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to his Soldiers.
He then issued his second terms which bear repetition, as throwing light
former pledges, and saying: the Union army aimed. It is of value as “ To my great regret, I find that the enemies of evidence bearing on the points already althe United States continue to carry on a system of luded to (see page 177] regarding the differhostilities prohibited by the laws of war among bel
ence of spirit which animated the armies : ligerent nations, and of course far more wicked and
“ To the Soldiers of the Army of intolerable when directed against loyal citizens en
the West : gaged in the defense of the common Government “ You are here to support of all.
the Government of your country, and to protect the • Marauding parties are pursuing a guerrilla war
lives and liberties of your brethren threatened by a fare, firing upon sentinels and pickets, burning rebellious and traitorous foe. No higher or nobler bridges, insulting, injuring and even killing citizens duty could devolve on man, and I expect you to because of their Union sentiments, and committing bring to its performance the highest and noblest many kindred acts.
qualities of soldiers' discipline-courage mercy. "I do now, therefore, make proclamation and I call upon the officers of every grade to enforce warn all persons that individuals or parties engaged the highest discipline; and I know that those of all in this species of warfare, irregular in every view grades, privates and officers, will display in battle which can be taken of it, those attacking sentries, cool, heroic courage, and will know how to show pickets, or other soldiers, destroying public or pri- mercy to a disarmed enemy. Bear in mind that vate property, or committing injuries against any you are in the country of friends, not of enemies; of the inhabitants because of Union sentiments or
that you are to protect, not to destroy. Take nothconduct, will be dealt with in their persons and ing, destroy nothing, unless you are ordered to do property according to the severest rules of military so by your General Officers. Remember that I have law.
pledged my word to the people of Western Virginia “ All persons giving information or aid to the that their rights in person and property shall be public enemies, will be arrested and kept in close respected. I ask every one of you to make good custody, and all persons found bearing arms, un
this promise in its broadest sense. We have come less of known loyalty, will be arrested and held for here to save, not to upturn. I do not appeal to the examination."
fear of punishment, but to your appreciation of the This was called for by the venomous char- sacredness of the cause in which we are engaged. acter betrayed by the Secessionsts, who be- Carry into battle the conviction that you are right, came guerillas, bridge-burners, scouts and and that God is on our side. Your enemies have thieves, as occasion offered. The Proclama- violated every moral law; neither God nor man tion was designed to reduce the conflict to
can sustain them. They have, without cause, re
belled against a mild and paternal Government; the rules of civilized warfare. The disposition of the troops at the date they have seized upon public and private property :
they have outraged the persons of Northern men, of his arrival was as follows: Sixth Indiana merely because they came from the North, and of and Fourteenth Ohio at Philippi; Sixteenth Southern Union men, merely because they loved Ohio at Cheat River; Eighth and Tenth In- the Union ; they have placed themselves beneath diana at Clarksburg; Ninth Ohio at Web- contempt, unless they can retrieve some honor on ster bridge; Third and Fourth Ohio at Graf- the field of battle. You will pursue a different ton. The Confederates were encamped in course. You will be honest, brave, and merciful. strong force thirteen miles from Philippi. You will respect the right of private opinion. You Porterfield, with three thousand men, occu
will punish no man for opinion's sake. Show to the pied Huttonsville. Pegram was at Rich
world that you differ from our enemies in these Mountain.
points of honor, honesty and respect for private McClellan made a rapid inspection of opinion, and that we inaugurate no reign of terror
where we go. Soldiers, I have heard that there the surrounding country, visiting all the
was danger here. I have come to place myself at camps, conferring with all the officers, and your head and share it with you. I fear now but soon arranged his plans of action. His poli- one thing, that you will not find foemen worthy of cy was one of active advance and rapid your steel, I know that I can rely upon you. strokes. On the 25th, he issued a second ad- (“Signed) GEORGE B. MCCLELLAN, dress to his soldiers. It was couched in
The leniency shown dis- | thy R. Stanley; Nineteenth Ohio, Colonel The Leniency Shown
loyal persons, in Western Saml. Beatty ; Eighth Indiana, Colonel Wm. Disloyal Persons.
