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sonal, not official. He said: “I made no publish some tangible excuse for his defection, stipulation on the part of the General Govern- and found it in the assumed bad faith of the ment, and regarded his voluntary promise to General Government in not carrying out the drive out the Confederate troops as the only arrangement which he had made with Mcresult of the interview.” Buckner's course, Clellan! He had quaffed too deeply at the in soon after joining the Confederate cause, fountain of Jefferson Davis and John C. Breckbearing with him all the Kentucky troops enridge, and ceased to be the soul of honor over whom he exerted any influence, gives us when he became the instrument of Southern the key to the “views" which he entertained dishonor. He lived long enough to read his of the interview referred to. He wished to errors and feel his disgrace.

CHAPTER XIV.

THE CAMPAIGN OPENED. OCCUPATION OF VIRGINIA. DEATH OF

ELLSWORTH. R E BEL MALIGNITY. BEAUREGARD'S INFAMOUS PROCLAMATION. MCDOWELL IN COMMAND. 8COTT'S PLAN OP THE WAR. LIEUTENANT TOMPKINS' GALLANT DASH AT FAIRFAX

OPERATIONS OF GENERAL BUTLER.

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I.

Plans of the Belligerents,

The gathering of troops | sand rash, insolent and vioPlans of the

at Washington and Rich- | lent men—the “flower of Belligerents

mond to the majority of the Southern youth" — in observers was, after all, a mystery. The “de- arms, rest and a bloodless duty were simply fense of Washington” did not require so vast impossible. By May 15th the reconnoissances an army as rendezvoused there in May; nor and surveys made by the enemy, of the Vir. was the immense aggregation of Southern ginia territory opposite Washington, made it forces at Richmond, at the same time, ex- apparent that the heights at Arlington, Alerplained by the declared policy of the Con- andria, and the hills above Georgetown, were federates “ to resist invasion." If the Fede- to be occupied. The aggregation of troops rals did not intend invasion, and the Confed- at Harper's Ferry was followed by their ocerates did not design to attack the Capital, cupation of the hills opposite, in Maryland. the novice in the art of war might well ask- The ferry at Williamsport was commanded then why the armies ?

by a large detachment of Virginia and South There was wisdom in this careful avoidance Carolina troops, May 19th, preparatory to of the first aggressive step. Notwithstanding crossing. Attempts were also made to seize the offenses already committed by the revolu- the ferry boats near Clear Spring, and at other tionists against the United States Government, points—all looking to an invasion of Maryand the menacing attitude of their armies, the land to co-operate with an arranged uprising Federal Administration evidently preferred in Baltimore. The plan of the rebels, it afto allow the hot-heads to commit the first terwards appeared, was to pass around Washact of hostilities direct. The 'e was not much ington, after securing the surrounding points delay in that act. With twenty-five thou- against approach; then to precipitate the

THE

FEDERAL ADVANCE

INTO VIRGINIA.

175

Plans of the

the rear.

The Federal Advance

entire disposable Confede- were advanced down the
rate force upon Chambers-country as far as Four Mile

The Federal Advance Belligerents.

into Virginia. burg and Philadelphia. It Run. Thus, the District was conceived that a quick stroke in that di- volunteers served as pioneers in opening the rection, securing the great commercial centre campaign of the War for the Union. of Philadelphia, and cutting off Washington The passage of the troops commenced from all approach — for the Potomac was simultaneously, at two o'clock Friday morncommanded by rebel batteries at Acquia ing, over the Long Bridge and the Chain Creek and other points—would allow the Bridge at Georgetown, while the Ellsworth Confederates to dictate their terms of settle- Fire Zouaves steamed away on transports diment and peace.

rect from their encampment for Alexandria. All these manquvres were fully understood The vanguard, commanded by Inspectorby General Scott. With his usual sagacity General Stone, was composed of six compathe old Commander changed the face of af- nies of the District volunteers. This was folfairs in a night. Awaiting the election in lowed (over Long Bridge) by the New York Virginia, on the 23d, on the night of that day Twelfth and Twenty-fifth, the First Michigan, the movement over the Potomac was made, the First, Second, Third and Fourth New which compelled the enemy to centre all his Jersey; then two companies of regular cavalattention in that direction and at the York-ry; then Sherman's two batteries, while the town peninsula, to cover their then capital New York, Seventh, as a reserve, brought up from seizure.

