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PUBLIC INDIGNATION AGAINST THE "SAFETY ACT."

119

Governor Hicks' His.

Act.

notified that the troops were our soil from being polluted with the blood of

to be marched to Washington. | brethren." tory of Affairs.

They desired to go without ob- Extraordinary pressure struction from our people, but they had orders to

The Public Safety

was brought to bear on the go to Washington, and were determined to obey Legislature, to induce it to those orders. In furth erance of their designs, they assume the front of revolution, either by ortook military possession of the Annapolis and Elk dering a Couvention or by itself adopting an Ridge Railroad, in regard to which act I forwarded Ordinance of Secession. Neither step was to Brigadier-General Butler the protest, and receive ed the reply herewith submitted. On Wednesday taken ; but the Governor's “honest and earnmorning the two detachments landed, and took up

est conviction" of neutrality was embodied the line of march for Washington. The people of

in an act providing for the public safety, apAnnapolis, though greatly exasperated, acting un- pointing a Board of Seven, who were to have der counsel of the most prudent citizens, refrained “full power and authority to provide for the from molesting or obstructing the passage of troops better organization, arming and regulation through the city. Seriously impressed with the of the militia.” They were clothed with alcondition of affairs, and anxious to avoid a repeti- most supreme authority, being empowered to tion of events similar to those which had transpired remove or appoint any officer above the rank in Baltimore, I deemed it my duty to make another of Captain, giving their commission in the appeal at Washington. Accordingly, I sent a spe- name and under the great seal of the State cial messenger with a dispatch to the Administra

to adopt any measures, or pursue any tion, advising that no more troops be sent through

course to provide for the safety, peace and Maryland ; that the troops at Annapolis be sent elsewhere, and urging that a truce be offered with a

defense of the State—to fill all vacancies in view of a peaceful settlement of existing difficulties their own Board, &c., &c. The oath of office by mediation. I suggested that Lord Lyons, the was prescribed. Instead of swearing fealty British Minister, be requested to act as mediator to the General Government, the Board was to between the contending parties. The result of the swear not to proscribe any officer “for his po. mission will be seen from the correspondence here- litical opinion.” The act named the gentlewith submitted. These events have satisfied me

men to constitute the Board, comprising six that the War Department has concluded to make rank Secessionists and Governor Hicks. This Annapolis the point for landing troops, and has re-insidious scheme was more fully interpreted solved to open and maintain communication be

by the report of the Committee on Federal tween this place and Washington.

Relations, which arraigned the General Gov"I honestly and most earnestly entertain the conviction that the only safety of Maryland lies in pre

ernment in charges of acts of tyranny and serving a neutral position between our brethren of subjugation, and resolving that a committee the North and of the South. We have violated no should wait upon the authorities at Washingright of either section. We have been loyal to the ton to learn what course the President intendUnion. The unhappy contest between the two sec. ed to pursue, &c. Governor Ilicks thus found tions has not been commenced or encouraged by himself virtually superseded, and the reign us, although we have suffered from it in part. The of the revolutionists about to commence. impending war has not come by any act or any

But the people came to wish of ours. We have done all we could to

The Public Indigna.

the rescue; and, by their svert it. We have hoped that Maryland and

loudly and menacingly utother Border Slave States, by their conservative position and love for the Union, might have tered protests, fairly scared the conspirators

from their acted as mediators between the extremes of both

game. A very large meeting of sections, and thus have prevented the terrible evils the leading citizens of Baltimore convened of a prolonged civil war. Entertaining these views, Saturday evening, May 4th, to publicly exI cannot counsel Maryland to take sides against press the general indignation felt at the effort the General Government until it shall commit out- to subvert the State Government. Resolutions rages on us which would justify us in resisting were passed as follows: its authority. As a consequence, I can give no Resolved, That the Convention, in the name of other counsel than that we shall array our- the order-loving people of Baltimore, do solemnly Belves for Union and peace, and thus preserve protest against the attempt now making in the Legis

a

tion at the Act.

