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State of War.

State of War.


that she is manned and armed | maintenance of such persons Act Recognizing a

Act Recognizing a according to her commission ; as may be wounded and disa

and, upon delivery of such cer- bled on board of the private tificate, any former certificate of a like nature which armed vessels commissioned as aforesaid, in any enshall have been obtained by the commander of such gagement with the enemy, to be assigned and dis. vessel shall be delivered up.

tributed in such manner as shall hereafter be pro“Sec. 12. That the commanders of vessels having vided by law." letters of marque and reprisal as aforesaid, neglect- The Military Act also passed at an early ing to keep a journal as aforesaid, or willfully mak. date, empowered the President to accept all ing fraudulent entries therein, or obliterating the volunteers offering, whether cavalry, mountrecord of any material transactions therein, where ed riflemen, artillery or infantry, no matter the interest of the Confederate States is concerned, where enlisted, nor whether they came in or refusing to produce and deliver such journal, companies or organized battalions—the Prescommission, or certificate pursuant to the preceding ident to name all the officers, and to accept section of this act, then and in such cases the commissions or letters of marque and reprisal of such the troops for the term of the "existing war.” vessels shall be liable to be revoked: and such com

Virginia was admitted to the Southern mander respectively shall forfeit for every such of Confederacy, in secret session of the Montfense the sum of one thousand dollars, one moiety gomery Congress, May 6th, and her delegates thereof for the use of the Confederate States, and admitted to seats. Messrs. Hunter, Rives, the other to the informer.

Brockenborough, Staples and Cameron were “Sec. 13. That the owners or commanders of named as such delegates. The Confederate vessels having letters of marque and reprisal as Government had, however, closed its conaforesaid, who shall violate any of the acts of Contract for the State upon the occasion of Mr. gress for the collection of the revenue of the Con- Stephens' visit to Richmond in April; for federate States, and for the prevention of smuggling, we find the centralization of troops ordered shall forfeit the commission or letters of marque and

in Virginia openly, immediately after the reprisal, and they and the vessels owned or com

passage of the Ordinance. manded by them shall be liable to all the penalties

[It was not necessary to wait for the peoand forfeitures attaching to merchant vessels, in like

ple to vote on that Ordinance. The Confed. “ Sec. 14. That on all goods, wares, and mer

erates were in full possession of the State chandise captured and made good and lawful prizes (and meant to be so) before the day of that of war, by any private armed ship having commis- vote; and thus, when the day came, to vote sion or letters of marque and reprisal under this act, the Union ticket was to court arrest and and brought into the Confederate States, there shall confiscation! But more of this hereafter.] be allowed a reduction of thirty-three and a third per By April 30th about ten thousand troops cent. on the amount of duties imposed by law.

were en route or in rendezvous for Virginia, “Sec. 15. That five per centum on the net amount The State was farmed out by the dignitaries (after deducting all charges and expenditures) of at Montgomery with as much deliberation the prize money arising from captured vessels and

as if the “mother of Presidents" had been cargoes, and on the net amount of the salvage of

one of the Original Seven. “To prevent vessels and cargoes recaptured by the private arm

confusion," the Confederate Secretary of War ed vessels of the Confederate States, shall be secur. ed and paid over to the collector or other chief offi. gave Major-General Robert E. Lee control of cer of the customs at the port or place in the Con all forces of the Confederate States in Virfederate States at which such captured or recap- ginia, May 10th-a temporary concession to tured vessels may arrive, or to the consul or other the sensibilities of the Virginians, who rather public agent of the Confederate States, residing at fretted to find their State independence utthe port or place, not within the Confederate States, terly swallowed up in the supremacy of the at which such captured or recaptured vessels may Southern power. General Lee, ere long, was arrive. And the moneys arising therefrom shall be superseded by General Beauregard; Richmond held, and are hereby pledged by the Government became the “Capital” of the Confederate of the Confederate States as a fund for the support States, and Virginia independence was among and maintenance of the widows and orphans of such persons as may be slain, and for the support and

A school-boy's talo, tho wonder of an hour."


