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cate none other than the well-known purpose of the | until the abuse and violence of the mob beGovernor of this State, under whose orders you are acting, and whose purpose. recently communicated to the Legislature, has just been responded to by that body, in the most unparalleled legislation, hav

ing in direct view hostilities to the General Govern

ment, and co-operation with the enemy.

"In view of these considerations, and your failure to disperse in obedience to the proclamation of the President, and of the eminent necessity of State policy and welfare, and obligations imposed upon me by instructions from Washington, it is my duty to demand, and I hereby do demand of you an immediate surrender of your command with no other conditions than that all persons surrendering under this demand shall be humanely and kindly treated. Believing myself prepared to enforce this demand, one half hour's time before doing so will be allowed for your compliance therewith.

came intolerable. The seizure of this professedly State force and its equipments was a heavy blow to the revolutionists. That they designed to fall upon the city and to act as Captain Lyon indicated, was confirmed soon, A letter found in a very undoubted manner. upon the person of one of the prisoners—a Captain of the "Minute Men"—who was advised of the programme, said: "In a short time we shall have enough to bring the Union men or Black Republicans into our terms, or force them to leave the State. We have a Governor who is true blue. He is trying to get a bill through the Legislature that will bring them to terms. When we get, say from 4000 to 5000 Minute Men well armed, we shall be all ready for them.. We pulled the wool "Captain Second Infantry, Commanding Troops." over their eyes by making them think we The delivery of this let-only intended to stay in the camp six days. We intend to stay here till the Governor gets ter was followed so quickly all things right at Jefferson City. By that by the appearance of the Union forces that the State brigade could make no defense. It time we shall have all the men we want. We was disarmed, and taken bodily to the arsenal, together with the armament and entire property of the camp.*


Assault of the Mob.


shall force them into measures to suit us or leave the State. We are for the South."

The "unparalleled legislation" referred to On the return to the city of the volunteers by Captain Lyon consisted in acts appropriwith their prisoners, a vast mob gathered on ating over three millions of dollars to militathe route. Incited to violence by the Seces-ry uses, diverting for this purpose the entire sionists, an attack was made on the troops-Common School Fund for 1861, the moneys a-la Baltimore--when the volunteers of Colo- set apart to pay the July interest on the State nel Boernstein's regiment (German) fired, debt, &c., &c. Also in a military act, which killing twenty-two persons, among whom was placed dangerous and despotic power in the one woman. This deplorable disaster awak- Governor's hands, making it treason to speak ened intense excitement, but investigation against his authority, compelling every pershowed that the volunteers forebore their fire son to report for military duty who was liable by law, requiring the oath of allegiance to the State, &c., &c.

General Harney arrived

General Harney's

Among the articles enumerated as found in the camp were three 32-pounders, a large quantity of bombs and balls, several pieces of artillery in boxes, twelve hundred rifles of a late model, six brass field-in St. Louis May 12th. He pieces, six brass mortars, (6-inch,) one 10-inch iron immediately issued a promortar, three 6-inch iron cannon, several chests of clamation notifying the people and authorimuskets, five boxes canister shot, ninety-six 10-inch, ties of his presence and military power, callthree hundred 6-inch shells, twenty-five kegs of ing upon all persons to preserve the peace and powder, a large number of musket stocks and bar- obey the laws. May 14th he published an rels, between thirty and forty horses, and a consid- address relating particularly to his purposes erable quantity of camp tools. On the steamer in view of the hostile legislation, above referJ. C. Swan, seized by order of Captain Lyon, May red to. He directed public attention to the 24th, for carrying contraband of war, was found the military bill, which he pronounced to be an

register, showing that most of these arms and equip.

ments had come up the river from the Baton Rouge arsenal.


Ordinance of Secession without even the forms of procedure resorted to by other States,

General Harney's

The Reign of Violence

manifestly unconstitution- | leave this State forever, by the al, in conflict with the Con- 8th day of May, 1861; and evstitution of the United ery minute you remain thereStates and its laws, and therefore could not after will be at your peril. be sustained by all good citizens. He said: "Whatever may be the termination of the present condition of things in respect to the Cotton States, Missouri must share the destiny of the Union. All her material interests point to this result, and so important is this regarded to the great interests of the country, that I venture the opinion the whole power of the United States Government, if necessary, will be exerted to keep Missouri in the Union."

"Done in Council of Southern Legion, this 30th day of April, 1861."

