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The Universalists.

our loyal adhesion and unstinted support in its wise, ther reference to church resolves and ad. forbearing, and yet firm maintenance of its national dresses. unity and life; and that sore, long, and costly as The clergy were, if possithe conflict may be, the North has not sought it, ble, in advance of the peo

Antagonism Excite und the North will not shun it, if Southern aggres- ple. In the pulpit, on the

by the South. bions persist; and that a surrender of the National Union and our ancestral principles would involve tions, and in conversation, the responsibility

public platform, in newspaper communicasorer evils of longer continuance and vaster cost

of the citizen was their unfailing theme. lincss." The Universalists were

Their discourses, reported for the daily and equally outspoken. Their weekly press, sped over the country to inAmerican Association resolved as follows :

spire ardor in the cause of human liberty and Whereas, In our beloved country an armed re

order—for such they quite generally regardbellion has arisen, whereby the Federal Govern. ed the contest. The position so boldly asment has been defied, its property in forts, mints, sumed by the designers of the new Southern and vessels robbed, loyal citizens outraged, and the Government, viz:—that its corner-stone was national flag contemned; therefore,

negro bondage, (see Stephens' Exposition, ** Resolved, That we hereby support the Govern. vol. I, page 30,] enlisted the clergy in the ment in its present attitude toward rebellion, re- struggle from humanitarian, as well as patcognizing as we do the dire necessity of appealing riotic, motives, and aroused in their breasts to the sword.

all the antagonism which such a retrogressive ** Resolved, That we behold in the Stars and Stripes assumption might be expected to create in a symbol of Christianity in its political aspects, the bosoms of Christian men.. Hence their which, with reverence, we may wrap about the Cross of Christ.

sermons fairly scintillated with the eloquence * Resolved, That in the present resort to arms we

of feeling and the lightnings of their rightrecognize no war of the North against the South, eous indignation, and thus became potent but a contest of democracy against despotic aris- agents in awakening the masses to a correct tocracy; and that as Christian pastors and people, apprehension of the great issues involved in within our sphere, we prepare for battle, confident the contest. Better had it been for the conof God's approval of our course."

spirators against liberty had they, for a seaThe Old School Presby- son at least, masked their designs. “Whom The Presbyterians.

terians, in their more so- the Gods would destroy they first make ber way, were quite up to the prevalent spir-mad," was verified in their case. The avowit, although, as a Church, they ever had been al of the true character of their Government, noted for their “conservative” tendencies on their unscrupulous seizure of United States the question of slavery and relations with property, their lawless Convention proceedthe South. The General Assembly of that ings and usurpations, their early call into the denomination for 1861 resolved :

field of an army to drive out the Union gar" That the members of this General Assembly, in risons, their reckless assault upon Sumter, the spirit of that Christian patriotism which the and their avowed purpose to seize WashingScriptures enjoin, and which has always character ton-all combined to alienate from them and ized this Church, do hereby acknowledge and de- their cause not only all the mighty moral clare their obligation, so far as in them lies, to and physical energies of the North, but also maintain the Constitution of these United States, in

the intelligence of Europe. Their cause went the full exercise of all its legitimate powers, to pre

forth branded with infamy, notwithstanding serve our beloved Union unimpaired, and to restore its inestimable blessings to every portion of the

so many men, made eminent by the Union, land."

had embarked in the revolution. If a few It would be interesting to quote from the sympathizers for the movement were found recorded proceedings of the several other in Great Britain it was but natural, considerleading denominations of the North, expressing that “King Cotton” had whispered their ive of sympathy for the National Adminis- moral sense asleep; but, even at the most tration ; but, our point having been sufi- despondent moment of the Union's fortunes, ciently illustrated, we are not permitted fur- / the vast majority of England's people gave

MAJOR ANDERSON'S RECEPTION.

109

the Southern cause no sympathy. Impu-sation which directly came for the appalling dently assuming that one Southern man was disasters of the war was the poor satisfaction equal to three Northerners, and that, for the of having taught the South its physical infesake of cotton, both England and France riority. If the incidental blessings of liberty would give the Pro-Slave Confederacy an of conscience, liberty of press, liberty of early recognition, the conspirators plunged speech, and liberty of person should follow, headlong into the contest with a recklessness in those States where all have been denied only equalled by its stupidity. Only the with most virulent pertinacity for two genesword and the ordeal of trial could unde- rations, the sacrifices in the cause of the Union ceive such madmen; and the only compen- will not have been in vain.

CHAPTER V.

