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ularly relating to the condition of Western -writs for such elections to be issued by Virginia, the address assumed that every in the Governor. The document close, with terest of peace, prosperity, progress, patriot- an appeal to the people to stand by the ism, remonstrated against a severance of the Union—to sustain, unflinchingly, their new tie which bound the State to the Union. Government—to prosecute the war against
There was, then, under the circumstances, the “perjured oligarchy who has usurped but one course to pursue—to call a Conven- your Government and has sold you to the tion and to proceed in legislating the State ambitious despots of an unholy affiliation.” back into its old relations with the Union. The Convention adjourn
Adjournment of the The address then stated, in general terms, ed June 25th, to meet on the action taken by the Convention in the the 1st Tuesday in August. inauguration of a Provisional Government, Governor Pierpont, on the 22d of June, isthe appointment of Provisional officers, &c., sued his proclamation assembling the Geneadding that, to the General Assembly (Legis- ral Assembly at Wheeling, on the 1st of July lature) soon to assemble at the Governor's -on which day it came together, most of call, would revert the power and duty of the counties west of the Blue Ridge being such other action as was necessary. All loyal | then, or soon after, represented. It proceeded sections of the State not represented in the to legislate for, and to vitalize, the new Gov. Legislature and Convention were called upon ernment, so that it soon found itself in a selfto hold special elections to fill such vacancies sustaining, independent condition.
MAJOR-GENERAL of Vol- | any servile insurrections.
unteers, Robert Patterson, In its language the docu
assumed command of the ment was patriotic, and troops gathered in camp at Chambersburg. was decidedly against treason and its abetThe enemy being in possession of Harper's tors.* The troops then addressed consisteil Ferry, menaced Southern Pennsylvania and of ten regiments of infantry, five hundred Maryland by their presence. The Chambers- dragoons, all finely equipped and quite thoburg camp was first formed with reference roughly armed with Captain Doubleday's and to covering the endangered section ; but be- Seymour's batteries of flying artillery, in esse. came the centre of movements against the The march was taken up on the morning Confederates when Scott arranged for the of June 7th - Brigadier-General Thomas' Federal advance into Virginia.
division on the advance. Supporting moveJune 3d Patterson issued his proclamation ments were made from the east, by General announcing the forward movement. The Stone's column, which started for Edwaris' document, like that issued by McClellan, en- * This is especially remarked, since General Putjoined upon the soldiers respect for private terson had been charged with lukewarmneas ia te property, protection to the loyal, and, should
cause, and, by some papers, had been pronounced occasion offer, the troops were to suppress I actually disloyal.
AND RETROGRADE MOVEMENTS.
Ferry, via Tenallytown and watch and annoy the Federal advance. The The Combined Move
Rockville. [Edwards' Fer- Confederate army left only ruin and desola
ry is on the Potomac, about tion in its track. half-way between Washington and Harper's Patterson took up his
The Federal Ferry.] Colonel Lewis Wallace, with his head-quarters at Hagers
Army. Indiana Zouaves, took possession of Cumber.
town June 14th. The army land on the 9th of June.
under his direct command at that date numThese forward and com- bered about twenty-one thousand men, though Bridges Destroyed.
bined movements from the it soon was increased by troops from Wisfront added to the rapid concentration of consin, Connecticut and Pennsylvania. 'It McClellan's forces to press the enemy's flank, was organized as follows: compelled Johnston — the rebel General in
FIRST DIVISION, command of the Winchester District-to re- Brevet Major-General George Cadwalader commanding, tire from his advance. He burned the bridges
consisting of First, Third an 1 Fourth brigades.
First brigade, Colonel George H. Thomas, Second U. S. cay. at Point of Rocks and Berlin on the Potomac, alry, commanding. on the morning of June 7th. The same day Third brigade, Brigadier-General E. C. Williams, coma detachment of troops from Leesburg moved
Fourth brigade, Colonel Dixon S. Miles, Second U. S. infan down upon the line of the Alexandria, Lou
try, commanding. don and Hampshire Railroad, destroying
SECOND DIVISJON. bridges at Tuscarora, Lycoline, Goose Creek
Major-General Wm. H. Keim commanding, consisting of and Beaver Dam.
Second and Fifth brigades.
Second brigade, Brigadier-General Geo. C. Wynkoop, comDash at Romney.
manding. sudden dash on the 11th
Fifth brigade, Brigadier-General Jas. S. Negley, comupon Romney, Virginia, which was held by manding. å regiment of Virginia cavalry. The surprise was complete. Though the enemy
Cavalry, four companies U. S., and First Philadelphia city
troops, Captain James, commanding. fought with some spirit, the Zouaves soon
Captain Doubleday's battalion of artillery and infantry. sent them flying. Two of the rebels were First Rhode Island regiment and battery, Colonel Burn found dead on the field. Stores, ammuni- side, commanding.
