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to endorse Mr. Lincoln's | April 24th, he uttered, Douglas.

course in calling out troops, among other patriotic sen- Caleb Cushing

At the moment of the as-timents, such as these :sault upon Sumter he was in Washington, Long may this glorious flag wave above our and hastened to assure the President of the heads, the banner of victory and the symbol loyalty of the Democratic party to the Union. of our National honor! Our dear country It is said that Mr. Lincoln called in his old now indeed derpands the devotion of all her opponent as adviser, and in many instances sons : for the dire calamity of civil war is adopted his excellent suggestions. Mr. upon us.

I have labored for many years, Douglas started for the West April 18th, to earnestly and in good faith, for the conservaaid in placing his State on the foremost list tion of this Union, and to avert the final issue of the defenders of the Constitution and the of arms in the contention of sections. I have Union, and reports became current that he nothing to unsay of my words in that behalf. would assume the responsibilities of a Major- But the day of discussion has passed—that General in the field. At several points on his of action has arrived. As a citizen of route, he paused to address the people-to the United States, owing allegiance to the demonstrate how easily party was forgotten Constitution, and bound by constitutional in a common peril. His words did much to duty to support its Government, he should

а centralize opinion and to direct all the ener- do so. As a son of Massachusetts, attached gies of the people to the one great end of to her by ties of birth and affection, neither sustaining the National Administration in the friend nor foe should sever him from her. I contest forced upon it. The early death of yield to no man in faithfulness to the Union, that great leader of the Democracy filled the or in zeal for the maintenance of the laws nation with mourning. Had his life been and the constitutional authorities of the spared, none doubted but that he would have Union; and to that end I stand prepared, if entered the field to become a very Cæur de occasion should call for it, to testify my sense Leon in the Union's cause. His last words of public duty by entering the field again at will be his most glorious monument. His the command of the Commonwealth or of the heart-broken wife bent over the almost insen- Union.” sible form of the dying man and asked: “Do How it must have astounded those machiyou know me, Stephen ?” He murmured her nators against the Union who broke up the

“Have you no word for your beloved Charleston Convention — who brought Mr. children ?” His eyes gleamed with a spark Breckenridge forward to divide the Demoof his old energy as he essayed to rise cratic vote and thereby defeat Mr. Douglas on his elbow—Tell them,” he exclaimed, “ to by insuring the election of the Republican obey the Constitution and the Laws !” These nominee—to read such a declaration from were his last words. What a legacy to leave the lips of the man whom they had used as to his children and his countrymen !

their most available instrument! The tables His old antagonist, Ca- indeed were turned. Caleb Cushing. leb Cushing, who had pre- Mr. Cass, Secretary of

sided at the Charleston State in Mr. Buchanan's Democratic National Convention, and after- Cabinet, presided at wards over the “rump Convention” which meeting of the citizens of Detroit, April 24th, nominated John C. Breckenridge, and there- called to consider the duty of Michigan in by defeated Mr. Douglas, in the canvass of the crisis. In the course of his remarks lie 1860, (see page 32 of Vol. I], was constrained said: “You need no one to tell you what are to forsake his “Southern friends,” and to the dangers of your country, nor what are support the cause of the Union. His posi- your duties to meet and avert them. There tion typified that of the Northern Brecken- is but one path for every true man to follow, ridge Democracy generally, and his words and that is broad and plain. It will conduct therefore deserve attention for their signifi- us, not indeed without trials and suffering, cance. In a speech at Newburyport, Mass., I to peace and the restoration of the Union.







He who is not for his coun- us, and that is to fight it out to the last. We try is against it. There is must not only maintain our Capital, but we

no neutral position to be must replace our flag on every fort from which occupied. It is the duty of all generously to it has been treasonably displacedl.” support the Government in its efforts to bring Mr. Everett, candidate in this unhappy civil war to a speedy and satis- 1860, of the Union party, factory conclusion, by the restoration, in its for the Vice - Presidency, integrity, of that great charter of freedom said at a flag raising, at Chester, Massachu. bequeathed to us by Washington and his setts, April 27th : “ We set up this standard, compatriots." This was the patriotism of not as a matter of idle display, but as an exthe Democratic nominee for the Presidency pression indicative that in the mighty strugin 1848. The Democratic nominee of 1852 gle which has been forced upon us, we are of was scarcely less decided in his advice to his one heart and one mind—that the Govern

countrymen. At a mass ment of the country must be sustained. All meeting held in Concord, former differences of opinion are swept away.

