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McDowell in Com


suited the ardent aspirations of the people. | vicinity excepted. This em

The Military Depart It might have succeeded - it might have braced the field of active failed. To have failed would have been to operations. Brigadier-Genimperil all. Scott's policy forbade failure : eral McDowell was placed in command, his and he moved on slowly to the consummation staff comprising: Colonel P. Stone, Fourof the great work in hand--that of suppress-teenth U. S. infantry, Captain B. 0. Tyler, ing the rebellion in such a manner as to lay brevet Captain Joseph B. Fry, and Lieutenant it forever,

Putnam, of the Topographical Engineers. The Military Depart- George B. McClellan, Major-General of the The Military Depart

ments at the date of May Ohio volunteers, was placed in command of

28th, were as follows: the department of the Ohio. B. F. Butler Department of the East, subdivided as fol- was in command at Fortress Monroe. These Jows: OF WASHINGTON : embracing the Dis- two commanders were nominated to be Matrict of Columbia according to its original jor-Generals, in the U. S. army, May 16th. boundaries; Fort Washington and the coun- Brigadier-General Harney was in command try adjacent, and the State of Maryland, in- at St. Louis. Major-General of volunteers cluding Bladensburg and Baltimore. Head- Patterson was in command of the department quarters at Washington.

of Pennsylvania, taking up head-quarters at OF THE SOUTH: embracing Eastern Vir-Chambersburg early in June, preparatory to ginia, North Carolina and Tennessee. Head- a movement on Harper's Ferry. quarters at Fortress Monroe.

McDowell relieved MaOF ANNAPOLIS: comprising the country jor-General Sandford of for twenty miles on each side of the railway the command in Virginia, from Annapolis to Washington, as far as Bla- May 27th, and immediately addressed himdensburg, Maryland. Head-quarters at An- self to the work of covering the operations of napolis.

the engineers, whose plans for fortifications OF PENNSYLVANIA: embracing the States opened out on a very extensive scale. Picket of Pennsylvania and Delaware, and all of and scout advances only were made—the deMaryland not included in other departments. sign being to entrench and prepare for the Head-quarters at Philadelphia.

general contingencies of the long and severe OF THE WEST: comprising the country campaign which seemed to be assured. west of the Mississippi and east of the Rocky A spirited affair occurred Mountains, except those portions included in early on the morning of the limits of Texas and New Mexico. Head- June 1st, when one of these sconting parties quarters at St. Louis.

made a dash into Fairfax Court House vilOF THE Ono: including the States of Ohio, lage. The Federal force consisted of seventyIndiana, Illinois and Western Virginia. five men of the Second U. S. cavalry, Co. B, Of Texas: embracing the State.

commanded by Lieutenant Tompkins, assisted OF New Mexico: embracing that Terri- by Lieutenant Gordon, of the Second dratory. Head-quarters at Santa Fe.

goons, and accompanied by three officers of OF THE PACIFIC: embracing the country the New York Fifth regiment. Reconnoiwest of the Rocky Mountains. Head-quarters tering up to within three hundred yards of at San Francisco.

the village, the party was discovered by the OF Utal: embracing Utah, except that rebel pickets, who fired and fled. Two of the portion lying west of 117th deg. W. longitude. pickets were seized and a daslı made into the Head-quarters at Camp Floyd.

place from the north. The Virginia cavalry These were chiefly the old assignments. hastily formed. Into their ranks the Federals The new state of affairs necessitated great charged, dispersing them quickly, emptying changes. May 28th, the department of East- several saddles and securing the horses. The ern Virginia was created, comprising all of Union cavalry wheeled and charged back, Virginia lying east of the Alleghanies and running the gauntlet or shot fired from houses aorth of James River--Fortress Mouroe and and gardens. At the head of the street they

A Gallant Aflair.