General Mansfield commanded the The advance was well and movement over the bridge, though Major into Virginia.

secretly matured. But few General Sandford, of the New York volun

persons, even of those in teers, assumed temporary command in Virgihigh places, knew of the stroke designed, al- nia, passing over the bridge at four o'clock, though from the note of preparation sound. A. M. He proceeded, with his staff, directly ing through all the camps, it was apparent to Arlington Heiglits. General Scott and that some movement was contemplated. All Secretaries Cameron and Seward were at the the various points of crossing the Potomac bridge to witness the passage. But few other were guarded late in the day of May 23d, to spectators were present. The slumber of the prevent the passage over of any boat which city was not broken. Its citizens awoke to might communicate news of the “invasion” | learn that ten thousand troops had passed to the rebel pickets on the opposite shore. into the enemy's country. These sentries were composed chiefly of the General McDowell conducted the advance Washington City volunteer companies, who over the Georgetown bridge. The New York acted throughout the entire proceeding with Sixty-ninth, Colonel Corcoran, followed by commendable zeal and courage. “A full moon the Twenty-eighth, a company of regular looked peacefully down, and perfect quiet cavalry (Drummond's) and battery. reigned on all the neighboring shores. But The Sixty-ninth proceeded to seize the tlıis was to give place very speedily to more Orange and Manassas Gap railway, over wlich stirring movements. Somewhat after mid- the Secessionists of Alexandria must retreat. night Captain Smead's company, the Nation- A few rails were displaced, when the train, al Rifles, and Captain Powell's company were as expected, came up, having on board about advanced across the bridge to the neighbor- seven hundred persons—among whom were hood of Roach's Spring. Scouts were sent three hundred men, who were held as prisout in ali directions, who managed to get oners. past the line of the Virginia pickets. Some- The work of entrenching immediately comwliat later the Virginia pickets, getting the menced; the great number of tools as well as alarm, set spurs to their horses and made of construction material which followed the down the road towards Alexandria, in hot force over, indicated the extent of labor dehaste.” The Constitutional Guards, Captain signed. Degges, were on duty over the bridge. They! The New York Fire Zouaves arrived at

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The Federal Advance

into Virginia.

The Assassination of

Colonel Ellsworth.

Alexandria to find that floor stairs by the proprietor
Commander Rowan, of the of the house, one Jackson,

gunboat Pawnee, already who levelled the double had given the people warning of the advance barrelled shot-gun with which he was armed --a hint for the enemy's troops to escape, of directly at Ellsworth and fired almost instantwhich they availed themselves. But a little ly - the charge lodging in the Colonel's company of cavalry remained as a squad of breast. Ellsworth fell forward, with an exobservation. The Zouaves, with a small de- clamation of sharp pain. The assassin droptachment from the New York Seventy-first, ped the aim of his gun to take off Brownell, landled under cover of the Paunee's guns, and but the Zouave shot and bayoneted the murimmediately proceeded to take possession of derer in an instant—the shot-gun discharging the town, the railway, telegraph and the ap- its contents into the wainscoting over head. proaches. At this time Colonel Wilcox, with Ellsworth was borne to a bed, but was dead. his Michigan regiment, came down from Long

This tragedy sent a thrill of horror through Bridge; simultaneously the two regiments the country. While it illustrated the spirit took possession. The New York Twelfth, of insane malignity which controlled the Setook position midway between the Bridge cessionists, it demonstrated the folly of leniand Alexandria. The New York Twenty-fifth ency towards such an enemy. To the Zouaves pushed out towards Falls Church. The New

-a corps of as fine soldiers as ever walked York Seventh held Long Bridge, whose ap- the field—the loss of their beloved leader was proaches they proceeded at once to fortify indeed irreparable. They never afterwards and secure against any possible assault.*

were the model regiment which they had beIn the occupancy of Alexandria occurred come under Ellsworth's peculiar and wonderthe tragedy of the assassination of Colonel fully thorough discipline. His loss was a Elmer Ellsworth. The landing of his regi- source of national regret, for a more devoted ment having been effected in safety, he pro- and promising officer the Union army did not ceeded at once into the village. Perceiving

contain, on the "Marshall House" the secession flag

This occupation of Vir

Outcry of Secession still flying, which had been run up as a taunt ginia of course excited the to the President's House--from which it was

revolutionists intensely.visible-he pushed direct for the hotel, ac

Their press teemed, for a few days, with a companied by three persons, and a Sergeant's rhetoric which ran the octave of defamatory squad from Company A, as a guard. The and incendiary expletives. The Richmond entire company was afterwards ordered up.

