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the troops organizing in New York City, / soon found reason to feel that General Scott under State orders.
meant offense as well as defense. All these commands were The passage of troops Disposition of North
The First Regimente assigned to men qualified | from the Eastern and Mideru Troops.
on Duty. for the field. The im- dle States during the fourth : mense aggregation of troops at Washington, week of April, fully tasked the ability of the Fortress Monroe, and at the camps in Penn- railways and available steam-transports. The sylvania and the Western States, rendered New York Seventy-first, Twelfth and Sixth field officers for superior command imme- sailed Sunday, April 21st, followed by the diately called for. The activity of the rebels Rhode Island First. All these regiments arleft no cloubt of their purposes to surround rived, under convoy of the gun boat Ilarriet Washington by a net-work of available ap- Lane, off Annapolis, April 23d, to find just proaches, with the eventual design of seizing entering the harbor the Massachusetts Fifth. Maryland, and thus to become possessors of Within six days Massachusetts had placed the National Capital. To this not very well en route for the Capital five full regiments of laid scheme of advance the Federal General- infantry, a battalion of rifles and a finely in-Chief interposed his well-arranged plan equipped battery of six guns. for removing the scene of hostilities into the April 23d, the Sixty-ninth, Thirteenth and rebel territory. The concentration at For- Eighth regiments New York militia left for tress Monroe gave occupation to the enemy | Annapolis. As an evidence particularly of for a large “army of observation” at Nor- the spirit of loyalty pervading the Irish-Amerfolk, Hampton and Yorktown, to guard the ican citizens, we may mention the fact that approaches to Richmond. The large camp sixty-five hundred names were enrolled on the at Chambersburg so evidently menaced Har- lists of the Sixty-ninth, from which the Colo. per's Ferry and covered the west of Mary- nel, Corcoran, had to choose the one thousand land, as to make it necessary for the rebels and ten men required. to create an “army of observation” at the April 24th, the New York militia regiFerry and at Leesburg. The occupation of ment, the Twenty-fifth, from Albany, was in Cairo, April 20th, and a concentration at that the city, en route for Annapolis. One hundred point of a strong force under Colonel Pren- and seventy-five recruits for the New York tiss, made it evident that any expedition up Seventh, also sailed in the steamer Daylight, the Ohio or Mississippi would fail; and com- direct for Washington, under charge of Cappelled the formation at Hickman and Colum- tain Viele. This steamer reached the Capital bus of another “army of observation.” Gov- on the morning of April 28th, being the first ernor Yates of Illinois, in announcing the rea- passage up the Potomac of a transport with sons for the occupancy of Cairo, by Special | troops.* Message to the Legislature, said : “Simul
* Colonel Schouler, Adjutant-General of Massachutaneously with the receipt of the order from setts, dispatched Captain Dodd of the Third battal. the War Department for the movement, reli- ion of rifles, May 1st, on the propeller Cambridge, able information reached me of the existence with orders to proceed up the Potomac. The order of a conspiracy by disaffected persons in other said: “It is the earnest desire of the Governor that States to seize upon Cairo and the southern the ship Cambridge shall reach Washington, and portion of the Illinois Central railroad, and demonstrate that a Massachusetts ship, armed with thus cut off communication with the interior Massachusetts men, shall be the first to arrive by of the State.” The appointment of McClel- that route, as our Sixth regiment was the first to
arrive at Washington through the hostile city of Bal. lan to the command of the Department of
timore.” The order was fulfilled, and the Cambridge the Ohio was made with reference to a cam
landed her troops in Washington May 3d; but the paign in Western Virginia, to assist the honor of the first arrival, by the Potomac, belongs Wheeling Convention in re-establishing the to Captain Viele and the New York Seventh. The loyal Government, and to drive out of that | Colonel also is in error in ascribing to Massachusetts section of the State all forces and local or- the honor of having been the first at the Capital ganizations of the Secessionists. The enemy | with her troops. To Pennsylvania belongs that
The military occupation as it was demoralizing to the dignity of free of Maryland already has labor and honest industry. been aclverted to. [See Among these we should
The Winans' Family. Chap. VI.] The watchfulness of Butler's mention the family of Witroops kept the would-be revolutionists in anans, whose great wealth and eminent social condition of apprehension more exciting than position gave it a wide influence. The progratifying to them. Finding that the mili- prietors of extensive iron works, the Winans' tary force present in and around Baltimore controlled a large number of laboring men was equal to the suppression of any attempt- and mechanics-rendering them powerful, as ed demonstration against the Union, the Se their wealth made them dangerous, foes to cessionists sought to aid and comfort their their country. Their large foundry was closcause by such secret means as lay in their ed to the wants of the Federal Government, power. Men were enlisted for the Southern but open to the enemy. Their money was army, and