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lature of Maryland, to inaugurate a military despot- | troops in camp at Harrisburg, Chambersburg ism, by the enactment of the bill to create a Com- and York, could be thrown forward at any mittee of Public Safety, which, under a profession moment to Cockeysville and Hagerstown. of providing for the protection, safety, peace and The occupation of the railroad from Philadefense of the State, would, if enacted into a law, delphia to the Susquehanna, completed the conter on an irresponsible body powers which are

Union cordon by which revolution in Maryunconstitutional and tyrannical in principle, and which, by withdrawing from the citizen all guaran: its hiding-places. May 9th, the Baltimoreans

land was slowly but most surely pressed into ties now enjoyed for his individual security, must endanger the public peace, and in the event of the

were surprised to learn that their city had enactment of that bill, we shall esteem it our duty

again become a highway

“Through Baltimore." to avail ourselves of all constitutional remedies for for the Northern troops. defeating its execution, and vindicating public | At three o'clock on the afternoon of that day, liberty,

transports from Perryville arrived off Locust Resolved, secondly, That the measures enacted Point, within the city limits, having on board and enacting by the Legislature, are indications of a thirteen hundred troops, consisting of one purpose on the part of a majority thereof to precip. battery of Sherman's artillery (six pieces and itate Maryland into a struggle with the Constitution seventy horses) under command of Major al authorities of the Union, and to effect by indirect Sherman; five companies (420 men) of the action a result which they acknowledge they are

Third U. S. (regular) infantry, under comunable to accomplish by direct legislation on the subject, and that we deprecate any effort to change mand of Major Shepherd; the First Pennsylthe relations at present existing between the Union vania artillery (800 men), under command of and this State, by any authority whatsoever."

Colonel Patterson, I'he debarkation was A committee was appointed to proceed to made under cover of the Harriet Lane, which Frederick. At Frederick the feeling aroused lay off the Point, with shotted guns and open was anything but promising of peace to the ports. The city was intensely excited, but Legislators. A “ Home Guard” was organ

there was no mistaking the new order of ized, composed of some of the best citizens things. Any violence offered would have of the place. To the Guard the ladies pre- city, both by the vessel of war and Fort Mc

been the signal for the bombardment of the sented a United States flag. Reverdy Johnson acted as spokesman for the donors

, and Henry—then strongly garrisoned. The entire

debarkation was made in order and quiet. delivered, to a large crowd, a masterly oration, sustaining the cause of the Union.

The Mayor, with his two hundred special poGeneral Scott was on the qui vice, too, to in- lice, was in attendance as soon as he was augurate a checkmate for any further treason

made aware of the landing; but, his services contemplated, and to open the railway routes

were not required—the United States officers to the North. At noon of May 5th, the New showed that they were quite able to “ keep York Eighth, and, later in the day, the Mas- the peace" themselves. The entire detachsachusetts Sixth, appeared, unannounced, at

ment took cars for the Relay House and the

Capital. the Relay House Station, at the junction of the Baltimore and Ohio

The Maryland Legislature continued in Occupation of the with the Washington and

session, during these movements of the GeneRelay House Station.

ral Government to forestall any act of treason Baltimore railway. This

and revolution which might be attemptel. occupation, executed under command of Gen

Thwarted in their effort to subvert the State eral Butler, commanded all communication between Harper's Ferry, Frederick and Bal Executive, the Legislators were powerless for timore, and menaced the latter city.* The harm, and contented themselves with preach

ing treason when they had not the power or * General Butler's order of May 8th, detailed the sion virus. One of the Massachusetts men wan poi circumstances of the occupation, giving the assigned soned by strychnine mixed in cakes, which a peddlis position of the several camps. He also related sev.

was allowed to sell to the soldiers. The miscreantes. eral incidents illustrative of the devilish spirit which caped, and all communication with unauthorized possessed those in Maryland imbued with the seces

persons was immediately cut off.

MARYLAND'S TREASON

CIRCUMVENTED.

121

Treason Circum.

vented.

Treason.

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the courage to practice it. | ment, the occupation of The Legislature's

May 10th, the Legislature Cockeysville, and the open

passed the following re- | ing of the Northern Cenmarkable but characteristic resolves :

tral railway, completely cornered not only Whereas, The war against the Confederate States the “Knights of the Golden Circle”—who is unconstitutional and repugnant to civilization, and

had arranged their secret machinery to prewill result in a bloody and shameful overthrow

cipitate both Maryland and Kentucky into our institutions; and while recognizing the obliga

the arms of the conspirators—but gave the tions of Maryland to the Union, we sympathize with the South in the struggle for their rights--for the loyal element so much the ascendancy as to sake of humanity we are for peace and reconcilia

checkmate the revolution north of the Pototion, and solemnly protest against this war, and will

On the 14th of May, Governor Hicks take no part in it.

