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The Queen's Proclamation to Enforce Neutrality 474 struction in Pensacola Harbor of the Pri.
Opinion of the Attorney General on the Suspen. Report of the Committee appointed by the Vir.
sion of the Writ of Habeas Corpus...... 480 ginia State Convention to suggest Amend-
The Battle of Bull Run-Cause of its Disaster.. 507 Protest against the Defensive Policy...
508 Governor Letcher's Message of Jan. 6th, 1862,
HISTORICAL SUMMARY OF EVENTS-NO 3.
FROM MARCH 4TH, TO APRIL 15TH, 1861.
March 4.- Inauguration of Abraham Lincoln as strength to take part in the momentous struggle President (the sixteenth) of the United States until impending. March 4th, 1865. An inmense concourse in attend.
-Dispatches from every section of the Union inance upon the ceremony. A large military force is dicate that the Inaugural Message of Mr. Lincoln is distributed throughout the city to suppress any out- favorably regarded by the great majority. It is break. No violence offered. After the Inaugura- looked upon as a peace offering. The Secessionists tion. Mr. Lincoln is driven to the White House, ac in the South, and their allies in the North see war companied by Mr. Buchanan, and installed by the in its views regarding the duty of the Executive to retiring President. The retiring President imme. enforce the laws. diately departed for his home in Pennsylvania.
-Drafts drawn by Mr. Dix and Mr. King (Post-The Texas State Convention proclaims the master-General) on the New Orleans Assistant Act of Secession. Governor Houston submits to United States Treasurer, in payment of work done the authority of the Convention, and issues his on the New Orleans Custom-house, and for requiting proclamation declaring Texas to be no longer one mail-contractors in the Seceded States, are returned of the States of the Federal Union.
unpaid. Over five hundred thousand dollars in gola --A dispatch from Montgomery announces the belonging to the United States was in the Treasurer's
hands at the time. anfurling from the Capitol of the flag of the Confederate States of America. It consists of three broad
---Martin J. Crawford and John Forsythe, two of bars, red, white, and red, with a blue field and three Commissioners from the Confederate States seven stars. The stars to increase in number as the to Washington, arrive in Washington, States multiply.
March 6.--Fort Brown, Texas, surrendered by — The Message of Mr. Lincoln is received at Captain Hill to the revolutionists, by special agree.
ment. The garrison is to be sent North. Montgomery, and is pronounced a war declara.
March 7.-The Louisiana State Convention trang. tion."
fers the money seized ($536,000) belonging to the --Arkansas State Convention meets. Elects United States Government to the Confederate “Union' officers, by six majority.
States Government. --Salutes are fired in many Northern cities in -Braxton Bragg commissioned Brigadier-General honor of the Inauguration. People, generally, con in the service of the Confederate Government, and gratulate themselves on the peaceful result of the dispatched to Pensacola to assume chief command ceremony, and the character of the Inaugural Ad of operations there. Wm. J. Hardee was also con. dress.
firmed as Colonel. Both were officers in the United --Brigadier-General Beauregard commissioned States Army. and ordered to the chief command of the troops in -The Louisiana Legislature passes a resolution and around Charleston, South Carolina.
approving the conduct of General Twiggs. -The slaver Bonila, at Savannah, is “ taken" by March 8.-The Army bill passed by the Confed. Governor Brown, and armed, as the first ship of erate Congress. It calls fifty thousand troops into Georgia's navy.
the field for immediate service. - The Richmond (Va.) papers state that the most - It is announced from Raleigh, North Carolina, active military preparations are going forward in that the late vote in that State resulted in a major. that city. The State Armory is in full operation, ity of six hundred and fifty-one against holding a turning out from seven to eight thousand rifle and Convention. musket cartridges per day. At the Tredegar Iron
- The Missouri Senate passes resolutions instruct. Works cannon of the best description are being ing Senators in Congress, and members of the House rapidly cast, together with great quantities of shot still at Washington, to oppose the passage of all acts and shell.