Virginia, during the period P. Benton ; Ninth Indiana, Colonel Gideon of McClellan's command, gave no little of- C. Moody, (afterwards Colonel Milroy ;) Tenth fense to those who preferred to treat with Indiana, Colonel M. D. Manson; Fifteenth rigor every person found in arms against the Indiana, Colonel G. D. Wagner; the Chicago Union. But, though much harm came of al- Dragoons, Captain W. Baker ; Sturgis' Rifles, lowing vicious enemies their liberty on sub- (McClellan's Body Guard,) Captain Sturgis; scribing to an oath which they hastened to Chicago Cavalry, Captain Barker; the Coldscorn, good came from the leniency prac- water (Michigan) Artillery, Captain Culp. ticed. The masses of people, though really At Philippi was the Sixth Indiana, Colonel Unionists, had been taught and made to feel | Thos. T. Crittenden; at Ripley the Twentythat the army was sent for their subjugation first Ohio, Colonel Jesse S. Norton; at Grafand dispoliation—that slaves were to be freed ton (head-quarters of Brigadier-General Hill) and armed, and “the Yankees” made pos- | the Seventh Indiana, Colonel Dumont; Thirsessors of the soil. To disabuse the people teenth Ohio, Colonel Wm. S. Smith ; the Kanof such impressions was McClellan's purpose, sas Artillery and Company I of the Fourth in order that they might rally around the (regular) artillery, Lieutenant Ward. Wheeling Government and thus reorganize Colonel Cox (ranking Brigadier-General) the State. To have carried the sword into on the Kanawha, watching the movements Virginia without these assurances, would have of Ex-Governor Wise, held the line of the been to find an implacable enemy in every river with the Eighth Ohio, Colonel S. S. resident. As results showed, the course pur- Carroll; Twelfth Ohio, Colonel J. W. Lowe; sued made them friends and coadjutors; First Kentucky, Colonel W. Woodruff; Western Virginia soon furnished several fine Second Kentucky, Colonel W. G. Terrell; and effective regiments for Federal service. Eleventh Ohio, Colonel De Villiers. The same policy prevailed, at a later day, in At Cheat River were the Fifteenth Ohio, other States, but with less successful results. Colonel Moses R. Dickey, (Colonel G. W. In most instances leniency was construed as Andrews acting ;) Sixteenth Ohio, Colonel J. evidence of pusillanimity; and cases were Irvine, and the First Virginia. only too frequent where commanding officers There were, also, en route for the field the forgot both self-respect and humanity in their Thirteenth Indiana, Colonel J. C. Sullivan ; endeavors to “show mercy to a conquered Fourteenth Indiana, Colonel N. Kimball; enemy." Such instances served all the more Seventeenth Indiana, Colonel M. S. Hascall. rapidly to hasten the development of that At Clarksburg were the fast forming stern sentiment which found its expression Second and Third Virginia volunteers, afterin the Congressional Confiscation and Eman- ward commanded respectively by Colonel cipation Act of July, 1862.
Jno. W. Moss and Colonel David T. Heroes; At the date of July 4th, also the Sixth Ohio, Colonel W. K. Bosley. McClellan's forces number- These somewhat scatter
ed about thirty-two thou- ed forces McClellan began sand effective men, distributed as follows: to centralize rapidly. By in the vicinity of Buckhannon, under his own July 8th his lines were so far compressed personal command and that of Brigadier- that the advance was ordered. The enemy's General Rosecrans, were the Third Ohio, / main force was then intrenched at Laurel Colonel Isaac H. Marrow; Fourth Ohio, Hill. McClellan's plan was to approach it Colonel Lorin Andrews; Seventh Ohio, Colo- from the south and west, by way of Bucknel E. B. Tyler ; Ninth Ohio, Colonel Robert hannon, while Brigadier-General Morris with 8. McCook; Tenth Ohio, Colonel Wm. H. four thousand men pushed out toward Laurel Lytle; Fourteenth Ohio, Colonel Jas. B. Hill, direct, to keep the enemy's attention in Steedman ; Seventeenth Ohio, Colonel Jno. that direction. McConnell ; Eighteenth Ohio, Colonel Timo- After a sharp skirmish at Buckhannon,
Enumeration of McClellan's Forces.