issued his proclamation, calling for four regiResolved, That Maryland implores the President, ments of infantry or riflemen to answer to in the name of God, to cease this unholy war, at least the President's requisition. The Governor's until Congress assembles; that Maryland desires and loyalty was still qualified, for he obtained consents to the recognition of the independence of the “written assurance of the Secretary of the Confederate States. The military occupation of

War” that the regiments should be detailed Maryland is unconstitutional, and she protests against to service within the limits of the State, or it, thongh the violent interference with the transit should only be used for the defense of the of Federal troops is discountenanced ; that the vindication of her rights be left to time and reason,

Capital. As the “defense of the Capital" that a Convention, under existing circumstances, is might require the Federal troops to push on inespedient.”

to Richmond, the Governor's apprehensions This was the dregs of the secession

in regard to the service of his troops were, bitterness. The vase was shattered and the doubtless, not very deeply séated, would-be revellers in revolution dissolved in

This ends the chapter of

Maryland Safe. nothingness—some to retire to the oblivion Maryland's disloyalty as a of their homes, others to seek glory at the State. Many of her citizens continued to cannon's mouth over in Virginia. The Presi- struggle against their destiny by plotting dent's answer was apparent May 13th, when treason, and by giving “aid and comfort” to Baltimore city itself was permanently occu

the enemy; but they were isolated cases; pied by Butler's troops. Butler's proclama- and, after the installation of the military tion, dated from head-quarters on Federal process (the suspension of the habeas corpus Hill, May 14th, was a document at once well act), the arrest of Marshal Kane of the Balticalculated to reassure the frightened loyalists more police, and of his coadjutors in conspiracy and to intimidate the traitors who still made against the General Government, ended the that city their head-quarters. That move-struggle even with individuals.

and

cup of

CHAPTER VII.

EXTRAORDINARY SESSION OF THE CONFEDERATE CONGRESS.

DAVIS' MESSAGE. ITS PER VERSIONS AND PURPOSES. THE ACT DECLARING A “STATE OF WAR." SPECIAL LEGISLATION. VIRGINIA ADOPTED INTO THE CONFEDERACY. THE OCCUPATION OF HER SOIL. ITS PURPOSES. THE CONFEDERATE CURRENCY SYSTEM.

Extraordinary Session

THE Confederate Con-, great calamity which was to hurry them all of the Confederate gress reassembled in extra- into one common ruin. It became such meu Congress.

ordinary session, April 30th. to talk of the usurpations of the Lincoln A full attendance was had of the States' del Government! Incomparable hypocrisy ! egates—for the “Congress” was still composed Upon assembling, the

The Message of of the delegates elected by the several State Congress was informed of

Jefferson Davis. Conventions. As these Conventions had the purpose of its re-conbeen elected by the people simply to consider vention, and of the designs of the Confederthe question of secession, leaving it for the peo- ate Administration, in the following message ple to decide upon the act and to prescribe-in many respects one of the most singular the future course of proceeding, their assump- and remarkable documents of the rebellion : tion of supreme power bad been a most as- Gentlemen of the Congress : tounding usurpation ; but, what was a usur

" It is my pleasing duty to announce to you that pation within the State became a tyranny the Constitution framed for the establishment of a when the Convention appointed delegates to permanent Government for the Confederate States a “Congress of the Seceded States”; and has been ratified by Conventions in each of those when those delegates assembled, adopted a

States to which it was referred. To inaugurate the Constitution for the Confederated States of

Government in its full proportions and upon its own North America, sat in secret and unlimited

substantial basis of the popular will, it only remajus

that elections should be held for the designation of session, enacted laws, elected a President and

the officers to administer it. Vice-President, and installed the entire ma

“ There is every reason to believe that at no dis. chinery of a Central power, the tyranny be

tant day, other States, identified in political princi. came an absolute despotism. After legislat- ples and community of interests with these which ing into active operation this Central power, you represent, will join this Confederacy: giving to the Congress adjourned, subject to the call

its typical constellation increased splendor-to its of the President-a call he soon made, as government of free, equal, and sovereign States a above stated. The self-elected delegates came wider sphere of usefulness-and to the friends of together, and immediately proceeded to ,

constitutional liberty a greater security for its harlegislate the Confederacy into a state of war,

monious and perpetual existence. with all its terrible consequences. Civilized

“ It was not, however, for the purpose of making

this announcement that I have deemed it my duty society never before witnessed a more unauthorized exercise of such power over a people. yourselves for your meeting. The declaration of

to convoke you at an earlier day than that fixed by In all that revolution the people had only

war made against this Confederacy by Abraham had a voice in the primary election of dele

Lincoln, the President of the United States, in his gates to a transient and unempowered State proclamation issued on the fifteenth day of the preConvention. Out of that, by the daring and sent month, rendered it necessary, in ny judgment, defiance of a few ambitious men, sprang the that you should convene, at the earliest practicable

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THE

MESSAGE

OF JEFFERSON DAVIS.

