volunteers now in making a maximum increase of infantry of twenty- service, while the Second-Lieutenants have been two thousand and sixty-eight officers and men. mainly created by the promotion of meritorious
“ In the enlistment of men to fill the additional Sergeants from the regular service. regiments of the regular army, I would recommend “ In view of the urgent necessity of the case, that the term of enlistment be made three years, to these preliminary steps to the augmentation of the correspond with the call of May 4th, for volunteers; regular service have been taken, and it now reand that to all who shall receive an honorable dis- mains for Congress, should it sanction what has charge at the close of their term of service a bounty been commenced, to complete the work by such of ene hundred dollars shali be given.
legislation as the subject may require. A similar “ The mounted troops of the old army consist of increase of the army, under like circumstances, five regiments, with a maximum aggregate of four was made in 1812. At the close of the war, the thousand four hundred and sixty men. Not more force in service being found too large and too costthan one-fourth of these troops are available for ly for a peace establislıment, a reduction was or. service at the seat of war. At least two regiments dered to be made, under the supervision of a board of artillery are unavailable, being stationed on the of officers, specially organized for the purpose. At western coast and in the Florida forts.
the close of the present struggle, the reduction of “The increase of infantry is comparatively large, the present force may be accomplished in like manbut this arm of the service is that which the Gen- ner, if found then to be larger than the publie neeral-in-Chief recommended as being most efficient. cessities require. In making any such reduction,
The organization of the increased force, it will however, a just regard to the public interests wonld be noticed, is different from that of the old army. imperatively require that a force amply sufficient to This question was fully considered by officers of the protect all the public property, wherever it may be army connected with this Department, and after found, should be retained. much deliberation it was concluded to adopt the “I cannot forbear to speak favorably of the volFrench regimental system of three battalions to a unteer system, as a substitute for a cumbrous and
dangerous standing armyIt of War, and now actively enReport of the has, heretofore, by many heen gaged in leading the rebel
Report of the Secretary of War.
Secretary of War. deemed unreliable and ineffi. forces, who have even less to cient in a sudden emergency, but actual facts have justify their action than the Mormons : proved the contrary. If it be urged that the enemies " When a small force was sent to Utah, the Mormons at. of order have gained some slight advantage at remote
tacked and destroyed their trains, and made ready for a geu
eral attack upon the column. When a sufficient power was points, by reason of the absence of a sufficient regu
put on foot to put success beyond all doubt, their bluster lar force, the unexampled rapidity of concentration
and bravado sank into whispers of terror and submission. of volunteers already witnessed is an ample refuta- This movement upon that Territory was demanded by the tion of the argument. A Government whose every moral sentiment of the country, was due to a vindication of citizen stands ready to march to its defense can
its laws and Constitution, and was essential to demonstrato
the power of the Federal Government to chastise insubordinnever be overthrown; for none is so strong as that
ation and quell rebellion, however formidable from numbers whose foundations rest immovably in the hearts of
or position it might seem to be. Adequate preparations and the people.
a prompt advance of the army, was an act of mercy and hn“The spectacle of more than a quarter of a mill. manity to those deluded people, for it prevented the effusion ion of citizens rushing to the field in defense of the
of blood.' Constitution, must ever take rank among the most
“I recommend the same vigorous and merciful extraordinary facts of history. Its interest is vastly
policy now." heightened by the lavish outpouring from States and
The point here made against his predecesindividuals of voluntary contributions of money,
sor-one of the most infamous of all the conreaching an aggregate thus far of more than ten spirators whom it was Mr. Buchanan's mismillions of dollars. But a few weeks since the men fortune to have in his counsels and confidence composing this great army were pursuing the avo- —was forcible and searching * The report cations of peace. They gathered from the farm, then proceeds to consider in detail the varifrom the workshop, from the factory, from the mine.
ous steps taken in perfecting the several arms The minister came from his pulpit, the merchant of the service, the subsistence and medical from his counting-room, the professor and student departments, &c. Especial attention was difrom the college, the teacher and pupil from the rected to the “startling defection” of the common school. Young men of fortune left luxurious homes for the tent and the camp. Native and
West Point graduates, but for whose deser. foreign born alike came forward with a kindred en
tion of their flag the rebellion never could thusiasm. That a well-disciplined, homogeneous
have gained much front. Mr. Cameron found and efficient force should be formed out of such a the root of the evil to lie in the defective seemingly heterogeneous mass appears almost in- moral instruction of the Military Academy, credible. But what is the actual fact? Experi- whereby the pupil was taught to substitute enced men, who have had ample opportunity to habit for conscience. He called upon Con. familiarize themselves with the condition of Europe. gress to examine into the matter. The report an armies, concede that, in point of personnel, this was accompanied by the Adjutant-Gencral's patriot army is fully equal to the finest regular returns of forces in the several military detroops of the Old World. A more intelligent body partments for the month of June, giving Butof men, or one actuated by purer motives, was never
ler an aggregate (officers and men) of 9,978; before marshaled in the field. "The calling forth of this large and admirable
McDowell, 16,610; Colonel Cooke, (Utah) force, in vindication of the Constitution and the 629; General Sumner, (Department of the laws, is in strict accordance with a wise prudence Pacific,) 3,426; Colonel Loring, (New Mexiand economy, and at the same time in perfect har-co,) 2,498; Department of the West, including mony with the uniform practice of the Government. all the forts on the Upper Missouri and MisBut three years ago, when the authority of the na- sissippi, 2,655; Colonel Brown, (Department tion was contemptuously defied by the Mormons in of Florida,) including Forts Pickens, JefferTtah, the only safe policy consistent with the dig. nity of the Government was the prompt employ- * The same point could have been made againsi ment of such an overwhelming force for the sup- Mr. Cobb. That individual once uttered strong anti. pression of the rebellion as removed all possibil. secession sentiments. [See page 53, vol. I.) So of ity of failure. It will hardly be credited, however, Mr. Stephens. Inconsistency and desertion of prin. that the following language in relation to that pe- ciples, however, were but minor sins of the con. riod was penned by John B. Floyd, then Secretary / spiracy of which these men were directing spirits.