A dispatch from St. Aubert, May 15th, read: "Last evening Dr. A. Y. Leimer of Liberty town

The breaking up of Camp Jackson, and the arrest of its occupants, he approved as an act of prudence and defense, since its openly treasonable nature left no doubts of its dangerous character. He said, in conclusion:

"Disclaiming all desire or intention to interfere with the prerogative of the State of Missouri, or with the functions of its Executive, yet I regard my plain path of duty to express to the people in respectful but decided language, that within the field

and scope of my command, the supreme law of the

land must and shall be maintained, and no subter

fuges whatever, in the form of legislative acts or

otherwise, can be permitted to harass or oppress the good, law-abiding people of Missouri. I shall exert my authority to protect their persons and property from violation of every kind, and shall deem it my duty to suppress all unlawful combinations of men, whether formed under a military or ganization or otherwise."

This did not promise well for secession; and the Governor found his pretty schemes for throwing the State into the revolution thwarted. General (ex-Governor) Sterling Price came to his aid, however; and, resorting to the usual secession policy of duplicity and treachery-qualities whose practice the Secessionists appeared to regard as virtues obtained from Harney concessions which threatened, for awhile, to place the despotism of Jackson in active operation.

As early as April 25th the reign of terrorista was inaugurated in the central and western portions of the State. Even in the north, near the Iowa line, the following document was served upon well known Union citizens: "SIR: You are considered hostile to the interests of this community, and you are hereby notified to

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ship, near Osage bridge, was arrested by orders, and sent to camp at Jefferson City, to be tried by martial law, on charge of raising a Union company. The mounted forces are after several others of the same township on the same charge."


It was stated, early in May, that hundreds of the better class of residents of Northern and Central Missouri were fleeing into Iowa for protection against the scoundrels — the veritable "border ruffians”—directed to acts of violence by the emissaries of the secession leaders at Jefferson City. St. Louis became thick with these "refugees," whose losses and sufferings form one of the most painful episodeş in the history of the rebellion. brutal and so summary were the proceedings of those "conservators of Southern interests," that Missouri would, unquestionably, have rapidly followed Arkansas in joining the Confederacy, had not the city of St. Louis and its Free State populace (composed largely of Germans) stood like a pillar of fire between the Egyptians of barbarism and the Land of Promise. Frank P. Blair and B. Gratz Brown were the Moses and Aaron of that Deliverance.

The Missouri Brigade.

It was announced, May 14th, that "the first four regiments of Missouri volunteers, under command of Colonels Blair, Boernstein, Sigel and Schultner, have been formed into a brigade, under the style of the First Brigade of Missouri Volunteers, and Captain Lyon has been elected Brigadier-General Commanding. General Lyon accepted the position, and retains command of these regiments by authority of the President." This promotion of Captain Lyon met the approval of all loyalists. In the discharge of his onerous and responsible duties assigned him as chief officer in com mand at St. Louis prior to General Harney's arrival, Captain Lyon had comported himself with so much prudence, and had shown such unflinching firmness in repressing disloyal combinations, that the Unionists regarded



him as quite necessary to their success. The important and responsible command bestowed upon him was merited.

The Case of Captain

Among those taken prisoners at Camp Jackson was Captain Emmet McDonald, late of the U. S. Mounted Rifles. Having refused to swear allegiance to the United States or to accept his release on parole, he was confined in close quarters at the arsenal, as a prisoner of war. Learning that an application was to be made for his release on a writ of habeas corpus, he was conveyed over the river on the night of May 13th. This averted the test trial of the constitutional rights of the citizen-a test the Secessionists were as anxious to apply as the Secessionists of Baltimore, in the case of Merryman, anxious that Judge Taney should create a direct issue between the military and civil powers of the Government.


The Harney and Price

The arrangement referred to between Generals Har

therefore enjoin upon the people to attend to their civil business, and expressed the hope that the unjust elements which have threatened so seriously to disturb the public peace may soon subside, and be remembered only to be deplored."

The Harney and Price

As one of the first fruits of this shrewdly conceived secession ruse to place the control of affairs in the hands of Price and the "Minute Men," on the afternoon of May 22d the Stars and Stripes, elevated before the Post Office in St. Joseph, were torn down, the flag destroyed and the pole thrown into the river. An American flag flying at Turner's Hall, in the same place, was ordered down. The "authorities" resolved in solemn council to allow no American flag to fly in their domain! That city is in the very north-west corner of the State-as far north as the latitude of the capitals of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. The persecutions of Union men were not stayed in the least, but from all sections

and will do everything in his power, consistently with his

ney and Price was made instructions, to preserve peace and order. May 21st, at St. Louis. The "plan" agreed upon was thus announced:

"He is, however, compelled to recognize the existence of a rebellion in a portion of the United States, and in view of it he stands upon the proclamation of the President, itself based upon the law and the Constitution of the United States.

"The proclamation commands the dispersion of all armed bodies hostile to the supreme law of the land.