The things that were



The Confederate

May 14th, the Congress passed a resolution that they were expected to invest a few score calling upon their President to name a day of bales, each, in the “National fund.” This for fasting and prayer. This was done in vitalized the bonds for a brief period; but, open session. As only acts of secondary im- Southern intelligence soon began to compreportance were done in open session, the in-hend the true nature of the transaction :- The ference was natural that the resolution was cotton depots might be found wanting of harmless—an inference strengthened by the cotton when the day of redemption came. fact that the usual word humiliation was Thus, the Confederate authorities were ciromitted from the invocation. That word cumscribed by the "lack of a generous confiwas too offensive to Southern ears to be used dence in their ability to meet every emergenin a resolve of their Congress.

cy"; and, adopting the shinplaster policy of May 17th, the Congress States, corporations and individuals through

authorized the issue of fifty out the South, the Government relieved its Exchequer.

millions of dollars in Con- “pressing necessities” by the emission of federate bonds, payable in twenty years at an Treasury notes to a perfectly limitless extent. interest not to exceed eight per cent-twenty It need not amaze another generation that millions of Treasury notes to issue in lieu of such a baseless currency really became the bonds, without interest, of small denomina- circulating medium. To refuse a Treasury tions for general circulation, if the needs of note was to incur the odium of disloyalty and the Departments required. It was a wise to run the risk of arrest; therefore, in selfsubstitution, The needs of the Departments defense, the currency was accepted.

Gold did require the twenty millions, and the ere long became unknown in the hannels of Treasury notes soon became “generally circu- trade; the extraordinary. premium which it lated," as very few persons cared to keep them soon commanded was not able to draw it from longer than necessary. The remaining thirty its secret hiding-places. The history of the millions did not sell well--in fact, were not Confederate currency system, if it can be to be sold through the ordinary monetary pro- truthfully written, must prove one of the.cucesses, and further legislation was afterwards riosities of modern literature. resorted to to provide a basis for redemption A second financial scheme in order to give the bonds the validity of se-adopted by the Congress,

Northern Claims. curity. But what security could the Confed- and approved by Jefferson erate Government give? It had no property Davis—the person most instrumental in in--it was but an experiment--the State Rights ducing Mississippi to go into repudiationdoctrine stripped it of the power of State or was the act "prohibiting Southern persons, local taxation—the blockade rendered the owing moneys to Northern creditors, from tariff receipts nothing; and thus, there was paying the same to such creditors, and proonly “ Southern honor" for security. But, viding for the payment of the sums due such even that intangible basis of redemption was creditors into the Treasury of the Confederate suspected. The men who had participated States.” As about one hundred and twenty in the celebrated repudiation of Mississippi millions of dollars were due to commercial indebtedness—thereby rendering many a con- men alone, in the North, this act, if it could fiding capitalist in Europe and America a be enforced—as it was to some extent-would beggar-were not implicitly trusted, even by give the Confederates pocket-money for some those who had been benefited by the act of time. What with arsenals robbed, forts seized, repudiation; hence, the sale of the bonds was mints, custom-houses and post-offices appropridespairingly slow:—like the snake coming out ated, and Northern debts confiscated, the Conof its state of torpidity-it seemed as if there federate Government started off with very fair Lever would be sun enough to warm it into life. prospects of " meeting every emergency”; but,

Later in the day the shrewd few in power alas for it! even these enormous robberies did conceived the happy idea of taking cotton not suffice for its needs, and the stability of for the bonds, storing it in Government de Southern institutions soon became allied to pots. Large planters were politely informed the instability of tire shinplaster currency.

Confiscation of


After much secret legis- people, and to the loss of speculators in real Adjournment to

lation looking to a consoli- estate. Coull the disappointed ones have

dation of its power, the cast the horoscope of the future, they might Confederate Congress adjòurned (May 21st) have seen the Congress flying in terror from to meet at Richmond, Virginia, July 20th. Richmond, taking its peripatetic way back Montgomery for a brief season had sported again to the “ balmy land” where yellow its Capital honors. It now subsided into its fever was expected to stand sentinel on the former obscurity-much to the chagrin of its ramparts and keep “the Yankees” at bay.