Sixth regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, Colonel Nagle. tion, arms and horses to a considerable amount
Twenty-First regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, Colonel were seized, with which the Indianians re- Ballier. turned to Cumberland.
Twenty-Third regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, Colonel
Dare. This sudden sally upon Harper's Ferry Evac
his left hastened Johnston's uated.
First regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, Colonel Yoho. movements. Harper's Fer- Second regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, Colonel Stamo ry was evacuated June 13th and 14th. Every- baugh,
Third regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, Colonel Minier. thing was destroyed in the shape of immov
Twenty-Fourth regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, Colonel able property, including some stores and Owen. heavy guns. The superb railway bridge over the Potomac and the Winchester span were
Seventh regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, Colonel Irwin.
Eighth regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, Colonel Emly. given to the flames, and the piers shattered
Tenth regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, Colonel Meredith. with powder. The old Government armory, Twentieth regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, Colonel Gray. shops, &c., were consumed- the fine machinery having previously been removed to Second and Third U. S. infantry, Major Sheppard. Richmond. The railroad bridges at Martins- Ninth regiment Pennsylvania voluntcers, Colonel Long
necker. lurg and Capen river, the “Pillar” bridge
Thirteenth regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, Colonel and the turnpike bridge over the Potomac Rowley. at Shepardstown, were also destroyed. Canal Sixteenth regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, Colouel Zeigle. dams, locks and embankments were, for miles, rendered useless. The enemy fell back
Fourteenth regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, Colonel
Johnston. in two columns, one upon Winchester and
Fifteenth regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, Colonel one towards Leesburg-points from which to Oukford.
Eleventh regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, Colonel Jarrett. / seat of war to the Potomac. Thenceforward First regiment Wisconsin volunteers, Colonel Starkweather. it was to become the abode of desolation, its Fourth regiment Connecticut volunteers, Colonel Wood
hills and valleys to echo with the tramp of A Sixth brigade was afterwards (June 23d) added, com- armed hosts, and the blood of men to crimposed of three regiments from the Fifth brigade, (the last
son all its streams. three named,) and U. S. infantry and a battery. This was given to Brigadier-General Abercrombie. General Negley's
Cadwalader, with six
Williamsport brigade was filled up with newly arrived Western regiments. thousand men, remained
menaced. The First brigade, Gene- at Williamsport, whose Crossing the
ral Thomas, moved direct heights he fortified. Johnston soon pressed Potomac.
upon Williamsport, cross-down upon the river at that point. General ing the Potomac at that point, by wading, Jackson (rebel) occupied the peninsula in on the morning of the 16th. This passage strong force, with reserves distributed along was made as preparatory to the march upon the approaches. Reenforcements direct from Martinsburg, where, it was understood, the Richmond were sent to Winchester, which enemy still lingered. General Cadwalader's point the Confederates had resolved to retain. division moved over the river at the same Harper's Ferry they evacuated, the Richmond point shortly after the passage by Thomas. press stated, because it was a mere trap too Governor Sprague accompanied the Rhode dangerous to hold.” Island battery. General Williams' brigade
The withdrawal of the Federal forces was encamped at Williamsport on the afternoon stated to have been a strategic movement orof the 16th. Governor Hicks, of Maryland, dered by Scott, designed to draw the rebel was with Patterson during the 16th, and co- main body from its concentration toward operated with the General in making the dis- Williamsport, thus to aid McClellan's moveposition.
ments toward Romney, while Patterson could These movements were move the more readily over the river it a Retrograde Move
countermanded, however, point below Williamport.