journals were not least in that wordy bom. The Colonel, his three friends and a private bardment of the “Yankees.” The Enquirer named Francis E. Brownell, proceeded to the

said: roof of the hotel, where Ellsworth lowered

We congratulate the people of Virginia away the flag Returning, Brownell led the

that the last flimsy pretext of the Rump Govway, followed by his Colonel with the flag in ernment at Washington, of regard for Conhis arms. They were confronted on the third stitutional laws, has been thrown aside. The

sovereign State of Virginia has been invaded * This fine regiment, having proceeded to Wash by the Federal hirelings, without authority ington to guard the Capital until other forces could of Congress, which alone has the war-making arrive, was relieved of duty by orders of May 30th.

power. Heretofore, the pretense that it was May 26th it was returned to Washington by orders the duty of the Federal Government to reof Brigadier-General Mansfield, whose order read : “ The security of this city renders it imperative that possess itself of the forts and arsenals in the

Seceded States, has been put forward to jusyou should resume your encampment on this side ; and you will this afternoon march over accordingly, tify the aggressive movements of Federal and hold your regiment here ready to turn out when troops. But in the present case there is no called upon.” It accordingly returned, giving place such pretense; no forts, or arsenals, or other to other troops, which passed on over the Bridge Federal property have been seized at Alexandaily after the 24th.

dria. The 'bloody and brutal' purposes of

Journals.

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6

MCDOWELL

IN COMMAND.

177

mous Proclamation.

mous Proclamation.

the Abolitionists, to subjugate and extermi- | ens, Manassas Junction, do

Beauregard's Infanate the Southern people, stands confessed by make this my Proclamation,

and invite and enjoin you by this flagrant outrage upon Virginia soil.

“ Virginians, arise in your strength and every consideration dear to the hearts of freemen welcome the invader with bloody hands to and patriots, by the name and memory of your Re.

volutionary fathers, and by the purity and sancity hospitable graves. The sacred soil of Vir- of your domestic firesides, to rally to the standard ginia, in which repose the ashes of so many of your State and country; and, by every means in of the illustrious patriots who gave independ your power, compatible with honorable warfare, to ence to their country, has been desecrated by drive back and expel the invaders from your land. the hostile tread of an armed enemy, who “I conjure you to be true and loyal to your coun. proclaims his malignant hatred of Virginia try and her legal and constitutional authorities, and because she will not bow her proud neck to especially to be vigilant of the movements and acts the humiliating yoke of Yankee rule. Meet of the enemy, so as to enable you to give the earli.

est authentic information at these head-quarters, or the invader at the threshold. Welcome him

to the officers under my command. with bayonet and bullet. Swear eternal hatred of a treacherous foe, whose only hope in my power will be given to you all.

I desire to assure you that the ntmost protection of safety is in your defeat and subjection.”

“G. T. BEAUREGARD, This rhetorical indigna

“ Brigadier-General Commanding." Beauregard's Infa.

tion culminated in the Pro- As the Federal army had, in its “invasion"

clamation issued by Beau- studiously avoided any and every act of vio. regard, a few days subsequently, (June 5th,) lence toward those not in arms against their which, for the baseness of its untruths and country—as it proclaimed peace and protecthe malignity of its spirit was scarcely paral- tion to all unarmed citizens, and carefully leled, during the war, by the address of the guarded the property even of those known to rebel leaders. We may reproduce the docu- be disloyal—the rebel General's declarati' ns ment, botli as a curiosity and to stamp its of “beauty and booty" were calculated to author's name with that infamy which is sure drive a less magnanimous foe to the commisto follow all dangerous pandering to the worst sion of violence in retaliation. But, through passions of deceived men:

all the struggle, prosecuted with unfeeling "HEAD-QUARTERS, DEP'T OF ALEXANDRIA,

rigor by the Southern leaders, even toward Camp Pickens, June 5th, 1861.

their own people, the Federal army, of in

vasion, appeared as the friend of its worst ene“ To the People of the Counties of Loudon, Fairfax, and mies. It found chaos, suffering, lawlessness Prince William:

everywhere as it advanced into the rebellious “ A reckless and unprincipled tyrant has invaded sections, only to restore law, order, business, your soil. Abraham Lincoln, regardless of all moral, and to give social peace. A more truly forlegal, and constitutional restraints, has thrown his Abolition hosts among you, who are murdering and

giving, lenient and chivalrous foe the world imprisoning your citizens, confiscating and destroy

never saw than the one which confronted the ing your property, and committing other acts of desperate men who sought to erect a Slave violence and outrage, too shocking and revolting to

aristocracy on the ruins of the Union and humanity to be enumerated.