The Forward MovoThe Battle of Rich
McClellan approached the On the 13th, McClellan
McClellan's Report rear of the enemy, whom, was in Beverly, from which
however, he found strongly Garnett had fled in confusion, early in the day intrenched at Rich Mountain, to the number The Federal commander gave the results of of eighteen hundred, under Colonel Pegram. his two days' work, and indicated his succeedSending (July 11th) General Rosecrans with ing course in his dispatch to the Department, a part of three regiments to assail them in dated from Beverly, July 13th. It read: the rear, while he himself should attack them
“ The success of to-day is all that I could desire. in front, he hoped to capture the enemy en We captured six brass cannon, of which one is rimasse; but, some want of co-operation fol-fled, and all the enemy's camp equipage and translowed which interfered with the complete portation, even to his cups. The number of tents ness of the results. Rosecrans reached the will probably reach two hundred, and more than rear of the mountain to find it held by some sixty wagons. Their killed and wounded will amount tlıree hundred rebels, but did not succeed in to fully one hundred and fifty, with at least one hun. communicating with McClellan that he was
dred prisoners, and more coming in constantly. I ready to attack. The command of McClellan know already of ten officers killed and wounded.
" Their retreat was complete. I occupied Beve therefore lay inactive for several hours.
erly by a rapid march. Garnett abandoned his camp Hence, though the attack of Rosecrans was
early this morning, leaving much of his equipage. entirely successful upon the force before him, He came within a few miles of Beverly, but our Pegram took the alarm, and silently moved rapid march turned him back in great confusion, off during the night with his main body, to and he is now retreating on the road to St. George. join Garnett at Laurel Hill. He found it “ General Morris is to follow him up closely. ] impossible, however, to do so; and, after lying have telegraphed for the two Pennsylvania regi. in the woods for two days, utterly destitute ments at Cumberland to join General Hill at Rɔwleg. of provisions, was obliged to surrender, with burg. The General is concentrating all his troops a large body of his men, who came strag- at Rowlesburg, and will cut off Garnett's retreat gling into the Union lines for several suc
near West Union, or if possible at St. George. ceeding days, as our army pushed rapidly on
“I may say that we have driven out some ten
thousand troops, strongly intrenched, with the loss their heels. Pegram wrote to McClellan, the
of eleven killed and thirty-five wounded. Provi day previous to his surrender, as follows:
sion returns found here show Garnett's force to have Six MILES FROY BEVERLY, July 12th, 1861.
been ten thousand men. They were Eastern Virgin* To the Commanding Oficer of the Northern Forces, ians, Georgians, Tennesseeans, and I think CaroliniBeverly, Virginia :
To-morrow I can give full details as to prison“Sir: I write to state to you that I have, in con
ers, &c. I trust that General Cox has by this time sequence of the retreat of General Garnett, and the drawn Wise out of the Kanawha Valley. In that jaded and reduced condition of my command
case I shall have accomplished the object of libermost of them having been without food for two days ating Western Virginia. I hope the General-in-Chief -concluded, with the concurrence of a majority of
will approve of my operations." my Captains and Field Officers, to surrender my command to you to-morrow, as prisoners of war. I
This dispatch shows how well ordered the have only to add, I trust they will only receive at
movements were-each detachment dropping your hands suc treatment as has been invariably
upon the enemy to secure his destruction. shown to the Northern prisoners by the South.