by the Commanding-Gen- Patterson, however, exeral, and the several brigades recrossed the plicitly stated (see his dePotomac on the 18th, encamping at Will- fense given in the Appeniamsport. Their disposition was then mate- dix] that the retrograde was ordered because rially changed—the Rhode Island regiment, Scott had not made the demonstration prom(Colonel Burnside,) the Rhode Island battery, ised toward Manassas; but had, on the other and all the U. S. regulars of Thomas' brigade, band, ordered him (Patterson) to send to being ordered on to Washington. Patter- Washington, at once, all the regulars, horse son's position at Hagerstown, for the moment, and foot, and the Rhode Island regiment and remained unchanged. The rebels, taking battery, with further command for him (Patheart at this counter movement, again infest- terson) to keep within his then limits, &c. ed the opposite banks of the Potomac, in Patterson, in the document referred to, large bodies. A troop of three hundred re- gives a somewhat detailed statement of his visited Harper's Ferry to render more com- manoeuvres and movements up to and his plete their work of destruction. Everywhere final occution of Harper's Ferry. It was Union men who had not already fled were not until the morning of July 2d that the seized and carried off within the Confederate Potomac was again crossed. Williamsport lines. Terror sat enthroned throughout that again was chosen as the point--why, is not lately peaceful and prosperous land. Treason explained. The troops consisted of the folbad made good its words,* to transfer the lowing regiments, now brigaded and reor
ganized anew : * “ The people of the Gulf States need have no apprehension; they might go on with their planting and their other business as usual; the war would
Brevet Major-General George Cadwalader, commanding,
consisting of First, Third and Fourth brigades. not come to their section : its theatre would be along the borders of the Ohio River and in Virginia."'-How
Colonel George H. Thomas, Second U. S. cavalry, ccm. ell Cobb's Speech.
manding, consisting of four companies U. S. cavalry and
THE FIGHT NEAR MARTINSBURG,
of the Potomac.
First Philadelphia city troops, Cap. of things, expected to do, having Governor
tain James; battalion of artillery Curtin and Governor Hicks for his support. and infantry, Major Doubleday ; First Rhode Island regi. ment and battery, Colonel Burnside ; Sixth Pennsylvania The fact that he had in his front an active, regiment, Colonel Nagle ; Twenty-first Pennsylvania regi. vigilant and determined antagonist, should ment, Colonel Ballier ; Twenty-third do., Colonel Dare.
have made him self-reliant, quick to strike,
tenacious to hold, and ready for any emerBrigadier-General E. C. Williams, commanding, consisting
gency. Scott and the Secretary of War of Seventh regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, Colonel Irwin; Eighth do., Colonel Emley ; Tenth do., Colonel Meredith would have offered little opposition to a Twentieth (Scott Legion) do., Colonel Gray.
campaign thus waged; and, such a campaign
they positively enjoined. Colonel D. 8. Miles, U. S. infantry, commanding, consisting The first attempt at a of Second and Third U. 8. infantry, Major Sheppard ; Ninth second advance was made
The Second Crossing Pennsylvania regiment, Colonel Longnecker; Thirteenth do., Colonel Rowley ; Sixteenth do., Colonel Zeigle.
at Sheppard's Ford, two
miles below dam No. 4. The tow-path was SECOND DIVISION. Major-General William H. Keim, commanding, consisting cut down for the easy passage of the men, of the Second and Fifth brigades.
baggage and guns; the opposite bank
was attained by the advance companies, Brigadier-General G. C. Wynkoop, commanding, consisting when it was discovered that the ascent into of First Pennsylvania regiment, Colonel Yohe; Second do., Virginia territory was there too steep to be Colonel Stambaugh; Fourth do., Colonel Minier; Twentyfourth do., Colonel Owen.
practicable. The therefore all march
ed back again and took up a position around Brigadier-General Negley, commanding, consisting of Four. Williamsport : from whence they advanced teenth Pennsylvania regiment, Colonel Johnston ; Fifteenth early on the morning of July 2d. No oppodo., Colonel Oakford.
sition was offered until the three brigades of
Abercrombie, Thomas and Negley had crossColonel Abercrombie, commanding, consisting of First ed. The enemy, under General Jackson, Wisconsin regiment, Colonel Starkweather ; Fourth Connecticut regiment, Colonel Woodhouse ; Eleventh Pennsylvania
were in good position on the Peninsula, at regiment, Colonel Jarrett; and probably Major Doubleday's Porterfield's farm, near Haynesville. There artillery will be attached.
they received the Federal assault, which was The change noticeable in this reorganiza- made by Abercrombie with tion shows how temporary was every order the First Wisconsin and Fight Near Marting
burg. -how illy defined were the movements of Eleventh Pennsylvaniawith the army, and how imperfectly means were such spirit that, after a sharp but brief conadapted to ends. Here was a large body of test, Jackson's men fell back toward Marmen moving with an imperfectly defined ob- tinsburg, and soon retreated to Bunker Hill ject into an enemy's country, having only twelve miles toward Winchester. Pattersix guns.