It was

were confronted by two detachments of the such vigor that the bcats were compelled Warrenton rifles and a field-piece, under finally to withdraw from the assault. The command of Colonel Ewell and Governor bombardment was renewed on the following Smith. A skirmish followed, but the cavalry morning, by the Freeborn and Pawnee. It succeeded in cutting its way out, having se- continued with great obstinacy for five hours, cured five prisoners. The Federal loss was when the Union gunboats hauled off but one killed, three missing, four wounded, and slightly injured, having completely destroyed twelve horses lost. Of the three missing, one the railway depot and the pier, and badly afterwards made his way into camp. Two cut up the enemy's forces in the batteries, were held as prisoners. The rebels were so The batteries were not, however, silenced infuriated at this saucy assault that they but thereafter, for several months, worried threatened to hang the two prisoners. Hear- the navigation of the Potomac by their pouy ing which, the advance New York Twenty- erful and well-served rifled guns. eighth resolved upon a rescue. Company B This partial success in repelling the gunof that regiment was immediately mounted | boats, inspired the Confederate authorities and pushed out for Fairfax, The Court with renewed zeal in their efforts for comHouse was suddenly surrounded, the prison- manding the Potomac with batteries, from ers secured, and the company returned in Gloucester Point on the Chesapeake Bay, up triumph to camp. These exploits had in to High Point at the mouth of the Occoquan, them that vigor which argued well for the just below the Mt. Vernon estate. spirit of the contest. The history of the war several months, however, before they succeed. is filled with exploits of this daring nature, ed in rendering the “ blockade" of the river some of which betrayed extraordinary hardi- a matter of serious detriment to the Commishood. Unionists and rebels alike were ready sariat department of the National army. for such enterprises; but, the latter being Over Mt. Vernon reigned "at home” in the South, and being also very the spirit of peace. Each efficiently mounted, generally succeeded in party resolved not to invade committing the most havoc with the least the estate rendered sacred by the remains of injury to themselves.

the illustrious dead. Rescued from decay The rebels having plant- chiefly by the money contributed in the

ed batteries at Acquia N thern States, the dilapidation of the Acquia Creek Batteries

Creek, covering the Fred- Washington estate had but recently become ericksburg and Richmond railway depot, other than a disgrace to Virginia and to the Captain Ward, of the gunboat Freeborn, country; and, though its female warden was opened on them, on the morning of May 31st. a rank secessionist, she was permitted to The steamer Anacosta, Lieutenant N. Collins, plant flowers in safety over the tomb of him together with the Resolute, participated. The whose “Farewell Address” must have made cannonade was furious, and resulted in si- the halls of the old mansion gleam with a lencing three of the shore batteries, though hand writing on the wall for its disunion one heavy battery on the hill replied with inmates.

The Mt. Vernon


Bombardment of the






The Confederate

The Confederate

FROM documents already into army of invasion, and now occupies a city

submitted, * it will be seen within the boundaries of our Republic. This Gov. Key-Note.

the revolutionists constru- ernment has no longer an election. Its daty is now ed their cause as that of the injured party. manifest to all. The nation must rise as a man and Declaring their right to revolt (secede) from drive the hireling miscreants from a soil polluted by

the foulness of their tramp. Virginia alone could the Federal Union, they assumed all steps speedily perform the work of expurgation, but her to suppress the revolt as efforts for their sub

cause is now our cause, her battles our battles, and jugation. Proclamations, messages, speeches, let the Government at large pour a continuous editorials fairly scintillated with the fires of

stream of men into Virginia, and preserve from dispassion enkindled against the “ oppressors." honor that patriotic mother of States." The advance into Virginia was proclaimed as This was the key-note to having opened the war! From that moment which the clarions of the

Key-Note. the Confederate Chiefs declared their course conspirators were set. A to be clearly defined ! Thus, a correspond-man strong and daring enough to have pointent (probably one of Davis' Cabinet officers) ed at the long list of crimes which the revofor the New Orleans Delta, writing from lutionists had perpetrated against a forbearMontgomery, said:

ing Government, against the laws, against “ The startling intelligence of the invasion of the order, against society, would have found a Boil of Virginia, and the actual occupation of Alex. halter placed around his neck, no matter what andria by United States forces, was received here his social position. No voice was heard, last evening. The Cabinet, I am informed, immedi- after the issue by the Federal Executive of ately went into a procrastinated session. No event

the Proclamation for troops to cause the laws since the initiation of this revolution has ever cre. ated a sensation so profound, and so sorrowful. to be respected, which did not swell the wild The mere taking of a deserted and exposed village,

chorus of treason. The very air seemed resois in itself nothing ; but when regarded as indicative nant with the baying of shadowy hounds, of the future policy of the old Government, it at recalled from the jungles wherein the slave once becomes a question pregnant with great im- crouched for one moment of sweet liberty, to portance. Mr. Lincoln has declared in his procla- be turned Northward for the blood of loyal mation, and at various other times reiterated the