granting supplies, men, and money to coerce the March 5.-A dispatch from New Orleans to Seceding States into submission or subjugation ; Washington announced that the United States rev. and that, should such acts be passed by Congress, enue-cutter Dodge had been seized in Galveston Missouri's Senators be instructed and its RepresentBay, by the Texan authorities.
atives be requested to retire from the halls of ---General Twiggs receives a public reception in Congress. New Orleans, in honor of his treason. He makes a March 9.--Alabama State Convention turns over speech, in which he remarked that he prayed for all arms, forts, munitions, &c., seized from the United States Government, to the Confederate Gov. -By proclamation of General Bragg, all vessels ernment.
are prohibited to furnish supplies to war vessels off March 10.- It is reported at Washington that such Pensacola or to Fort Pickens, under penalty of for. word has been received from Major Anderson as to
feiture to the Confederation. render the evacuation or the reprovisioning of Fort -A long list of the Confederate army and navy Sumter & necessity. Great excitement exists in appointments is published. Nearly all of them wers consequence. General Scott is willing to assume formerly Federal officers. the responsibility of the withdrawal, considering it March 22.- The Missouri Convention adjournsimpossible to throw in reenforcements and provi. having passed no ordinance of secession. sions, except at great cost of life.
--A dispatch from New Orleans says: “ The ComMarch 12.--The Southern Commissioners, Messrs. missioners of the Confederate States to Europe-Crawford and Forsythe, communicate their mission Messrs. Yancey, Mann, and Rost—will leave here on to Secretary Seward, pronounce their Government the 31st inst. for Havana, and connect with the an independency de facto et de jure, and request a day British steamer of the 7th of April for England.” to be named when they may present to the President
- Alexander H. Stephens makes a speech at Satheir credentials,
vannah, (Georgia,) expounding the principles and March 13.--The Georgia Convention turns over
purposes of the new Confederacy. He argued that all forts, arsenals, arms, &c., seized from the Fed
negro slavery was the “chief corner-stone of the eral Government, to the Confederate Government.
new edifice." [See History of Rebellion, Vol. I., -The Charleston (South Carolina) Courier of to pages 30, 31.] day says the batteries bearing on the ship channel March 26.-The South Carolina State Convention are of the heaviest kind, and that they are now in a reassembles. high state of preparation, and ready for any force
March 27.-Colonel Lamon, Mr. Lincoln's special that may be sent against them. It believes the reenforcement of Fort Sumter an impossibility. It es
messenger to Fort Sumter returns and reports favoratimates that three thousand highly-disciplined troops satistied that reenforcements cannot be introduced
bly upon the condition of the garrison, but is fully are in the various fortifications.
without a serious collision, and that the attempt to --Seats of United States Senators from the Se. | introduce them would be of doubtful success with ceded States declared vacant, and their names the force now at the command of the Administra&tricken from the roll.
tion. He describes the military preparations of the March 15.--Mr. Seward, Secretary of State, an. rebels as of great magnitude, and very skilfully swers the communication of the Southern Commis- | made. sioners, Messrs. Crawford and Forsythe, by a “mem.
April 2.--Gov. Houston sends a message to the orandum,” without signature, refusing to recognize Texas Legislature protesting against the Convention, the agents in any public capacity, &c. This " mem- appealing to the Legislature to sustain him, and orandurn" was not called for by the Commissioners claiming still to be Governor. The Legislature took until April 8th--understanding it to be a refusal of
not the slightest notice of it. recognition.