These movements of Gar“I am, sir, your obedient servant,
nett will be more clearly “ JOHN PEGRAM, apprehended, by recurring to the action of “ Lieutenant-Colonel P. A.C. S., commanding." the force under General Morris, which McThe Federal commander replied by accept- Clellan had ordered to move down from ing the surrender, but stated that it was not Philippi. This division immediately started, in his power to relieve either Pegram or his under the skillful pilotage of Captain Benmen from the liabilities incurred by them in ham, of the Topographical Engineers, who taking up arms against their country. His well knew the face of the country. Beelingtroops came in to the number of six hun-ton, on the opposite side of the valley from dred with their officers.
Laurel Hill, was safely reached, and, in spite
Battle of Carricksford.
of the enemy's sharp attacks by skirmishers | Federal scouts discovered Garnett's provision and artillery, was fortified so as to hold it train at a halt (at noon of the 13th.) A muspending the approach of McClellan's column ket, recklessly discharged by an overjoyed from the south. When Pegram was so un- trooper, set the train in motion, and a further expectedly pressed out of his burrow at Rich pursuit of three miles followed—the train beMountain, Garnett, apprehending his great ing covered by two strong regiments. danger of being caught between the two In crossing the stream at columns, sought to extricate himself from the Carricksford, the enemy threatening grasp of the Federal commander. again was overtaken. GarLeaving his works on Laurel Hill, he pushed nett there determined upon an obstinate deout for Beverly. This, his advance had fense-assisted greatly by the nature of the scarcely occupied when the fugitives from ground. Cheat River wound around a bluff Pegram's camp, flying before Rosecrans' hot fifty feet in height, whose base was covered pursuit, informed him that further delay with an almost impenetrable laurel jungle. there was impossible without capture. The On this bluff Garnett planted two guns so only avenue of escape was to retrace his path as to command the Federal approach. Two to Leedsville, where another turnpike road thousand infantry supported the battery, with branched off to the north-east, on the other the reserve of three thousand one mile in the side of Laurel Mountain, Pursuing this rear. The infantry was ensconced behind a route with all speed, he passed Leedsville rail fence and trees felled on the brow of the during the afternoon of the 13th, and pressed hill, with flank lines also under cover down on along the base of the mountains down the to the road. Cheat River, hoping to find some practicable The Fourteenth Ohio, Colonel Steedman, path across the mountains into the valley of came up first and received the galling tire of Virginia. Throwing away all superfluous the hill. The Seventh Indiana, Colonel Dubaggage, he fled rapidly, and soon turned mont, flung themselves into the river, preparaoff from the main road into a narrow path tory to an attempt to scale the bluff. They along the mountains, in which pursuit might were only restrained by the emphatic orders be more easily obstructed. Here he closed of Benham, who soop found a suitable point the narrow path after hivi, filling every de- for the ascent which would flank the enemy. file through which he moved by felling the The Seventh was ordered to cross the stream largest trees into and across it.
under fire; then having gained the foot of The flight from Laure! the bluff, to pass down the river to the point Pursuit of Garnett.
Hill was discovered by of ascent, some distance below. The gallant General Morris early on the morning of June fellows executed the movement with alacrity, 12t. Pursuit was at once made-Captain and, ere long, their shout, as they marched Benham on the advance. Leedsville was up the declivity upon the enemy's left, told reached. There the advance awaited the the troops still assailing in the front, that coming up of the whole division. At two, their comrades had won the position. The 4. M., (13th.) the pursuit was resumed. Ben- i struggle was short. The enemy fell back ham again led, with eighteen hundred men. slowly from the brow of the hill towards his ['p and down the mountains, through defiles, reserves, leaving one gun in the hands of the and over rugged ridges, everywhere impeded Indianians. Our forces then prepared to by the obstructions thrown in the way by pass the stream to follow up the attack. thie flying enemy-the pursuit was pressed Garnett, with great bravery, rode along his with unflagging ardor. Many men fell be- ranks and in vain sought to bring his men up hind, exhausted with hunger and exertion. to the stream to contest the crossing. Ile But on the regiments rushed, forgetful of appoached the bank only to be shot by the hunger, weariness, pain, in the eager desire advancing Federalists. His men fled in utter to put their foe at bay.