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The Message of

moment, to devise the measures shall be sufficient for the estab. Jefferson Davis. necessary for the defense of the lishment of this Constitution

The Message of

Jefferson Davis. country.

between the States so ratifying * The occasion is indeed an extraordinary one. the same.' It justifies me in a brief review of the relations here- “ The Constitution of 1787 having, however, omittofore existing between us and the States which ted the clause already recited from the articles of now unite in warfare against us, and in a succinct Confederation, which provided in explicit terms, statement of the events which have resulted in this that each State retained its sovereiguty and inde. warfare, to the end that mankind may pass intelli- pendence, some alarm was felt in the States when gent and impartial judgment on its motives and invited to ratify the Constitution, lest this omission objects.

should be construed into an abandonment of their “ During the war waged against Great Britain by cherished principle, and they refused to be satisfied her colonies on this continent, a common danger until amendments were added to the Constitution, impelled them to a close alliance, and to the forma placing beyond any pretense of doubt, the reservation of a Confederation, by the terms of which the tion by the States of all their sovereign rights and Colonies, styling themselves States, entered seve- powers, not expressly delegated to the United States rally into a firm league of friendship with each other by the Constitution. for their common defense, the security of their liber- I have italicised certain words in the quotations ties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding just made, for the purpose of attracting attention themselves to assist each other against all force of- to the singular and marked caution with which the fered to, or attacks made upon them or any of them, States endeavored, in every possible form, to exon account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any clude the idea that the separate and independent uther pretense whatever.'

sovereignty of each State was merged into one com" In order to guard against any misconstruction mon Government and nation, and the earnest desire of their compact, the several States made explicit they evinced to impress on the Constitution its true declaration, in a distinct article, that each State character—that of a compact between independent retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, States. and every power, jurisdiction and right which is not Strange indeed must it appear to the impartial by this Confederation expressly delegated to the observer, but it is none the less true, that all these United States in Congress assembled.'

carefully-worded clauses proved unavailing to pre“ Under this contract of alliance the war of the vent the rise and growth in the Northern States, of Revolution was successfully waged, and resulted in a political school which has persistently claimed the treaty of peace with Great Britain in 1783, by that the Government thus formed was not a comthe terms of which the several States were, each by pact between States, but was in effect a National Dame, recognized to be independent.

Government, set up above and over the States. An The Articles of Confederation contained a clause organization, created by the States to secure the whereby all alterations were prohibited, unless con- blessings of liberty and independence against for. firmed by the Legislatures of every State, after be- eign aggression, has been gradually perverted into *ing agreed to by the Congress ; and, in obedience a machine for their control in their domestic affairs ; to this provision, under the resolution of Congress the creature has been exalted above its creators; of the 21st of February, 1787, the several States ap- the principals have been made subordinate to the pointed delegates, who attended a Convention ‘for agent appointed by themselves. the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles “ The people of the Southern States, whose alof Confederation, and reporting to Congress and most exclusive occupation was agriculture, early the several Legislatures such alterations and provi- perceived a tendency in the Northern States to rensions therein as shall, when agreed to in Congress, der the common government subservient to their and confirmed by the States, render the Federal Con- own purposes, by imposing burthens on commerce stitution adequate to the exigencies of government as a protection to their manufacturing and shipping Bod the preservation of the Union.'

interests. Long and angry controversy grew out "It was by the delegates chosen by the several of these attempts, often successful to benefit one States, under the resolution just quoted, that the section of the country at the expense of the other. Constitution of the United States was framed in And the danger of disruption arising from this cause 17-7, and submitted to the several States for ratifi- was enhanced by the fact that the Northern popucation, as shown by the severth article, which is in lation was increasing by immigration and other these words :

causes in a greater ratio than the population of the “ • The ratification of the Conventions of nine Slates South. By degrees, as the Northern States gained

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