The strength and disposition of son then asked for reenforcements to follow the enemy apparently were unknown, and, up his blow by an advance upon Winchester, by Patterson's own confession, no special | where Johnston was understood to be in point of attack or plan of campaign had been strong force-say fifteen thousand men, with definitively arranged in his own mind. Pat- | proper artillery. Pending the arrival of reterson had men enough for bold, dashing, enforcements, Martinsburg was occupied, effective work; and such work, without de- while the advance brigades pushed out for tailed orders, Scott evidently expected him several miles beyond, on the Winchester to perform — leaving to the General com- road. These were afterwards withdrawn to manding, to a great degree, the duty of find- Martinsburg, and the army kept in close ing his own equipments, providing his own order, apprehending, as Patterson did, a visitransportation, creating his own depots of sup- tation from Jackson and Johnston. The plies, organizing his own reserves from reen- rebel pickets pressed the Federal lines closely, forcements to be had for the asking. He and picket skirmishes became frequent. must, of course, have assumed some respon- Reenforcements began to reach Martinssibility; but, that he was, in the very nature burg rapidly after the 7th of July, on which
An Advance Coun
day General Stone's column, | thing less was required of him. Keep John
about twenty-six hundred ston engaged that he should not reenforce strong, reached Williamsport. It consisted Beauregard at Manassas. He offered no atof the Seventeenth Pennsylvania volunteers, tack, pushed no material advance, made no (artillery,) Colonel F. E. Patterson; the Ninth feints to confuse and distribute the enemy, New York regiment, Colonel Styles ; the First who remained at WinchesNew Hampshire regiment, Colonel Tappan, ter and Bunker Hill closely and a portion of the Twenty-fifth Penn- compacted ready for any sylvania regiment, Colonel Coke. The Nine- sudden movement that emergencies might teenth and Twenty-eighth New York soon require. These are the simple facts of the followed. These forces were soon added to last twelve days of Patterson's campaign. Patterson's division, giving him about twen- They should have been days of great achievety-five thousand men. The Rhode Island ment. His troops, whose terms of enlistment battery, detached by orders of Scott, was expired on or near the 20th of July, panted restored, and assumed its place in the bri- for action, prayed for it, begged for it; yet gade of Thomas. The First and Third the eager men, and no less eager officers, rePennsylvania and the First Rhode Island turned home, having seen no enemy. Only also came forward and took their division Abercrombie's two regiments, McMullin's ranpositions.
gers and Perkins' battery had “smelt powOrders for an advance der.” Such a waste of energy, of fine miliwere issued July 7th. The tary force, of patriotic ardor, were enough to
orders, as announced, were excite the storm of scorn and indignation for a movement by two divisions—the First which swept over the country after the Geneunder Cadwalader to take the Winchester ral's failure became apparent. tumpike, the Second under Keim to take a The Richmond Inquirer of July 10th anparallel road a short distance further to the nounced the withdrawal to Winchester of east. The First and Third Pennsylvania Johnston's force from Bunker Hill and the were to remain at Martinsburg as guard to road to Martinsburg, giving as a chief reathe depot of stores. This advance was not son that Patterson had intrenched himself made-why, we are left to surmise. Patter- behind the women and children of Martinsson, in his defense, stated that, on the 8th burg, whom he refused to send away at Johnof July, a council of officers was called and ston's request. A correspondent, writing an advance voted against. He said : from Martinsburg under date of July 14th,
“ Colonel Stone, the junior line officer, spoke stated other, and, unquestionably, the true, twice and decidedly against an advance, advocating reasons for the rebel retrograde: “It is said," a direct movement to Shephardstown and Charles- he wrote, “ that General Patterson believes
All who spoke opposed an advance, and all that the retreat of the enemy is a mere ruse voted against one. On the same day he informed
to draw him on; but, if Johnston succeeds the General-in-Chief of the condition of affairs in the in drawing our General into an ambuscarle, valley, and proposed that he should go to Charles. town and occupy Harper's Ferry, and asked to be he will have to draw harder than he ever informed when he would attack Manassas. On the before drew in his life. The truth, apparent 12th he was directed to go where he had proposed, to most observers, is, that Johnston considders and informed that Manassas would be attacked on this force too strong for him, which, accordTuesday, the 16th."
ing to all accounts of his strength, it certainly In this interval is written the history of is, and, therefore, very properly retreats. the disaster to our arms at Bull Run. It was There is no mystery in it; and, as for us. I not in the power, nor province, of Patterson's can see no reason whatever to surmise any subordinates to say whether or not an ad-deep-laid plan to circumvent. It certainly vance should be made. Their duty was to is time to test that question.” This, written obey, and Patterson's duty was to fulfill or- as early as the 14th, when there yet was time ders from Washington, which were — keep to fall with crushing force on the enemy, or Johnston engaged. Nothing more nor any- | to keep him diverted, may ke regarded as