"General Harney sees in the Missouri Military bill features

They mutually declare a common object, that of restoring peace and good order to the people of the State, subordination to the laws of the General and State Governments, and unite in recommending all persons to respect each other's rights through- which compel him to look upon such armed bodies as may be out the State, and make no attempt to exercise unauthorized powers, as it is the determination of the proper authorities to suppress all unlawful proceedings, which can only disturb the public peace.

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organized under its provisions, as antagonistic to the United States within the meaning of the proclamation, and calculated to precipitate a conflict between the State and the United States troops.

"He laments this tendency of things, and most cordially and earnestly invites the co-operation of General Price to avert it.

"For this purpose, General Harney respectfully asks General Price to review the features of the bill in the spirit of law, warmed and elevated by that of humanity, and seek to discover some means by which its action may be suspended

General Price pledged the whole power of the State officers to maintain order among the people of the State, and General Harney declares that this object being assured, he can have no occasion, as he has no wish, to make military movements, which might otherwise create excitement and jealousies until some competent tribunal shall decide upon its charwhich he most earnestly desires to avoid.* They

To do Harney full justice, and state his own interpretation to the agreement, we are called upon to give the "memorandum" remitted by him to Price, before their interview, embodying his views and the only terms of arrangement which he could or would make, viz.:


"MAY 21st, 1861. "General Harney is here as a citizen of Missouri, with all his interests at stake in the preservation of the peace of the State.


"The most material features of the bill calculated to bring about a conflict, are, first, the oath required to be taken by the militi and State Guards'-(an oath of allegiance to the State of Missouri, without recognizing the existence of the Government of the United States ;) and secondly, the express requirement, by which troops within the State, not organized under the provisions of the military bill, are to be dis armed by the State Guards.

"General Harney cannot be expected to wait a summons to surrender his arms by the State troops.

"From this statement of the case, the true question be comes immediately visible, and cannot be shut out of view. "General Price is earnestly requested to consider this, and General Harney will be happy to confer with him on the

"He earnestly wishes to do nothing to complicate matters; subject whenever it may suit his convenience.”

Price's Circular.

of the State soon the cry went forth for help. | little disappointment in the
Government, evidently, proposed to discard suspension, by the Federal
the arrangement entered into. It dispatched Government, of Harney. He added:
a regiment down to Bird's Point, May 29th,
to cover the Cairo encampment and to afford
the Unionists of that section the protection
of the Federal Government.
Nor was Harney long
Harney's Recall.
left in command. The ar-
rangement with Price was entirely rejected
by the authorities at Washington; its accept-
ance would have conceded the right of State
neutrality, and gave the force of a concession
to an Executive whose entire course toward
the Federal Government had thus far been
characterized by treason and defiance. Har-
ney's removal had been determined upon,
and ordered, as early as May 16th; but, for
some not apparent reason, the notice of sus-
pension was withheld. The reception, at
Washington, of the terms of agreement with
Price, caused the immediate dispatch of the
notice of May 16th. May 31st Harney an-
nounced his want of authority in the Depart-would be resisted to the last extremity.
ment of the West. He was succeeded by
General Nathaniel Lyon.

"The Federal Government, however, has thought proper to remove General Harney from the com mand of the Department of the West; but as the successor of General Harney will certainly consider himself and his Government in honor bound to carry out this agreement in good faith, I feel assured that his removal should give no cause of uneasiness to our citizens for the security of their liberties and property. I intend, on my part, to adhere both to its spirit and letter.

June 4th, Sterling Price Price's Circular. issued a circular directed "to the Brigadier-Generals commanding the several Military Districts in Missouri," in the course of which he thus adverted to his views of the agreement with Harney:

"The rumors in circulation that it is the intention of the officer now in command of this depot to disarm those of our citizens who do not agree in opinion with the Administration at Washington, and put arms in the hands of those who, in some localities of this State, are supposed to sympathize with the views of

the Federal Government, are, I trust, unfounded.

"The purpose of such a movement could not be

misunderstood, and it would not only be a palpable violation of the agreement referred to, and an equal

ly plain violation of our constitutional rights, but a gross indignity to the citizens of the State, which

'My wish and hope is, that the people of the State of Missouri be permitted in peace and security to decide upon their future course, and so far as my abil ities can effect this object, it shall be accomplished. "The people of Missouri cannot be forced, under the terrors of a military invasion, into a position not of their free choice.

"A million of such people as the citizens of Missouri were never yet subjugated, and if attempted. let no apprehensions be entertained of the result." The arrogance and openly expressed treason of this document certainly indi

General Lyon's Movements.