April 4.-Virginia Legislature adjourns. The March 16.—The Montgomery Congress adjourns, Convention still ia session. Proceedings are highly to meet again the 28 Monday in May.
exciting. The Secessionists evidently have the up. -The Texas State Convention passes an ordi- | per hand. nance declaring, on the refusal of Governor Houston -A dispatch from Washington reads: “ The Adto take the oath under the State Constitution, the ministration has determined to reenforce Fort office of Governor vacant, and appointing Lieuten- | Pickens, at all hazards. This determination has not ant-Governor Clark Governor. The ollice of Secre- | yet been officially announced, but there is reason to tary of State is also declared vacant.
believe that active nieasures will be taken at once Convention" of about twenty persons held for the relief of Lieut. Slemmer's command. The a session at Mesilla, in Arizona, and voted that Ter: troops of the Confederate Stutes are rapidly concenritory out of the Union. An election for Congress.trating at Pensacola, under command of General men to the Confederate Congress was ordered. Bragg, and preparations are making for a decisive March 18.--The Texas Legislature met. The mem
movement. Bragg has nearly four thousand troops bers of the House and Senate took the oath of alle
under his command, all well armed and in a state of giance to the new Government, a few of them under efficiency. Lieut. Slemmer is prepared for the worst, protest. Governor Houston and the Secretary of
and will sustain the honor of his tag to the last. State have retired from their offices and surrendered April 5-8.—The steamers Atlantic, Baltic, and the archives. Governor Houston had issued an ap. Illinois, load at New York with Navy stores, munipeal to the people denouncing the State Convention. tions, &c. Much excitement prevails as to their March 20.--The Arkansas Convention adjouros,
destination. The frigate Powhatan is hurriedly after having rejected an ordinance of secession. It put into commission, at New York, and sails south, was decided, however, to take a vote of the people, April 6th. Great activity at the Brooklyn, the Philia in August, on the question of " secession or “no
delphia, and the Charlestown (Mass.) Navsoyards. secession."
Every Government vessel of war, it is understood, is
ordered out of ordinary, to be fitted for commission. --The Texas Legislatnre passes a resolution ap. proving of the Convention act deposing Governor
April 5.—Kentucky Legislature adjourns. No acHouston.
tion taken looking to secession, or resistance to tho
April 6.-Great excitement prevails throughout vention.
the South in consequence of the great naval nove. HISTORICAL SUMMARY.
ments announced. Gen. Beauregard announces to ed orders from Norfolk. She mounts 10 guns and Major Anderson that no further communications will carries 200 men. be allowed with the band--thus placing him in a
April 10.-Sloop-of-war Jamestown and frigate Sl. state of siege.
Lawrence at the Philadelphia Navy-yard, ordered to April 8.-A dispatch from Montgomery says: be fitted for sea forthwith. “ The Cabinet here have just concluded a protracted
--Troops mustering in Washington from the milie session on the course to be pursued in the present tia. Adjutant-General McDowell is organizing thein serious crisis. Jefferson Davis strongly urged an
into regiments and preparing them for service. aggressive policy towards the United States, and it Additional forces of regulars ordered to the Capital: was at length decided to instruct the Commissioners Sherman's Artillery from Fort Ridgely, in Minnesota, at Washington to present their ultimatum to Presi- and two companies of cavalry ordered to report im. dent Lincoln, and if it should not be accepted, to mediately at Washington. The active preparadeclare war."
tions are understood to result from the known pres. -A dispatch from Charleston says: “Vessels ence, in the vicinity of Washington, of Colonel Ben have been ordered from the range of fire between McCullough, the Texan Ranger, who, having secured Fort Sumter and Sullivan's Island. The floating bat- the United States forts in Texas, has hurried to the tery sails at 7 o'clock this evening for a point near East to lead an attempt upon the Capital. Fort Sumter. A house has just been blown up near -A dispatch from Charleston says: “ Troops are the five-gun battery. Business has been suspended, pouring in from the interior and all is ready for a and fearful excitement prevails. Gen. Beauregard Collision. Fort Sumter will be attacked without has ordered out 5,000 more troops. Companies of
waiting for the Abolition fleet. Eagerness for the volunteers are constantly arriving and being put in conflict is unbounded. Messrs. Wigfall, Chesnut, position in the harbor. New batteries are also being Roylston, and others, have secured a place on Gen. constructed."