Constitution.* “All rules of civilized warfare are abandoned, and * Those who write in the interest of Secession, of they proclaim by their acts, if not on their banners, course will deny this averment; but, we are quite that their war-cry is · Beauty and Booty.' All that willing to rest our statement on a showing of facts. is dear to man—your honor and that of your wives From the date of the President's Proclamation of and daughters-your fortunes and yonr lives, are April 15th, (1861,) down to his Proclamation an. involved in this momentous contest.

nouncing the terms of the Congressional Act of Con. “In the name, therefore, of the constituted au- fiscation (passed July 10th, 1862), but one spirit thorities of the Confederate States—in the sacred was betrayed toward the enemies of.the country--2 cause of constitutional liberty and self-government, spirit of forbearance and conciliation, to which time for which we are contending-in behalf of civiliza- will not fail to affix its seal of evidence that a truly tion itself, I, G. T. Beauregard, Brigadier-General of humane and Christian policy actuated the Federas the Confederate States, commanding at Camp Pick- Executive in its prosecution of the war.

A PROCLAMATION.

23

2

McDowell in
Commannd.

General Scott's Plan.

Brigadier-General Irwin campaign afterwards worked out. Though McDowell assumed com- changed in some of its details by his success

mand of the army of occu- ors, and modified by the force of circumpation May 27th. The military department stances, the War for the Union was proseof the Potomac was created May 28th, over cuted throughout upon the general plan dewhich he was placed. Its boundaries com- veloped by the Lieutenant-General in the prised the section of Virginia lying east of early stages of the struggle. It comprised the Alleghanies, and north of James River, simply a crowding of the enemy toward a exclusive of the Yorktown Peninsula and common centre. To this end camps were Fortress Monroe, where Major-General Butler formed at Cairo, Chambersburg, Washington then was in supreme command. McDowell and Fortress Monroe, from issued (June 2d) his orders (General Order each of which to advance; No. 4) requiring, from the commanders of while naval expeditions accomplishing the brigades and officers in charge of forti- captures of strong positions on the Atlantic fications, "statements of the amount, kind, and Gulf, would give points of occupation to and value of all private property taken and assail the revolutionists in the rear. The ased for Government purposes, and the dam- plan contemplated the early capture of age done in any way to private property by Charleston, Pensacola, Mobile and New reason of the occupation of this section of Orleans. the country by the United States troops." To the perfection of the gigantic means The Proclamation further stated: “The com- necessary to accomplish such results, the manders of brigades will make this order General-in-Chief bent all his energies--then known to the inhabitants in their vicinity, to impaired physically, but clear, strong and the end that all loss or damage may, as near- sagacious as ever, mentally. The storm of ly as possible, be ascertained while the troops invective with which the revolutionists met are now here, and by whom and on whose ac- the President's call for troops, and the dericount it has been occasioned, that justice may sion of his order for the malcontents to lay be done alike to the citizen and the Govern- down their arms and return peaceably to ment."

their homes within twenty days, were but This Proclamation was the key-note of minor evidences that the struggle to suppress Federal policy: "that justice may be done the rebellion must call forth all the resources alike to the citizen and the Government,” as of the Government. A truly Herculean strugBeauregard's wretched fulmination, burdened gle was impending. The tone of every Southwith falsehood and malice, was the key-note ern proclamation was warlike and defiant. of Confederate policy.

The spirit of peace had vanished, and, in its The movement into Virginia did not argue place, arose passions as ferocious as the huan early advance upon Richmond. The army man heart could well conceive and bring was too entirely unskilled in war; its equip- forth. Prodigious efforts were put forth by ments, artillery and means of transport were all the revolutionary leaders to throw into the inadequate to the forward movement which field, at once, an army of great magnitude must, of necessity, be made to suppress the and recuperative resources, All these coninsurrection." General Scott adapted means vinced the commanding General that haste,

to ends. He clearly com- or inconsiderate action mast peril the Capital

prehended the vastness of if not the country's very existence. He chose, his work, and labored diligently to acquire all therefore, the policy inaugurated by the the materiel to promote and insure success. movement into Virginia--of an occupation, to His slow massing of men ere long excited await the time when a well-trained army, complaint among those who preferred a short with plentiful resources should move forward campaign and hot work; but, the confidence to certain and effective victory. reposed in his judgment, by the Adminis- One other course he coulil have pursued-tration and the people, left him free to act that of early advance and rapid strokes at unrestrainedly. He planned the gigantic I every vulnerable point. This system best

66

General Scott's Plan.

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