confusion. The reserves catching the panic, At length their quarry was reached. On the retreat soon became a disordered rout. one of the branches of Cheat River, the The officers sought to reach Romney. Only
one (Georgia) regiment | his part of Scott's well-conceived programme pursued its way unbroken. for forcing the enemy out of Virginia. Pat
For several days the terson executed his allotted task with less Federal scouts brought in the rebels in success—indeed, so illy as to cause McDowgreat numbers. They proved to be a ell's defeat at the very moment of victory. forlorn set of vagabonds at best. But, all General Scott's injunctions to engage and were treated humanely; and, obeying the hold the rebels at Winchester, at all hazards, injunctions of orders, those were released who were not acted upon, and Johnston's entire chose to take the oath of allegiance. Many army of about fifteen thousand men pushed of them took the oath, were clothed, were down upon McDowell's advancing divisions fed for several days, and then were allowed to snatch from them the victory just within to depart. It was ere long ascertained that their grasp. The flush of success was changed, the large majority of those thus released in an hour, to the panic a rout; and the were again in the ranks of the enemy.* country witnessed the humiliating spectacle
General Hill failed to perform his allotted of its finest army flying before a non-pursuing task by catching the remnant of the routed enemy, leaving behind it the wounded and forces. He pushed for Oakland to find that sick and millions of dollars in stores, arms the rebels had passed through that place a and transportation. In such an hour all eyes few hours previous to his arrival. Hasten- sought for an acting commander, capable of ing on toward Romney, he approached to bringing order out of that chaos. The list within a few miles of that stronghold, but of commanders was large, but all, comparaonly to gather up a few stragglers and aban- tively, were untried men, None had dore doned arms. About two thousand of Gar- so much and wrought so well as McClellan. nett's men finally reached Romney to be ad- He was young, strong, loyal and eager for ded to Johnston's army, then watching Pat-duty. He had shown fine capacity for comterson's advance from Harper's Ferry, and mand. His experience, for one so young, Williamsport. The rebel loss in these seve had been such as to qualify him for directing ral engagements was two hundred and fifty and leading in the field. He was the peokilled, over one thousand prisoners, five ple's choice, Scott's choice, Government's guns, twelve colors, fifteen hundred stand of choice. He was relieved immediately of the arms, and great quantities of camp equipage, command in Western Virginia to enter upon stores, horses, &c. The Union loss was twenty the herculean task of restoring order, of givkilled and sixty wounded.
ing efficiency to the army covering the Capital. In the midst of opera- Transferring his comtions, when his campaign mand to Brigadier-General
had but fairly opened, MC- Rosecrans, (July 22d.) MCClellan was suddenly called to Washington, Clellan departed from Beverly for Grafton to assume the active Command-in-Chief of the and Wheeling. Thence he proceeded to Army of the Potomac. The operations of Pittsburg and journeyed rapidly to WashMcDowell in the direct march upon Rich- ington. Rosecrans had proven himself to mond bad resulted in a reverse which threat- be an able man. To him Government was ened a general demoralization of the army, willing to confide the responsible trust of while it opened the way for an enterprising saving Western Virginia from the Confedeenemy to walk up to the very vicinity of the rates and the blind fury of Governor Letcher. National Capital. McClellan had acted well The loyal efforts for reorganizing the State
called for the exercise, by the enemy, of all * This infamous disregard of oaths and honor was
available resources to save the dismemberhappily satirized in the sarcasm of a Captain in one of the Ohio regiments. A rattlesnake was caught
ment of Virginia, and Rosecrans soon found alive on the mountains and brought into canip. Af- that the second campaign on the line of the ter tiring of its presence, its captor asked the Cap. Kanawha would claim vigilance, activity, tain what he should do with the reptile. “Oh, sagacity and bravery wbich had not yet been swear him and let him go!"' was the curt reply. demanded of that command.
McClellan's Transfer to the Command.
Rosecrans in Com