Plantations, villages, cities, camps expression, that the only object his Government had rung with the cry: "On to the cities of the in view, was the retaking and the reoccupation of North !" while the harbors and bayous of what he asserted to be Government property; but the Confederacy echoed to the imprecations now, in the face of this promise, which has gone of the piratical host who proposed to "sweep before the world, he converts his Abolition horde

Northern coinmerce from the seas." If any See Message of President Davis, page 122, et se citizens of the Confederacy yet prayed and quitur ; the last communication of the Confederate longed for the return of reason, they now Commissioners, pages 69-71; the several proclama

beheld how futile were their hopes, and, betions by Governors of Virginia, North Carolina and fore that popular clamor, were a ved into siMissouri; the proceedings of the Confederate Congress; the speech of Davis, at Richmond, June 1st, lence or were swept into the revolution with (given on succeeding page,) &c., &c.

a new-found enthusiasm, pledging themselves


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Davis' Exordium.

heart, and hand, and purse, never delegated to him; and it The Confederato

to the cause of “Southern has been reserved to your own Key-Note. Independence.” The an

State, so lately one of the original thirteen, but now, nals of revolution furnish no parallel to that thank God, fully separated from them, to become astonishing zeal in the reckless pursuit of

the theatre of a great central camp, from which will power. Had the lamented Mr. Buckle lived pour forth thousands of brave hearts to roll back

the tide of this despotism. to study the secret springs of the Southern

Apart from that gratification we may well feel heart, he would have found strong confirmation of his teories. The lack of a just com- pride that upon you devolves the task of maintaiz

at being separated from such a connection, is the prehension of the intellectual claims of the ing and defending our new Government. I believe age—the want of a just conception of the that we shall be able to achieve this noble work, rights of man and the powers of government and that the institutions of our fathers will go to our -rendered the Southern people easy victims children as safely as they have descended to us. to retrogressive ideas and the wiles of design- “ In these Confederate States we observe those ing, unscrupulous men.

relations which have been poetically aseribed to the President Davis arrived United States, but which never there had the same Wigmall.

at Richmond, May 29th, reality-States so distinct that each existed as a accompanied by Wigfall, then a Colonel in the Sovereign, yet so united that each was wound with Confederate service. The Texan followed his the other to constitute a whole; or, as more beaumaster, as such creatures ever have and ever tifully expressed, • Distinct as the billows, yet one

as the sea.' will follow those whose talents they can but ape—to do his behests in exciting antago- you have had, and will continue to have, camps

"Upon every hill which now overlooks Richmond nisms in the minds of the Southern people containing soldiers from every State in the Confedagainst the North. For this he was commis

eracy; and to its remotest limits every proud heart sioned; his malignant tongue and dishonest beats high with indignation at the thought that the heart were worth more to the Southern cause foot of the invader has been set upon the soil of old than the service of many an able commander. Virginia. There is not one true son of the South Men of daring minds always find such shadows who is not ready to shoulder his musket, to bleed, to do their will. He who seeks to write the to die, or to conquer in the cause of liberty here. secret history of the rebellion, will find Lewis " Beginning under many embarrassments, the re T. Wigfall gliding across the page at unex- sult of seventy years of taxation being in the hands pected times and in unexpected places. of our enemies, we must at first move cautious'y Davis was serenaded by

It may be that we shall have to encounter sacrifice 3 the Richmond people, on

but, my friends, under the smiles of the God of the the evening of June 1st. He then enunciated Just, and filled with the same spirit that animated

our fathers, success shall perch on our banners. I the principles upon which he proposed to

am sure you do not expect me to go into any argu. administer “the cause so dear to Southern

ment npon those questions which, for twenty-five hearts." We may quote:

years, have agitated the country. We have now “ The cause in which we are engaged is the cause

reached the point where, arguments being cxhaustof the advocacy of rights to which we were born, ed, it only remains for us to stand by our weapons. those for which our fathers of the Revolution beld

“ When the time and occasion serve, we shal the richest inheritance that ever fell to man, and smite the smiter with manly arms, as did our fathers which it is our sacred duty to transmit to our chil. before us, and as becomes their sons. To the enemy dren.

we leave the base acts of the assassin and incendiary, “Upon us is devolved the high and holy responsi- | to them we leave it to insult helpless women; to us bility of preserving the constitutional liberty of a belongs vengeance upon man.” free government. Those with whom we have lately

What was most remarkassociated have shown themselves so incapable of appreciating the blessings of the glorious institu- able, in this speech, to a

Consistency. tions they inherited, that they are to-day stripped

Northern comprehension, of the liberty to which they were born. They have was its perversion of facts, and the idea that, allowed an ignorant usurper to trample upon all the upon the Slaveholders as such, devolved the prerogatives of citizenship, and to exercise powers * high and holy responsibility of preserving

Davis' Exordium.