daily left for Harper's Ferry in not wanting when the Southern cause desquads. This enlistment was not discour-manded. Against their baleful influence aged by the Federal authorities, for every re-Government was constrained soon to exert cruit made one less cut-throat to deal with its fullest authority. The men whose sympathies for the South May 11th, Butler was informed of the paswere most violently expressed, belonged, as sage from Baltimore to Frederick, en route a general thing, to a class of rowdies whose to Harper's Ferry, of a suspicious-looking reign in Baltimore had given the “Monu-box mounted on a carriage. It was seized mental City" an unenviable reputation for by his order, and found to contain the Widisorder, and their absence was a source of nans' Steam Gun-an ugly weapon, designed no regret to any friend of good government to movo down ranks of men at each sweep of There were, however, a number of old fami- its exhaustless tube. Ross Winans himself, lies in that city whose attachment to the the head of the family, was arrested by order South and its peculiar institution was strong of General Butler at the Relay House, May er than their love for the Union, and in them 14th, on his return from the just adjourned the Government found its most virulent en- session of the Legislature, of which he was a emies. Their at first open demonstrations prominent member. Against this arrest Govagainst the Federal authority soon assumed ernor Ilicks again “protested” by exerting a more secret course of proceedings. It was bimself for Winans' release, but Butler placed their influence which controlled the revolu- the old gentleman under guard until he could tionary Legislature. Their power Governor confer with the authorities at Washington. Hicks was made to fear. Their money, freely The day prior to this
Final Occupation of used, armed the secret societies which were evidently pre-determined afterwards discovered to exist throughout arrest of the old conspirathe State, giving the military considerable tor, Butler occupied the city with a force employment in ferreting out depots of arms. comprising the Boston Light Artillery, MaTheir infiuence swayed the police of Balti- jor Cook; a strong detachment of the Sixth more and rendered it necessary, after a brief Massachusetts regiment, Colonel Jones; and period, to suspend that organization entirely. about five hundred men of the New York Although but a mere score in numbers, as in Eighth, Lieutenant-Colonel Waltenburg. The other sections of the Slave States those “old camp chosen was on Federal Hill. This step families” exercised a sway as unaccountable was preliminary to the occupation of Patter
son's Park and Murray Hill-heights which honor. She had over four hundred troops at Washington, on the morning of the fourth day after the placed the city entirely under the guns of the issue of the President's Proclamation, the Massachu. Federal troops, and covered Fort McHenry setts troops reaching the Capital on the evening of
on the land side. As all these positions were that day, the 19th. These are immaterial points ; higher than the Fort, their possession by an but, as the pride of States is concerned, we prefer enemy would render that fine work untento recite the facts with precision.
able; and as the Confederates had arranged
for a Maryland campaign, the necessity for true position in the premises, I respectfully ask a the occupation and entrenching was appa- suspension of judgment until a sufficient time be rent. Butler's proclamation (May 14th) was afforded me to collect the necessary proof, and show pervaded with the decision of a stern mili
as I shall be able to do, most conclusively, that the tary commandant, but it brought a sense of
destruction of the bridges was a part of the conspirsecurity and of protection. His occupation
acy of those acting against the Government, and
was known and proclaimed in other parts of the of the city was welcomed by the great ma
State before the destruction was consommated, But jority of its people. The entry of the troops any person who knows my opinion of George P. into the city was the occasion of much re
Kane and Enoch L. Lowe, will at once admit that I joicing. The Baltimore Clipper said: “On would be very slow to assent to any proposition the route to the Hill the streets were throng- emanating from or endorsed by them. Their introed with people, who greeted the military duction into my chamber at the late hour of the with cheers at every step, the ladies at the night, to urge my consent to the perpetration of an windows and doors joining in the applause unlawful act, was not calculated to convince me of by waving their handkerchiefs.” This re- the propriety or necessity of that act. Men do not ception came from the citizens, from house- readily take counsel of their enemies." holders, those who had all at stake in the
After the occupation of the Relay House preservation of law and order, and was,
and Baltimore, troops from the North passed doubtless, all the more hearty from the ex
freely, by railroad, to the Capital, by the perience of mob-law and violence which had Northern Central and Wilmington routes. so nearly ruined the city. From the date of The Baltimore and Ohio road was not open that proclamation the cloud which had even for passenger travel, after the 12th of overshadowed the city began to dissipate, May—the possession of Harper's Ferry giving but it was long before the place recovered the Confederates entire control of the track. from the malign effects of its twenty days Up to that date, the trains ran irregularly, of treason and rebellion.