MAJOR ANDERSON IN NEW YORK. EXCUSE FOR NOT RE-ENFORO

ING HIM. FORT PICKENS SAFE, PARTICULARS OF ITS REENFORCEMENT. THE HARPER'S FERRY DESTRUCTION AND EVACUATION. THE NORFOLK (GOS PORT) NAVY-YARD DESTRUCTION. PARTICULARS OF THE AFFAIR. MOVEMENT OF TROOPS UPON ANNAPOLIS. OPERATIONS OF THE "UNION DEFENSE COMMITTEE."

WASHINGTON SAFE. RECEPTION OF THE NE W YORK SEVENTH.

APRIL 18th witnessed | ing of bells—to all of which the city sent up Major Anderson's

several events of interest; answering notes. The reception at the BatNew York Reception.

viz: the arrival of Major tery was impressive and enthusiastic in the Anderson in New York, and his enthusiastic extreme--recalling that spectacle when Lareception; the arrival in New York of the fayette received the congratulations of the Massachusetts Sixth, and its departure for American people at the same spot. The MaWashington; the destruction of Harper's jor proceeded to his hotel, to become, for a Ferry arsenal by fire, and its evacuation by few days following, the recipient of attentions the U. S. garrison under command of Lieuten- and honors which must have oppressed while ant Jones. The reception of Anderson was they gratified him. one of the most memorable ovations in the With the Baltic returned annals of a city noted for its popular demon- the re-enforcements disstrations. The Baltic's arrival at Sandy Hook patched the Major's rebecoming known early in the day, the Bay lief. The Harriet Lane, Pawnee, the transport was soon alive with sail and steam craft Baltic, and tug Yankee, it appeared from remaking their way to the Narrows to give port of the returned officers of the expedition, him welcome. The passage up to the city neared Charleston Friday morning, April 12th, was like an old-time triumph. Guns boomed taking up position near the Swash Channel from the forts and the Battery. Num- bar. Over the bar it was found the transport berless water-craft, densely loaded with peo- and convoys could not pass. A vessel from ple of all classes, glided around the stately Boston, loaded with ice, was seized, and the steamer in happy confusion, rendering her plan formed of running her in, loaded with progress slow. The air was rent with shouts, troops and provisions, during the darkness huzzas, the whistles of engines, and the ring- of Friday night. Oliver W. Clapp, an old

The non-Re-enforce

ment.

Re-enforcement of

Fort Pickens.

consun

Destruction,

pilot and third officer of the Baltic, was given and dropped overboard to be towed into command of the hazardous expedition. Why shore. The troops had previously landed, it failed of being prosecuted is not definitely while the vessels of war were so disposed as stated. Doubtless, a careful reconnoissance to cover the operations in event of an attack, showed every approach to the fort to be so which was looked for every moment. The swept with cannon as to render certain de- success of this enterprise intensely angered struction inevitable. The fleet therefore lay the enemy, when it became known to them, off the harbor, and received Anderson, to since it placed the fort beyond their grasp. steam away to the North. The Porchatan | When the news reached the North, as it soon had not appeared off Charleston at all. Her did by the return of the Atlantic, it diffused mission was to Fort Pickens.

a sense of relief to all. Captain Meigs rePickens was successfully ceived, as he richly merited, the thanks of re-enforced on the night of his loyal countrymen. Friday, April 12th. The The evacuation of Har