New Hampshire, ex-Presi- We forget that we have ever been partisans. dent Pierce said :

We remember only that we are Americans." “Should the hope which I have expressed not be Mr. B. F. Hallett, a leading Breckenridge realized, which, may a beneficent Providence forbid, Democrat, on the same occasion, made a and a war of aggression is to be waged against the strong Union speech, while B. F. Butler, the National Capital and the North, then there is no

Breckenridge Democratic nominee for Goverway for us, as citizens of the old Thirteen States, but to stand together and uphold the flag to the last, in the field—the first Brigadier-General in

nor, in Massachusetts, in 1860, was already with all the rights which pertain to it, and with the

the Union Volunteer army. fidelity and endurance of brave men. I would counsel you to stand together with one mind and one

These quotations indicate the remarkable heart, calm, faithful, and determined. But give no

unity of sympathy and purpose among the countenance to passion and violence, which are

Northern people. Such sentiments uttered really unjust, and often in periods like these are the by late opponents of the dominant party, harbingers of domestic strife. Be just to yourselves, could be inspired only by the profound love

just to others, true to your country, and may God, of country which lies beneath all partisan who has so greatly blessed our fathers, graciously feeling in every true American heart. Like interpose in this hour of clouds and darkness, and the majestic forests and hills of our continent, save both extremities of the country, and to cause

only awaiting the coming of the tempest to the old flag to be upheld by all hands and all hearts. fill the air with their grand diapason and Born in the State of New Hampshire, I intend that

sublime harmonies, the people remain apart here shall repose my bones. I would not live in a

in moments of peace, yet solid and unbroken State, the rights and honor of which I was not pre

in time of danger. pared to defend at all hazards, and to the last ex

The commercial commutremity." Robert J. Walker, of Mis- nity of the North, more

Community. sissippi, Secretary of the than any other class of citi

Treasury in the Cabinet of zens, had suffered by the bad faith of the Mr. Pierce, said, at a meeting of the citizens South. The custom had become fixed, in of Staten Island, April 27th : “Let me say to business circles, to credit the Southern plantyou, without hesitation, that the time for er and merchant for terms of eighteen months truce, for compromise, is past. We cannot to two years, while merchants of the compromise with traitors. We cannot com- North and West were considered “accommopromise with rebellion. Rebellion must be dated,” if granted a four months' credit. suppressed by the strong arm of the Govern- The Southern purchaser, too, could buy to ment. That flag must float, as it did six almost any amount, simply upon proving that months ago, over the entire Union. There he came from some Slave region; while the must not be one stripe polluted or a star ef- merchant from the Free States had to stand faced. We have but one alternative before well on the books of that court of personal

The Commercial

Robert J. Walker.

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Chamber of Com. merce Resolutions.

inquisition, the “Commer- other in their efforts in beThe Commercial

The Commercial cial Agency,” before he half of the National cause. Community.

Community. could

a dollar's From the spirit of patriotworth of goods. This partiality was a base ism thus engendered, it was only necessary reflection on the integrity of the Northern cus- to open the volunteer lists to place Govtomer, and a pusillanimous concession to ernment in possession of six hundred and “Southern honor," as events only too painfully sixty thousand of the best men ever brought demonstrated. The shipwreck of hundreds of into the field. business houses in Philadelphia, New York, A meeting of the New York Chamber of Boston, Providence, Cincinnati, St. Louis and Commerce, held April 19th, more distinctly Pittsburg, doing a “Southern business,” was represented the commercial sentiment of the an argument wiser than words to prove the North. The resolutions, unanimously adoptinfatuation of Northern busines men in the

ed by that eminent corporate body, deserve matter of Southern credits. [See Vol. I., page quotation for their determined expression of 497.)

opinion and purposes :The unanimity in sustaining the course of Whereas, Our country has, the National Administration, manifested by in the course of events, reachthe commercial men of the North, reflected ed a crisis unprecedented in its honorably on their patriotism. If their patri- past history, exposing it to extreme dangers, and otic ardor was intensified by their losses and involving the most momentous results; and whereas, insulted confidence, it may be excused. In the President of the United States has, by his Procall the imposing demonstrations made in lamation, made known the dangers which threaten

the stability of Government, and called upon the the loyal States, the men of commerce sus

people to rally in support of the Constitution and tained a leading part — committing them-laws; and whereas, the merchants of New York, selves, without reserve, to the work of sup- represented in this Chamber, have a deep stake in pressing the rebellion and of punishing its the results which may flow from the present exposabettors.* At the vast meeting held in New ed state of national affairs, as well as a jealous reYork city, April 20th, to sustain the Govern- gard for the honor of that flag under whose protecment, almost every “solid” man of the city tion they have extended the commerce of this city participated. The wealth and influence there to the remotest part of the world ; therefore, represented it was estimated comprised, in a Resolved, that this Chamber, alive to the perils merely material point of view, an amount which have been gathering around our cherished sufficient to arm, equip and keep in the field form of Government, and menacing its overthrow, an army of two hundred thousand men--so