"Having taken no steps toward dissolving our connection with the Federal Government, there was no reason whatever of disturbing the peace and tranquillity of Missouri. I have therefore desired, and such I am authorized has been, and still is, the desire of the Chief Executive under whose orders Icated to General Lyon that, if he would preacted, that the people of Missouri should exercise serve Missouri, no delay should occur in the occupation of the strong strategic points. He immediately conferred with the War Department by telegraph and special messengers, and arranged to throw regiments forward to Springfield, Kansas City and Jefferson City, strengthening Bird's Point and occupying

the right to choose their own position in any contest which might be forced upon them, unaided by any military force whatever. The right to bear arms in defense of themselves and of their State cannot be questioned, secured, as it is, by both the Constitution of the United States and of this State.


"For the purpose, therefore, of securing to the people of Missouri a free exercise of their undoubted rights, and with a view to preserve peace and order Obtaining an inkling of the contemplated throughout the State, an agreement has been enter- movements, and to gain time for the furthered into between General Harney and myself, which I ance of his schemes, Governor Jackson and consider alike honorable to both parties and govern- Price solicited an interview with General ments represented." Lyon, to "try to come to an understanding." But the ex-Governor had to confess to a Lyon cheerfully consented and issued his or


der for their safe transit to and from St. | could put forth a formidaLouis, viz.:


"It having been suggested that Governor Claiborne F. Jackson and ex-Governor Sterling Price

are desirous of an interview with General Lyon, commanding this Department, for the purpose of effect

ing, if possible, a pacific solution of the domestic troubles of Missouri, it is hereby stipulated on the part of Brigadier-General N. Lyon, U. S. A., commanding this military Department, that, should Governor Jackson and ex-Governor Sterling Price, of either of them, at any time prior to, or on the 12th day of June, 1861, visit St. Louis for the purpose of such interview, they and each of them shall be free from molestation or arrest on account of any charge pending against them, or either of them, on the part of the United States, during their journey to St.

Louis, their stay at St. Louis, and their return from

St. Louis to Jefferson City.

“Given under the hand of the General commanding, the day and year above written.

"N. LYON, Brigadier-General Commanding." The State officials arrived

Interview between
Jackson, Price and


in St. Louis, by special train, June 11th, when the interview took place - General Lyon and Colonel Blair, accompanied by Major Conant, calling at the hotel. The substance of its proceedings may be thus stated: Price, speaking for the Governor, demanded that no armed bodies of United States troops should pass through, or be stationed in, the Stateassuming that Governor Jackson would then disband his own troops and give protection to all classes of men alike. The ex-Governor denied that he had ever entertained any other idea of State Rights, and asserted that his agreement with Harney was explicit on these points. When asked about the Harney memorandum he denied any knowledge of it. The document itself was produced. It was subscribed:

"N. B. Read to General Price, in the presence of Major Turner, on the evening of May 21st."

The official was disconcerted, but insisted


Interview between
Jackson, Price and

ble opposition to the General Government, and even without arming, combinations would doubtless form in certain localities, to oppress and drive out loyal citizens, to whom the Government was bound to give protection, but which it would be helpless to do, as also to repress such combinations, if its forces could not be sent into the State. A large aggressive force might be formed and advanced from the exterior into the State, to assist in carrying out the secession programme, and the Government could not, under the limitation proposed, take posts on these borders to meet and repel such force. The Government could not shrink from its duties nor abdicate its corresponding rights; and, in addition to the above, it was the duty of its civil officers to execute civil process; and, in case of resistance. to receive the support of military force. The proposition of the Governor would at once overturn the Government privileges and prerogatives which he (General Lyon) had neither the wish nor authority to do. In his opinion, if the Governor and the State authorities would earnestly set about to maintain the peace of the State, and declare their purposes to resist outrages upon loyal citizens of the Government, and repress insurrections against it, and in case of violent combinations needing co-operation of the United States troops, they should call upon or accept such assistance, and in case of threatened invasion, the Government troops took suitable posts to meet it, the purposes of the Government would be subserved, and no infringement of State rights or dignity committed. He would take good care in such faithful co-operation of the State authorities to this end, that no individual should be injured in person or property, and that the utmost delicacy should be observed toward all peaceable persons con

cerned in these relations.

These were the views of a clear head and

upon his points as the only basis for a peace. a loyal heart; upon them the General might Lyon, of course, repudiated the demands as rest his case with any court than one radicalalike preposterous and treasonable. He as-ly disloyal. The two State functionaries sumed that, if the Government withdrew its forces entirely, secret and subtle measures would be resorted to to provide arms and effect organizations which, upon any pretext,

wanted to debate the question, but Lyon cut off debate by urging that he could not and would not accept any other view. Price (bent upon obtaining time) asked to open a

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