Confederate Want u







Confederate Want of


Confederate Want of



a new


tory will

the constitutional liberty | must have been indeed bad
of a free government.” when such men as Ste-

As Mr. Stephens, the Vice- phens had to descend to President, had already enunciated the results unqualified untruths. We quote : of the movement for disunion to be

“ The acts of Lincoln exhibit the spirit of anarchy constitution” and a new “form of Government,” which is abroad in the North, and total disregard of (see page 63,) the statement of the President in

all constitutional obligations and limits by the Aboli 'ion reference to the mission of the Confederacy despot now in power. The North is fast drifting to sounded a little inconsistent; but, ove feature anarchy and an established despotism.”

Coming from the lips of a man elevated to of the south-side view of things was that it neither required consistency nor truth for its the sentiments of a Government inaugurated

power by no vote of the people—embodying propagation. Therefore the her declara

over the people without, in a single instance, tion of the President: beginning under

allowing them to express their opinion and many embarrassments, the result of seventy wishes in regard to that Government—we can years taxation being in the hands of our ene- well understand why the word “ despotism" mies," ceased to excite even an exclamation

so frequently was upon the Vice-President's of surprise. The fact was that the Slave lips. The silly statement that anarchy was States—the Cotton-growing States in partic-reigning in the North was a natural sequence ular--had received one hundred dollars bene- of the general assumptions of the Vice-Presifit from the Union for every dollar imposed dent: it was so wide of the truth that liisupon them by “ tax" or otherwise ;* but, Mr.

ot fail to express surprise that even Davis and his friends did not choose to view Mr. Stephens should have uttered such reckfacts in the light of facts. They preferred to less language. He further added, as a corolproceed upon the supposition that a Slave lary of his hopeless account of affairs in the owner was better, was infinitely superior, as North : a man, to a non-Slave owner---that the South,

On you, therefore, as citizens of the Confederate notwithstanding its immense minority (see States, depend the success and perpetuation of Vol. I, page 28; also Appendix, Vol. I, page Constitutional liberty ; for the day is not far off 623,] in population and wealth, and its infe- when freedom will exist only south of Mason and riority in all the resources which add to the Dixon's line, and your stout arms and brave hearts permanent prosperity of a country was,

will be her only support on all this continent." nevertheless, the accredited arbiter of the

This would excite a smile were its conse-, Constitution, the exclusive monitor of the quences less fatal. That the South was fightlaws. That the revolutionists and their an

ing the cause of constitutional liberty was tagonists were as wide apart in their cardinal gainsayed by the very purpose of the revoluprinciples as the cardinal points of the com

tion itself, which aimed at overthrowing the pass, became apparent from the moment when Constitution and its provisions for the rule Toombs and Wigfall first proclaimed their of the majority. But, so etultified were the right to do as they pleased, despite the Gov- leaders of the revolution, and so apparently ernment and the laws.

willing were the masses of the Southern peoMr. Stephens, at Atlanta, May 23d, did not ple to be deceived, that each inconsistency wait for Federal “invasion” to declare his grew to be a virtuous exception, and each war-programme. He wanted no mere pre

departure from truth became a fortiter in ra tense to skulk behind, but came out, flatly, argument to strengthen their cause. for the contest on the issues already created.

Said the Vice-President: “We prefer and His speech, like that of Davis, contained its desire peace if we can have it; but if we candue proportion of misstatement. Their cause

not, we must meet the issue forced upon us.

We must meet Lincoln and his myrmidons * See statements of Mr. Everett, as given in Vol. on their own ground, and on their own terms 1, page 206 ; also his remarks given in foot-note to -on Constitutional principles." page 14, Vol. 1; also foot-note, Vol. I, page 108; We prefer peace! The record of blood, also statements given on pages 206, 207, Vol. I. the story of the crusade which had then been

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