MOVEMENTS in the South- , tired” from the United States army afforded Military Organ

ern States during the latter good men in plenty for the work at hand.

part of April and in May, Many, too, had seen service in Mexico, and indicated great activity in military circles. on the Texan border. Commissions to comMuch excitement prevailed among the peo- petent men did not go begging. The Conple. The call of Davis for thirty-two thou- federate service already embraced Beauresand five hundred troops, soon following the gard, Bragg, McCullough, Ripley, Hardee, requisition for nineteen thousand five hun. Huger, Magruder, Whiting, and others of dred men, absorbed most of the organized equal capacity; and the rapidity with which militia and indepenılent companies. “ Home they put their forces in the field, in an efGuards” organizations then became popular, fective shape, reflected creditably upon their into which great numbers of the well-to-do capacity. The direction of the revolution citizens of the South found their way. The eventually was committed to the hands of enthusiasm of the people seemed to grow with the men whom the United States had nur the gathering danger of the hour; and if, in tured; and the extraordinary obstinacy with any of the seven "original" Seceded States, which the Southern troops met the fortunes any persons entertaining Union sentiments of reverse may be credited as much to their still remained, they were thoroughly awed good discipline as to their asserted propensity into silence by the implacable spirit which for fighting. swept over that whole country like a simoon. Governor Pickens strainThe several States prepared to meet the re- ed every nerve to place his qu'sitions of the Confederate authorities by State first among the decreating reserves and a thorough organiza- fenders of their soil, in point of equipment, tion of their separate military establishments. discipline, and effectiveness of her volunteer The large numbers of officers who had “re- / regiments. The address issued to those

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Governor Pickens







Governor Moore's


called upon the last requisition embodied | to be as resistless as the

Disappointment and such inspiriting strains as the following : mighty torrent of the river

Chagrin. “Hold yourselves in readiness to march at that fed the city with its the word to the tomb of Washington, and life-blood. All the daily press of the Cres swear that no Northern Goths and Vandals cent city mourned over the consolidated senshall ever desecrate its sacred precincts, and timent of the North, and, like their Goverthat you will make of it an American Mecca, nor, used hard words, which disguised neito which the votaries of freedom and inde-ther their apprehensions nor their regret. pendence from the South shall make pilgrim- Thus the Picayune said : age through all time. Let the sons of Caro- We are unwilling to believe the telegraphic lina answer the calls from the sons of Colo- reports of the total apostacy of the majority of the nel Howard, who led the Maryland line in citizens of the city of New York, who have ever triumph over the bloody battle-field of Cow- professed to be the friends of the South, and the oppens. Let them know we will return that ponents of Black Republicanism, as their vote in the blood with full interest, and let them feel late Presidential contest exhibited. We know that now as then that we are their brothers. I there are good men and true there, who are willing

to stand by the South to the last. We have been in. shall endeavor not to expose our own State, formed by a gentleman lately from that city, that all and shall only march you beyond our bor- the telegraphic reports from thence in relation to ders under a pressing emergency; but, where this apostacy of New York citizens are enormously ever the Confederate flag floats, there, too, is exaggerated; if it be not so, the change is certainly our country, now and forever.”

extraordinary. What has become of the Union proGovernor Moore, in call-cession of the bone and sinew of New York City, ing for his quota of five which turned out seven miles in length, in opposi

thousand troops under the tion to the Wide-Awakes? We shall wait for conlast requisition, gave vent to his patriotism firmation before we are willing to believe in the in this characteristic manner :

apostacy of New York City." “ The Government at Washington, maddened by last. Had the press of the South, knowing

Willing to deceive and be deceived to the defeat and the successful maintenance by our patriotic people of their rights and liberties against its the truth, confessed it freely, the people thus mercenaries in the harbor of Charleston, and the de- fully informed would have hesitated long termination of the Southern people forever to sever

before incurring the responsibilities of an asthemselves from the Northern Government, has now sault on the Federal Union ; but, like the thrown off the mask, and, sustained by the people miserable wretch who has tasted the fumes of the non-Slaveholding States, is actively engaged of the hasheesh, the Southern leaders prein levying war, by land and sea, to subvert your ferred not to be told of their danger. Realiberties, destroy your rights, and to shed your son could do little with such perverted men blood on your own soil. If you have the manhood

-deaf to the past, dumb to the present, and to resist, rise, then, pride of Louisiana, in your blind to the future. might, in defense of your dearest rights, and drive

In the now popular strain back this insolent, barbaric force. Like your brave

of defiance and defamation ancestry, resolve to conquer or perish in the effort; and the flag of usurpation will never fly over South- did Mr. Stephens appeal to ern soil. Rally, then, to the proclamation which I the masses, in his Atlanta speech, April 30th. now make on the requisition of the Confederate He said, among other things: Government."