Beauregard's staff. The floating battery, finished, - More steamers chartered as transports at New mounted, and manned, was taken out of the dock last York. Great amounts of stores, arms and munitions evening and moored in the cove near Sullivan's Islare being shipped. The armed revenue-cutter Har. and. The Convention has just adjourned, subject to riet Lane puts to sea with sealed orders, followed the call of its President. A large number of its by the steam-tugs Yankee and Uncle Ben. The frig. members, after adjournment, volunteered as priate (steam) Wabash, the sloop Savannah, and the vates. About 7,000 troops are in the defences, with gun-boat Perry, at the Brooklyn Navy-yard, are as many more in reserve." being rapidly prepared for sea.
-L. P. Walker, Secretary of War of the Confeder- Lieutenant Talbot arrives in Charleston, to say
ate States, orders General Beauregard to demand that Major Anderson would be supplied with provi- the evacuation of Fort Sumter, which demand he is sions at every hazard. The messenger was denied
to enforce by proceeding to reduce the fort. access to Anderson. Immense preparations were
April 11.- The Southern Commissioners, Messrs. immediately made to repel the reenforcement or Crawford, Forsythe, and Roman, left Washington tosupply, come in what shape it might. All Charleg. day. Before leaving they transmitted (April 9th] to ton was under arms, and the united defences of the Secretary Seward a rejoinder, setting forth their herbor and city placed ready for action.
reasons for departing, and replying to the positions
assumed in his answers to their demands. It was - The State Department at Washington replies to the Confederate State Commissioners, declin- very severe in its tone, charging duplicity on the ing to receive them in their official capacity, but part of the Secretary. They take the ground that
they have exhausted every resource for a peaceful expressing deference for them as gentlemen. The solution of the existing difficulties, and that if civil Secretary expresses a peaceful policy on the part
war results, on the head of the Federal Government of the Government, declaring a purpose to defend
will rest the responsibility. They charge the Adonly when assailed.
ministration with gross perfidy, insisting that under April 9.-Gov. Curtin sends a message to the Penn the shelter of the pretext and assertion that Fort sylvania Legislature, recommending that the State Sumter was to be evacuated, an immense armada be, at once, placed on a footing of military effici
has been dispatched to provision and reenforce that ency, and readiness. He also stated that Mr. Lin
fort. They repeat they had almost daily indirect coln had informed him of a design to attack and assurances from the Administration that Fort Sumseize the Capital.
ter was positively to be abandoned, and that all the --A dispatch from Washington says the designs of Government's efforts were to be directed towards the Government are peaceful--that unarmed ships peace. The Commissioners allege that the Governare to supply United States forts with required pro. ment at Montgomery was earnestly desirous of vision, troops, &c. If they are assaulted, the respon-peace; and that, in accordance with it. Instructions, sibility of inangurating war would rest with the as well as their own feelings, they left no means un. assailants.
exhausted to secure that much-desired end ; but all - A requisition was made by Jefferson Davis upon their efforts having failed, they were now forced to the Confederate States for 3,500 troops from each, / return to an outraged people with the object of except Florida, which was required to furnish 1,500, their mission unaccomplished; and they express tlio all for immediate service.
firm conviction that war is inevitable. --The Steam transports Ilinois and Baltic get to --A formal demand made by General Beauregard, . sea--the first having 300 and the latter 160 troops of Major Anderson, for the surrender of Fort Sumter. o: board. The Atlantic steamer sailed April 7th, Anderson refused compliance with this demand. with 358 troops.