and with some restrictions; but, the blowing Large seizures of arms up of culverts to the west of the Potomac, Large Seizures of
followed the advent of compelled the entire through traffic of the Butler's forces. May 14th,
road to cease. it was ascertained that a vessel lay at the
May 16th, Butler was relieved of the comdock loaded ready for Virgivia. Being board- mand of the Department of Annapolis—have ed by an officer, she was found to contain a ing been created Major-General, with orders cargo of Minie rifles and about four thousand to repair to Fortress Monroe. Brigadier-Genpikes, from Winans' machine shops. The eral of Pennsylvania volunteers, Cadwallader, vessel was removed to the vicinity of Fort was placed in command of the vacated DeMcHenry. The same day Butler relieved partment, head-quarters at Fort McHenry, Marshal Kane of a large quantity of arms
in Baltimore. found stored in a warehouse, consisting of
That the Federal Government proposed a fifteen dray loads of carbines, flint-lock mus
war of offense in its own defense became kets and pikes, from Winans' shops. All were evident by the middle of May. Butler was taken to Fort McHenry. The opposition of placed in command at Fortfered by this Superintendent of Police, Geo. ress Monroe for active opeP. Kane, and his complicity with treason, rations. Fifteen thousand soon induced his arrest and incarceration in troops—including all the Massachusetts cona military jail. Governor Hicks for some tingents and several of the New York militia
days rested under the odi- regiments—were placed at his disposal and um of having ordered, or
soon found themselves in quarters at the er. assented to, the destruction tremity of the York peninsula. When this of the railway bridges. He denied this, and movement was ordered, Scott had definitively gave his opinion of this Kane as follows: arranged for the descent over the Potomac,
“If the Mayor's communication and accompanying and only awaited the election in Virginia, certificates have induced any person to doubt my (May 23d,) to order the first step forward of
The Federal Govern
the campaign. The heavy concentration of and the Adams’Express North. If Govern. troops at Washington looked less like defense ment had examined the secret archives of than advance. The seizure, May 20th, of that carrier company, it would doubtless have telegraphic dispatches, indicated a determi- obtained enlarged ideas of its industry and nation to ferret out all secret conspirators usefulness to the South. yet at work in the North—a stroke of policy Before chronicling the movements over the which quite as greatly terrified the manufac- Potomac initiated by the advance of May turers and importers of arms, as the hidden 24th, it will be necessary to advert to the enemies of the Government. Up to the last progress of affairs in Virginia, Tennessee, moment, when delivery by Adams' Express North Carolina, Arkansas Kentucky and was practicable, the operators in fire-arms Missouri—the first four to place themselves had freely filled Southern orders, and the beside the South, the latter two to vacillate Express Company had freely transported the and experiment with “neutrality," but finally "goods” to their Southern branch lines. to act out their really loyal sentiments by When the moment came for cutting off all giving a hearty support to the Federal Adcommunication with the Southern States in ministration. The narrative is one of melanrebellion, the Express Company preserved its choly interest, but one offering “food for chartered rights by splitting the corporation thought,” and rich with a moral which the into two sections—the Adams' Express South | future may render available.
How the Ordinance
How the Ordinanoo
THE secession of Vir- , tirely in consonance with ginia has been chronicled. the malign spirit which had
[See page 92 for the Ordi- controlled the secession renance.] The act was accomplished, in secret volution in other States. No sooner was the session of the Convention, April 17th, by a vote on the Ordinance recorded than legislavote of 60 to 53. That it was passed at all tive steps were taken to convey the State to the was owing to threat, bribery, intimidation, Confederate Government. April 25th, Govand a free use of the parliamentary “gag." ernor Letcher proclaimed the passage, by the l'p to that moment the Union men had stood Convention, of an Ordinance adopting the Profirm, and were then placed in the minority visional Constitution of the Confederate States, only by the system of terrorism resorted to and announcing, also, that the Convention by Governor Wise and his adherents to force had agreed to a "convention between the the State into the vortex. The unusual con- Commonwealth of Virginia and the Confedcession was granted of submitting the Ordi- erate States!" If the Unionists in the State Dance to a vote of the people, (May 23d;) had believed that the people were to decide but, this concession was merely to secure the the question of secession they were now un. votes of a few wavering men. Events which deceived. Their State was transferred to the quickly followed demonstrated that it was a Southern Confederacy, and the proposed voto deception of an infamous character-one en- on the Ordinance became, from that hour,
the merest mockery. We place on record | same occur, turn over to said
The Deed of Transfer those two precious documents sealing Vir- | Confederate States all the pub
&c., ginia's doom and registering the dishonor of lic property, naval stores, and munitions of war, her controlling men :
she may then be in possession of, acquired from the * An ordinance for the adoption United States, on the same terms and in like man. The Deed of Transfer. of the Constitution of the Pro
ner as the other States of said Confederacy have
done in like cases. visional Government of the Confederate Siates of
" 3d. Whatever expenditures of money, if any, America.