has witnessed with lively satisfaction the determitruly gigantic was the demonstration. Simi- nation of the President to maintain the Constitution

and vindicate the supremacy of Government and lar meetings were held in all the great com

law at every hazard. mercial centres of the North, while interior

Resolved, That the so-called secession of some cities, towns and villages vied with each

of the Southern States having at last culminated in * The case of the eminent dry-goods merchant, open war against the United States, the American Alexander T. Stewart, of New York city, is a repre people can no longer defer their decision between sentative instance of the feeling prevalent in his anarchy or despotism on the one side, and on the class. It having been rumored that he had given other liberty, order, and law under the most benign the Government one million of dollars, he stated in Government the world has ever known. & communication to the public, that, all he had was Resolved, that this Chamber, forgetful of past at the service of his country—that he owed all to differences of political opinion among its members, the inestimable blessings bestowed by the Union, will, with unanimity and patriotic ardor, support and would freely give all in defense of that Union. the Government in this great crisis : and it hereby Cornelius Vanderbilt, the great ship-owner, hastened pledges its best efforts to sustain its credit and to present his finest ocean steamer to the Govern- facilitate its financial operations. It also confiment, and to offer a second steamer for what the dently appeals to all men of wealth to join in these Government saw proper to pay. These instances efforts. of magnanimous devotion were, indeed, so numerous

Resolved, That while deploring the advent of that it is difficult to choose which to mention. civil war, which has been precipitated on the coun.


merce Resolutions.


try by the madness of the ports of such States, or any other State that shall join Chamber of Com

South, the Chamber is per them, and that this measure is demanded for defense

suaded that policy and hu- in war, as also for protection to the commerce of the manity alike demand that it should be met by the United States against these so-called 'privateers,' most prompt and energetic measures; and it ac. invited to enroll under the authority of such States. cordingly recommends to Government the instant Resolved, That the Chamber of Commerce of the adoption and prosecution of a policy so vigorous State of New York pledges its hearty and cordial and resistless, that it will crush out treason now support to such measures as the Government of the and forever.

United States may, in its wisdom, inaugurate and ** Resolved, That the proposition of Mr. Jefferson carry through in the blockade of such ports." Davis to issue letters of marque to whosoever may The participation of re

The Religious apply for them, emanating from no recognized ligious bodies in the events

Sentiment. Government, is not only without the sanction of of the day was not the public law, but piratical in its tendencies, and least memorable feature of the great uprising. therefore deserving the stern condemnation of the As the churches of the South lent their aid oivilized world. It cannot result in the fitting out

to the cause of secession, (see Vol. I., pages of regular privateers, but may, in infesting the 136, 137,) and, eventually, became one of the ocean with piratical cruisers, armed with traitorous

most virulent elements in propagating hates commissions, to despoil our commerce, and that of

at which devils must have stood aghast, so all other maritime nations.

Resolved, That in view of this threatening evil, the religious element at the North entered it is, in the opinion of this Chamber, the duty of into the contest, but in a spirit of solemnity our Government to issue at once a proclamation, appropriate to its Christian character. warning all persons that privateering under the From the spires of Roman Catholic Cathecommissions proposed will be dealt with as simple dra's, Jewish Synagogues, and of “Orthodox” piracy. It owes this duty not merely to itself, but churches generally, from “Trinity" and to other maritime nations, who have a right to de. “Grace," down to the humble chapel on the maid that the United States Government shall obscure street, floated the American flag-a promptly discountenance every attempt within its sight to arrest attention and to excite comborders to legalize piracy. It should, also, at the

mingled emotions of reverence and military earliest moment, blockade every Southern port, so

enthusiasm. Trinity's chimes pealed forth, as to prevent the egress and ingress of such vessels.

and the very atmosphere seemed Resolved, that the Secretary be directed to send

nant of “Hail Columbia,” “Star Spangled copies of these resolutions to the Chambers of Commerce of other cities, inviting their co-opera-Banner," “ Red, White and Blue” and “Yantion in such measures as may be deemed effective kee Doodle," as regiment after regiment in strengthening the hands of Government in this pressed onward, over the thronged highway, emergency.

to take transport for Washington. This paResolved. That a copy of these resolutions, duly | triotic outburst of the wealthiest religious attested by the officers of the Chamber, be forwardbody in the country was not the exception of ed to the President of the United States."

churches of its denomination. It is charged “Whereas, War against the that during the first War for Independence Constitution and Government the Episcopalians were not, as a body, loyal;

of these United States has been but, it will not be said that, in the second commenced, and is carried on by certain combina- War for Independence they were found wanttions of individuals, assuming to act for States at

ing in devotion to their country. Bishop the South, claiming to have seceded from the United

Potter, of Pennsylvania, published a form of Statis; and, ** Whereas, Such combinations have officially pro

prayer for his congregations, embodying most mulgated an invitation for the enrollment of ves

loyal sentiments-an example soon followed sels, to act under their authorization, and, as so- by every Protestant Episcopal Bishop of the called 'privateers,' against the flag and commerce Free States, as well as by the Bishops of Delaof the United States; therefore,

ware and Maryland. The Bishop of Delaware Resolved, By the Chamber of Commerce of the took early occasion to express his views and State of New York, That the United States Govern- wishes in the crisis. He said :ment be recommended and urged to blockade the

“ Another duty that I feel bound to present to the


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The Jews.