April 12.–At one o'clock, A. M., a second demand -The Steam Sloop of War Pawnee sails under seal. was made, or rather proposition, in which Beauregard says, if Anderson will name a day for with-, entered one of the embrasures with a flag of truce. drawing, and will not use his guns, he (Beauregard] | He said Beauregard wished the firing stopped, and would abstain from firing on him. Anderson replied asked upon what terms Anderson would evacuate. that he would evacuate [if means of transport were The answer was, “ Upon the terms I proposed, and afforded him] on the 15th, if, in the meantime he was on those only." Wigfall disappeared with the annot controlled by instructions from his government, swer. Soon another deputation from Beauregard or if additional supplies were not sent him. He came, proposing to treat for terms, when Anderson agreed not to open his guns if some hostile act was informed them of Wigfall's proceedings-at which not committed against him.
the deputation marveled. Terms finally accepted --Beauregard, by his aids, James Chesnut, Jr., as Anderson first proposed. and Stephen D. Lee, at 3. 20 A. Y., informed Ander- - Three Commissioners from the Virginia State son that the batteries would open fire on him in one Convention to the President of the United States hour from that time.
call upon Mr. Lincoln, and demand to know what --Fire opened on Sumter from all the rebel bat- are his purposes in regard to the Confederate States. teries, fortifications, and the floating battery-the The President replies that if an unprovoked assault first gun being fired at 4. 30 A. M. Anderson re.
has been made on Fort Sumter, he shall hold bimturned the fire soon after daylight.
self at liberty to repossess it - to repel force by
force. This the Commissioners [Messrs. Preston, - The bombardment of Fort Sumter. The bar. Stuart, and Randolpb) report to the State Conven. racks in the fort on fire three times. Flames sup- tion, (December 14th,) when it is regarded as a De. pressed. Firing is furious on both sides.
claration of War, and immediate steps are taken to -Walker, Secretary of War, in reply to a sere- place Virginia in a state of preparation for secession nade in honor of the bombardment then going on, and resistance. said that, by the 1st of May, the Confederate flag April 14.-Evacuation of Fort Sumter by Anderwould float over the dome of the Capitol at Wash. son. The men all march out with their arms. All ington-it might, eventually, float over Faneuil individual and company baggage accompanied them. Hall itself.
The flag is saluted with a salvo of fifty guns, and is — The Legislature of Pennsylvania passes a bill borne away by the troops. The band plays
“ Yan. for placing the State on a war footing. Five hun. kee Doodle” and “Hail to the Chief” during the de. dred thousand dollars are appropriated for arming barkation. and equipping the military.
- Profound excitement throughout the entire April 13.--The bombardment of Fort Sumter con- country. But one feeling seems to animate the tinued. The barracks again on fire. Flames obtain North--that the Government is right, and shall be control, and the conflagration becomes general in supported to the last extremity. Military compa. the fort, consuming all wood-work. Magazine has nies, regiments, individuals, hasten to offer their serto be closed, and the men are stified with the in-vices. Governor Sprague, of Rhode Island, offers tense heat and dense smoke. The bombardment the Marine Artillery and one thousand Infantry for continues with renewed vigor--hot shot and shell instant service, together with his own services. pouring into the fort. The upper service magazine Other Governors were prepared to do likewise, explodes, tearing away the tower and upper por. when the news of a proclamation came. tions of the building. Fire spread to the gates, April 15.-President Lincoln issues a proclama. which were consumed. Fort is fast becoming a tion, announcing a state of insurrection in the Seven mere ruin--the shot and shell from the rebel batter- Seceded States too powerful for suppression by the ies cutting away the walls freely. The flag-staff is ordinary courts and marshals, and therefore calls out shot down, when Lieutenant Hall, rushing through the militia, to the number of seventy-five thousand, the appalling fire, brought it into the casemates. to cause the laws to be duly respected. The prociaThe flag was nailed to the staff and planted on the mation also convenes both Houses of Congress, to ramparts. Seeing the flag down, Wigfall, one of assemble on the 4th day of July, to consider and deBeauregard's aids, passed over to the fortress and termine such measures as the crisis demands.