The Harper's Ferry orders came on Friday, by a bearer of dis- per's Ferry was patches from Washington, to re-enforce im- mated on the night of mediately, at all hazards. The Brooklyn Thursday, April 8th. The secession of Virsteam sloop, taking on board the marines ginia, and the prospective descent upon the from the frigate Sabine and the sloop St. Louis, Capital, placed the little garrison at the Ferry hore up as close to the outside shore of Santa in danger of capture. Lieutenant R. Jones, Rosa island as the beach would permit. The in command of the post, was on the alert, boats were then lowered and pulled away keeping himself fully informed of the movearound the end of the island, silently passing ments of the conspirators. On Thursday he within range of the guns of forts McRae and became aware of the approach of the well. Barrancas, without being observed. The armed detachment of State troops commislanding was effected in safety. Lieutenant sioned to seize the arsenal, stores, buildings, Albert W. Smith had command of the enter- &c., and to retain them for their treasonable prise. This success induced the order for all purposes. He therefore immediately prepared the marines of the squadron to embark in to burn and blow up the entire property of small boats. These were taken in tow by the the Government, and to retreat toward PennWyandotte, and drawn into the harbor until sylvania. Early in the evening the little the range of the rebel guns was reached, garrison, consisting of but fifty men, comwhen the boats were cut loose and pulled in, menced preparations for destroying the arsein silence. The second landing was success. nals and arms in case of necessity. Planks fully made, and Pickens was safe from the and timbers were cut up to ignite the buildthreatened assault of the six thousand troops ings. They emptied their mattresses, filled which Bragg was prepared to launch upon them with powder, and carried them into the fort at any moment. On Tuesday, the the arsenals. No suspicion was aroused 16th of April, the Atlantic steam transport among the people. The arms, fifteen thouarrived, heavily laden with troops, stores, sand in number, were then placed in the best ordnance, ammunition, horses for heavy ser position to be destroyed by the explosion, vice, fascines for batteries, &c., &c., all under and splints of boards and straw were piled the direct charge of Captain Meigs, of the up in different places in the shops. At nine U. S. Engineer Corps. The Povhatan steam o'clock, Lieutenant Jones being' advised of frigate arrived April 17th. The Illinois steam the advance of not less than two thousand transport arrived April 20th, laden, as was men, who expected to be upon the place by the Atlantic, with every appliance of war ne- midnight, he at once proceeded to the work cessary to place Pickens out of danger. Un- of destruction. The windows and doors of der Captain Meigs' skillful management the the building were opened, that the flames entire cargoes were landed on the beach of might have free course. When all was ready, the south side of Santa Rosa island, by small the fires were started in the carpenter-shop, boats. The horses were slung in a crane the trains leading to the powder ignited, and

DESTRUCTION

OF

THE

GOSPORT NAVY-YARD, &C.

111

Destruction of the

his nuen marched out. The

cry of fire alarm- | the stores, the munitions, ed the town; and just as the officer and his the valuable machinery, re

Gosport Navy-yard men were entering the lodge to escape, an flects a shadow upon the excited crowd pursued him, threatening ven- judgment of the administration of Mr. Lin. geance upon him for having fired the build-coln, which will not be wiped away by the ings. Wheeling his men, he faced the mob. only excuse offered that of military neThe order, “present arms !" rang out on the cessity. The story of that stupendous imnight air, and the mob melted away before molation upon the shrine of treason has been the gleaming gun-barrels leveled at their variously told; but the following appear to heads. The company then fell into line and be the facts. struck up the canal into the woods, to pur- It became known, before the fall of Sumsue its weary way to Hagerstown, which ter, that, in event of Virginia's secession, she place it reached at seven the next morning. would seek to appropriate" the Gosport From thence the company proceeded by Navy-yard. Anticipating this, Government, omnibuses to Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, instead of reenforcing the place to a defenwhere it arrived unannounced.

sive position, preferred an evacuation—as if The destruction was nearly complete. such a course would reassure the Virginia The Virginia troops, to the number of three people of Mr. Lincoln's good faith in professthousand, poured into the place during the ing to desire only peace.* Stores, under ornight and the following morning to find ders for shipment to the Navy-yard, were their coveted prize nothing but charred ru- withheld. Some authorities assert that, prior ins. The armory was not so far destroyed, to the affair of April 21st, several cargoes of however, as to render the machinery hope- stores and property were reshipped to Northlessly beyond repair; but Virginia ingenu-ern stations. It is certain one cargo was ity was not able to make much use of the returned, but it was one which had not brofine and complicated mechanism which the ken bulk at all, having arrived after the fire could not consume. Harper's Ferry was evacuation had been determined upon. The thus transferred to the hands of the rebels, Report of the Investigating Committee (hereand, ere long, became a point around which after referred to) stated explicitly that the much military interest centered. The Balti- amount of property destroyed exceeded the diore and Ohio railway passed into disloyal sum generally fixed upon as the total loss, control, and ceased from that date to con- showing that but little property could have neet the East and West-à severe blow to been removed. That it might have been reWashington, but a severer one to Baltimore, moved, who can doubt ? Who shall say for the " Monumental City” quickly became that the two thousand cannon, and ammua city of deserted marts and ruined commer- nition enough for a campaign, could not have cial enterprises.

been quietly sent to Fortress Monroe, the The destruction of the week prior to their hasty abandonment ? Xorfik (Gosport) Norfolk Navy - yard was That they ought to have been removed, at Navy-yard, &c.