said Commonwealth of Virginia shall make before “We, the delegates of the people of Virginia, in
the Union under the Provisional Government, as Convention assembled, solemnly impressed by the
above contemplated, shall be consummated, shall perils which surround the Commonwealth, and ap
be met and provided for by said Confederate States. pealing to the Searcher of Hearts for the rectitude ur intentions in assuming the grave responsi
" This convention was entered into and agreed to in
the city of Richmond, Virginia, on the twenty-fourth bility of this act, do by this ordinance, adopt and ralify the Constitution of the Provisional Government day of April, 1861, by Alexander H. Stephens, the of the Confederate States of America, ordained and duly authorized Commissioner to act in the matter established at Montgomery, Alabama, on the eighth for the said Confederate States, and John Tyler,
William Ballard Preston, Samuel McD. Moore, James day of February, eighteen hundred and sixty-one ;
P. Holcombe, James C. Bruce, and Lewis E. Harvie, provided that this ordinance shall cease to have
any legal operation or effect if the people of this Com- parties duly authorized to act in like manner for
said Commonwealth of Virginia ; the whole subject monwealth, upon the vote directed to be taken on
to the approval and ratification of the proper au. the ordinance of secession passed by this Conven
thorities of both Governments respectively. tion, on the seventeenth day of April, eighteen hundred and sixty-one, shall reject the same.
“In testimony whereof, the parties aforesaid have
hereto set their hands and seals the day and “ A true copy. “ JNO. L. EUBANK, Secretary.”
year aforesaid and at the place aforesaid, in
duplicate originals. “ Convention between the Commonwealth of Virginia and
“ ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS, [Seal.) the Confederate States of America.
“ Commissioner for Confederate States. “ The Commonwealth of Virginia, looking to a
“ JOHN TYLER, speedy union of said Commonwealth and the other
[Seal.) Slave States with the Confederate States of America,
“ WM. BALLARD PRESTON, [Seal.] according to the provisions of the Constitution for
“ S. McD. MOORE,
[Seal.) the Provisional Government of said States, enters
“ JAMES P. HOLCOMBE, [Seal.) into the following temporary convention and agree.
“ JAMES C. BRUCE,
[Seal.] ment with said States, for the purpose of meeting
“ LEWIS E. HARVIE,
[Seal.] pressing exigencies affecting the common rights, in
“ Commissioners for Virginia. terests, and safety of said Commonwealth and said “ Approved and ratified by the Convention of Confederacy.
Virginia, on the 25th day of April, 1861. “ 1st. Until the union of said Commonwealth with
“ JOHN JANNEY, President. said Confederacy shall be perfected, and said Com
“ JOHN L. EUBANK, Secretary." monwealth shall become a member of said Confed- Troops actually were ordered to Richmond eracy, according to the Constitution of both powers, from Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina the whole military force and military operations, before the date of “ ratification” of this conoffensive and defensive, of said Commonwealth, in tract of sale, and, by April 25th, several regithe impending conflict with the United States, shall ments were en route for the Northern renbe under the chief control and direction of the Pres. dezvous at Richmond. ident of said Confederate States, upon the same
The reign of terror was principles, basis, and footing as if said Common
The Reign of Terror.
now fairly inaugurated. wealth were now, and during the interval, a member
Union men were silenced; Northern men doing of said Confederacy.
“ 24. The Commonwealth of Virginia will, after business, or having settled, in Virginia, were the consummation of the union contemplated in this compelled to flee, leaving everything in the Convention, and her adoption of the Constitution way of property to the mercy of the mob. for a Permanent Gover ment of said Confederate One who fled from the scene of violence May States, and she shall become a member of said Con 1st, wrote: “Northern and ultra Union men federacy under said Permanent Constitution, if the began to leave the State in large numbers,