Christian citizen, is that of sustaining the consti- | no misgiving. Still desirous of peace, when the tuted authorities, and rallying under our country's Providence of God shall have brought it, I may say banner. We have been for years enjoying the that since the period of my naturalization, I have blessing of a mild, paternal, and Constitutional Gov. none but one country. In reference to my duties ernment, under whose gentle, beneficent sway every as a citizen, no change has come over my mind eitizen has been safe at home and respected abroad; since then. The Government of the United States liberty and property have been secure ; industry was then, as it is now, symbolized by a national has been encouraged, and every civil right and so fag, popularly called • The Stars and Stripes. This cial blessing has been enjoyed to the fullest extent. has been my flag, and shall be to the end. I trust

“When such a Government is assailed by vio- it is still destined to display in the gales that sweep lence, shall not those who have so long experienced every ocean, and amid the gentle breezes of many its benefits rise as one man in its defense, and pre

a distant shore, as I have seen it in foreign lands, sent a solid front to its enemies?

its own peculiar waving lines of beauty. May it “ The question is not now one of names, or of

live and continue to display these same waving men, or of parties. It is one of country, of liberty, lines of beanty, whether at home or abroad, for a of national existence, of life or death. The Chief thousand years and afterwards, as long as Heaven Magistrate of the great American Republic repre. permits, without limit of duration." sents in his person the majesty of the law. He is The Jews came up to the the nation's head, and the blow struck at him is crisis with earnestness and aimed at the Constitution and at the people, at real devotion. The Rev. Dr. Raphael, who, every home and every bosom. We are in the midst in the fall of 1860, had preached a powerful of a sterner crisis that were the men of 76. What

sermon in behalf of the righteousness and would have been the restoration of British rule over beneficence of human slavery, invoked the the thirteen colonies--a rule which had proved so

God of Israel to crush out the enemies of the generally beneficent and honorable to its subjects, Union, and to bless the cause of the North. what would this have been in comparison with the danger now threatening the subversion of all au

Many of the rabbis preached quite in the thority—the tyranny of an unprincipled and des. spirit of the days of the prophets. potic usurpation, and the reducing of the goodly

The spirit of the Methofabric of national grandeur to a shapeless heap ? dists was happily illustratOur dearest earthly interests are now at stake, and ed in the opening prayer of the New York the welfare of children, and of children's children, East Methodist Conference, April 16th : trembles in this balance."

“ Grant, O God, that all the efforts now being The venerable Bishop McIlvaine, of Ohio, made to overthrow rebellion in our distracted coun. in his address to the forty-first annual con- try, may be met with every success. Let the forces vention of his diocese, uttered most decided that have risen against our Government, and thy sentiments, demanding devotion to the cause law, be scattered to the winds, and may no enemies of the Union as a solemn and imperative duty. be allowed to prevail against us. Grant, o God,

that those who have aimed at the very heart of the Archbishop Hughes, one Loyalty of

Republic may be overthrown. We ask thee to Archbishop Hughes. of the acknowledged heads

bring these men to destruction, and wipe them from of the Roman Catholic the face of the country!" Church in America, placed the American The Baptists expressed Aag upon his cathedral spire, and by his loyal their convictions in the

The Baptists. sentiments, freely uttered, served to inspire following stirring resolves : the multitudes of his people with unbounded

“ The Assembly of Baptists, gathered from the enthusiasm in the Union's cause. The Arch- various Northern States of the Union, would, at tho bishop addressed a letter to the Chairman of present solemn crisis of the national history, put on the committee calling the great Union meet record some expression of their judgment, 23 ing in New York, April 20th, expressing his Christians loving their country, and seeking, in the sentiments on the question of the hour. We fear and from the grace of God, its best interests. quote:

* Resolved, That the doctrine of secession is for. “ It is now fifty years since, a foreigner by birth, eign to our Constitution--revolutionary and suici. I took the oath of allegiance to this country, under dal, setting out in anarchy, and finding its ultimato its title of the United States of America. As re

issue in despotism. gards conscience, patriotism, or judgment, I have

Resolved, that the National Government deserves

The Methodists.

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