the next disaster—the extent of which it is hard to measure even at * See Appendix, page 480, for Cassius M. Clay's the end of time at which we write. That statement to the Editor of the Nashville Democrat, that magnificent property in buildings and dated Washington, April 20th, representing that material--that immense depot of stores, ord- Mr. Lincoln would use force only in defense of the Dance, and munitions — that road of fleets capital. Mr. Seward said the same thing in his com

munication of April 22d, to Governor Hicks. Seo anil harbor of recourse for the Home Squa- also Mayor Brown's statement of his interview with dren and ships in ordinary, should have been Mr. Lincoln, April 21st. The evacuation of Har. left nelpless and exposed to seizure, is not per's Ferry, it is stated by Mr. Clay, was ordered the least of the crimes which attach to Mr.

to favor the peace policy; and though no mention Buchanan's administration; and, that all was is made of Gosport Navy-yard, its evacuation would given up to the flames and waters, without seem to have been ordered from the motive ascribed any effort to save the vessels, the ordnance, I for the withdrawal from Harper's Ferry.

Destruction of the

all hazards, it needed but stroyed. Carbines had their Destruction of the

Destruction of the little military prescience to stocks broken by a blow Gosport Navy · yard.

Gosport Navy-yard. declare, since their deser- from the barrels, and were tion placed the revolutionists in possession thrown overboard. A large lot of revolvers of the very materiel requisite to enable them shared the like fate. Shot and shell by thou-, to take the field immediately. Those Nor- sands went with hurried plunge to the botfolk guns throughout all the war proved po- tom. Most of the cannon had been spiked tent agencies for injury. They appeared the day and night before. There were at upon almost every field of battle, and gave | least fifteen hundred pieces in the yard to Manassas and Yorktown some of their best some elegant Dahlgren guns, and Columbiads artillery and siege ordnance.

of all sizes. The Pawnee-having returned from Charles- "It is impossible to describe the scene of ton to Washington on the evening of Friday, destruction that was exhibited. Unweariedly April 19th, with an extra detachment of of- it was continued from nine o'clock until ficers and marines, and with Commodore about twelve, during which time the moon Paulding on board, steamed down to Fortress gave light to direct the operations. But Monroe, to take on board the entire Massa- when the moon sank behind the western chusetts Third, Colonel Wardrop, and with horizon, the barracks near the centre of the it to proceed to the Gosport station, where yard were set on fire, that by its illumination the troops were to assist in the work of de- the work might be continued. The crackstruction. With the Commodore's flag at ling flames and the glare of light inspired her peak, the Parnee started at seven o'clock, with new energies the destroying marines, Saturday evening, for the station. At half- and havoc was carried everywhere, within past eight she was in Gosport harbor. There the limits of orders. But time was not left lay the first-class frigates, Cumberland and to complete the work. Four o'clock of SunMerrimac, the fine corvette Germantown, the day morning came, and the Pawnee was passfirst-class sloop Plymouth — all afloat, and ing down from Gosport harbor with the Cummostly ready for immediate service. Also berland, the coveted prize of the Secessionthe frigates Raritan and Columbia, both afloat ists, in tow-every soul from the other ships with their armaments aboard. Also the old and the yard being aboard of them, save two. liners Pennsylvania (armed and in the stream), Just as they left their moorings, a rocket was and the Columbus and Delaware, in use as sent up from the deck of the Paronee. It sped store and practice ships. On the stocks, high in air, paused a second, and burst in housed, was the immense hulk of the never shivers of many-colored lights. And as it launched line-of-battle ship New York. did so, the well-set trains at the ship-houses,

The Pawnee landed her forces at the dock. and on the decks of the fated vessels left beThe Massachusetts Fourth was detailed as hind, went off as if lit simultaneously by the guard to the several gates and avenues of ap- rocket. One of the ship-houses contained proach, to cover operations within the yard | the old New York, a ship thirty years on the and docks. The marines from the Pennsyl stocks, and yet unfinished. The other was vaniu, Cumberland and Pawnee were then put vacant; but both houses and the old Neu to the work in hand. All the books, papers | York burnt like tinder. The vessels fired and archives of the station were transferred were the Pennsylvania, the Merrimac, the Gerto the Pawnee, The movable portion of the mantown, the Plymouth, the Raritan, the ColPennsylvania's furniture and stores were trans- umbia, the Dolphin. The old Delaware and ferred to the Cumberland. This done, the Columbus, worn out and dismantled seventywork of destruction commenced. One who fours, were scuttled and sunk at the upper was present, wrote:

elocks on Friday. “Many thousand stands of arms were de

“I need not try to picture the scene of the *It is much to be regretter that Colonel Wardrop's grand conflagration that now burst, like the report to Governor Andrew, of this expedition to day of judgment, on the startled citizens of the Navy-yard, was lost in its trausmission.

Norfolk, Portsmouth, and all the surround.

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