“What is to take place before the end, I know This language showed the undercurrent

A threatening war is upon us, made by those of disappointment and anger which set in

who have no regard for right! We fight for our .ike a flood when it became known that the homes, our fathers and mothers, our wives, brothers,

sisters, sons and danghters, and neighbors! They North was a unit on the question of sustaining the policy of the National Executive. A North are all hand to hand against yra.

for money! The hirelings and mercenaries of the Mississippi crevasse could not have caused

“As I told you when I addressed you a few days more consternation in New Orleans than the ago, Lincoln may bring his seveaty-five thousand crevasse of the loyal States which bade fair soldiers against as; but seven times seventy-five

Defiance and Defama

tion of the North.


Defiance and Defama

tion of the North.

quer us.

of the President.

thousand men can never con- | the cities—the degraded, beastly offscouring

We have now Mary of all quarters of the world, who will serve

land and Virginia, and all the for pay, and run away as soon as they can Border States with us. We have ten millions of peo- when danger threatens.” Hundreds of simple with us, heart and hand, to defend us to the ilar notices were set afloat, until the great death. We can call out a million of people, if need be ; majority of Southern people were led to beand when they are cut down, we can call out another, and lieve in their truth. The effect of such shockstill another, until the last man of the South finds a bloody grave, rather than submit to their foul dic. ing falsehoods, upon the minds of the men tation. But a triumphant victory and independence, of the North, who had answered their counwith an unparalleled career of glory, prosperity, try's call, was only to aggravate a rapidlyand progress, awaits us in the future. God is on our growing detestation of their enemy. side, and who shall be against us? None but his om- The aspersions of course

Atrocious Aspersions nipotent hand can defeat us in this struggle.". reached the President. The

He also added, to strengthen his point of opinion was assiduously exciting disgust of the “ Vandals” in the disseminated that Mr. Lincoln was a drunkminds of the Southern people, the following ard and a lascivious man, degrading, in his interesting incidents connected with the oc- daily conduct, his high office. Thus the Richcupation of Washington by “Lincoln's hire- mond Whig, (April 20th,) had “reliable inforlings":

mation” that “Old Abe had been beastly in“ Lincoln has occupied Georgetown Heights. He toxicated for the previous thirty-six consecuhas from fifteen to twenty thousand soldiers station tive hours, and that eighty border rufhians ed in and about Washington. Troops are quartered from Kansas, under command of Lane, occuin the Capitol, who are defacing its walls and orna- pied the East Room, to guard his Viajesty's ments with grease and filth, like a set of Vandal

slumbers.” This, coming from a paper

which hordes. The new Senate Chamber has been con

had held out for the Union to a late day, verted into a kitchen and quarters---cooking and sleeping apparatus having actually been erected only marked the depth of degradation to and placed in that elegant apartment. The Patent

which the press of the South was reduced in Office is converted into soldiers' barracks, and is order to satisfy the demands of the secession ruined with their filth. The Post-office Department spirit. The New Orleans Delta (April 2011) is made a storehouse for barrels of flour and bacon. repeated the wretched fabrication in this All the Departments are appropriated to base uses, strain: “A gentleman arrived here this mornand despoiled of their beauty by those treacherous, ing, who, with several others, was arrester, destructive enemies of our country. Their filthy while passing through Washingtou, for being spoliations of the public buildings and works of art Southerners, and were taken into the presence at the Capital, and their preparations to destroy of the august Baboon. Ile declares that Lin them, are strong evidence to my mind that they do coln was, so drunk that he could hardiy not intend to hold or defend the place, but to aban- maintain his seat in the chair. "It was notodon it after having despoiled and laid it in ruins. rious in Washington that he had been in a Let them destroy it-savage-like-if they will.

state of intoxication for more than thirty-six will rebuild it. We will make the structures more glorious. Phænix-like, new and more substantial i hours. The man is nearly scared to deatis; structures will rise from its ashes. Planted anew,

and few people, in that city, are in a better under the auspices of our superior institutions, it condition.” That these scandalous inven. will live and fourish throughout all ages.”

tions passed uncontradicted by those who It would be interesting to show to what well knew their infamous falsity, is only one an extent Secession orators and presses pro- of a thousand evidences of the designed deceeded in defamation of the character, cour- ception practiced by the leaders to work the age, and strength of the Free State people. heart of the Southern masses up to a point of The Raleigh Banner, in urging the attack on frenzy against the Northern people and Presi. Washington, said: “The army of the South | dent. will be composed of the best material that The movement of troops northward comever yet maile up an army; while that of menced by April 20th-Ricinmond being the Lincoln will be gathered from the sewers of rendezvous. April 23d the Montgomery (Alu.)


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