son and Key West, 1,453 ; General Wool, | two to nine guns each. By these (Department of the East,) including the New additions the naval force in Report of the Secreta.
ry of the Navy. York Harbor and vicinity forts, 784; General commission has been increased
to eighty-two vessels, carrying upwards of eleven Patterson, 17,188: General Mansfield, in com
hundred guns, and with a complement of about thir. mand at Washington, 34,160.
teen thousand men, exclusive of officers and marines. To the report of the Sec-There are also several steamboats and other small Report of the Secre
retary of the Navy less im- craft, which are temporarily in the service of the tary of the Navy.
portance was attached by Department. the public, but, to the reflecting few it as- “ Purchases of sailing ships have been made for sumed an importance exceeding that of all transporting coals to the steamers that are performother departments. To the Navy Depart- ing duty as sentinels before the principal harbors. ment was committed the responsible and on
It would be inexpedient and attended with much erous task of effecting and sustaining the loss of time, as well as great additional expense, to blockade; of creating expeditions against compel the steamers when short of fuel to leave insurgent ports ; of sweeping privateers from their stations and proceed to the nearest depot, dis.
tant in most cases several hundred miles, to obtain the sea ; of co-operating with the land forces
a supply. In the absence of any proper or suitable in carrying forward campaigns by inland stations or buildings for storing coals, hulks have water courses as well as by sea ; and, finally, been provided, to be anchored at some convenient of sustaining the honor and prestige of our place for the use of the squadron. flag in event of foreign interposition in Amer- “ The squadron on the Atlantic coast, under the ican affairs. After adverting to the weakness of command of Flag Oficer S. H. Stringham, consists the Navy when the new Administration came of twenty-two vessels, two hundred and ninety-six into power-to the loss of the Norfolk Navy- guns and three thousand three hundred men. Yard property through the unaccountable in- “ The squadron in the Gulf, under the command action of Commodore Macauley-to the ex
of Flag Officer William Mervine, consists of twenty.
one vessels, two hundred and eighty-two guns, and traordinary measures which had to be called
three thousand five hundred men. into requisition in order to meet demands
“ Additions have been made to each of the squadmade upon the Department—the Secretary
rons, of two or three small vessels that have been thus stated the force at his command and captured and taken into the service. The steamers its distribution up to that date (July 4th, Pawnee and Pocahontas, and the flotilla under the 1861):
late Commander Ward, with several steamboats in “Of the sixty vessels carrying thirteen hundred charge of naval officers, have been employed on the and sixteen guns, hereinbefore mentioned as avail. Potomac river, to prevent communication with that able for service on the 4th of March last, the sloop portion of Virginia which is in insurrection. Great Levant has been given up as lost in the Pacific; the service has been rendered by this armed force, steamer Fulton was seized at Pensacola ; and one which has been vigilant in intercepting supplies, frigate, two sloops and one brig were burnt at Nor- and in protecting transports and supply vessels in folk. These vessels carried one hundred and sev- their passage up and down the Potomac. enty-two guns. The other vessels destroyed at Nor- • The squadron in the Pacific, under the comfolk were considered worthless, and are not included mand of Flag Officer John B. Montgomery, consists in the list of available vessels.
of six vessels, eighty-two guns and one thousand men. “ These losses left at the disposal of the Depart- “ The West India squadron is under the command ment sixty-two vessels, carrying eleven hundred of Flag Officer G. J. Pendergrast, who has been and seventy-four guns, all of which are now, or soon temporarily on duty, with his flag-ship, the Cumwill be, in commission, with the exception of the berland, at Norfolk and Hampton Roads, since the Vermont, ship-of-the-line...........
84 Guns. / 23d of March. He will, at an early day, transfer his Brandywine, frigate........... ............. 50 flag to the steam frigate Roanoke, and proceed Decatur, sloop, at San Francisco............... 16 southward, having in charge our interests on the John Hancock, steam tender, at San Fran'co 3 Mexican aud Central American coasts, and in the
“There has been recently added to the Navy, by West India Islands. purchase, twelve steamers, carrying from two to “The East India, Mediterranean, Brazil and Afrinine guns each, and three sailing vessels. There can squadrons, excepting one vessel of each of the have been chartered nine steamers, carrying from two latter, have been recalled.