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keen eye, stout frame, active, ready, with a rich, deep voice, he seems to have dropped into the Senate full-armed. He is a Welshman, came to this country with his parents when he was less than a year old, settled in the northern part of Ohio, went out to California very young, engaged in farming and mining in one of the inland counties, which he subsequently represented in the Legislature, moved to Nevada in 1860, and within a few years became one of the richest men in the country, if not in the world, judging by the reports of his marvellous profits from a celebrated silver-mine, said to be the most productive on earth. California's Senators are of the same school. Aaron A. Sargent, born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, September 28, 1827, printer and editor in early life, emigrated to California in 1849, elected to the Thirty-seventh and Forty-first and reelected to the Forty-second Congress, subsequently to the United States Senate to succeed Senator Cole, taking his seat March 4, 1873. He is one of the ablest-debaters in either House-resolute, elastic, and energetic. Mr. Sargent tells the story that when he was a journeyman printer he walked the streets of Philadelphia without being able to get employment at his trade. His colleague, John S. Hager, successor to Eugene Casserly (resigned), is a Democrat, was born in Morris County, New Jersey, March 12, 1818, moved to California in 1849, and has filled many judicial and political offices. Both the Oregon Senators, James K. Kelly (Democrat) and John H. Mitchell (Republican), were born in Pennsylvania-Kelly in Centre County, in 1819, and Mitchell in Washington County, in 1835. The first moved to California in 1849, and the second to Oregon in 1860. Senator Thurman, of Ohio, was born at Lynchburg, Virginia, November 13, 1813, and moved to Ohio in 1819. William Gannaway Brownlow, of Tennessee, was born in Wythe County, Virginia, 1805, and moved to Tennessee in 1828. I do not know sixty-nine years of any life so full of incident and novelty as that of the veteran Brownlow, of whom I shall speak on another occasion. Senator Arthur Boreman, of West Virginia (Republican), was born at Waynesburg, Pennsylvania, in 1823, moving with his father to West Virginia when a child. His colleague, Henry G. Davis (Democrat), was born the same year, in Howard County, Maryland. Senator Timothy O. Howe, of Wisconsin, was born at Livermore, Maine, in 1816, and moved to Wisconsin in 1845. His colleague, Matthew W. Carpenter, President of the Senate, was born at Moretown, Vermont, in 1824; was two years a cadet at West Point; studied law with Rufus Choate; and moved to Wisconsin in 1848. Both of these are distinguished men. Howe would have been a splendid Chief-justice, while Carpenter stands at the head of his profession. Of course, the Senators from the newer States are pioneers or emigrants. Thomas W. Tipton and Phineas W. Hitchcock, the two Nebraska Senators, were born, the first at Cadiz, Ohio, in 1817, and the second at New Lebanon, New York, in 1831. The new Northern Senators from the South are all in the same category. Senator James Lush Alcorn, of Mississippi, was born in 1816, in Illinois, moving early into Kentucky, where he held several offices; and next into Mississippi, in 1844, where he served in various positions in the Legislature as a Whig representative. His colleague, Henry R. Pease, was born in Connecticut, in 1835, entered the Union army as a private soldier in 1861, was sent into Mississippi in 1867, after the war, as Superintendent of the Education of the Freedmen. He succeeded Adelbert Ames (Republican), sonin-law of General Butler, who was elected Governor in 1874. Senator Chandler, of Michigan, was born in New Bedford, New Hampshire, in 1813. Senator West, of New Orleans, was born in that city, September 19, 1822; but is properly a Pennsylvanian, having resided there the best part of his early life. He was in the Mexican war, went to California in 1849, where he was the proprietor of a newspaper, whence he entered the army as a Lieutenant-colonel of the First California Infantry. Elected to the Senate in 1871, his term expired March 3, 1877. The two Senators from Kansas are comparatively young men, both born in 1833—the one, John James Ingalls, at Middletown, Massachusetts, and the other, James M. Harvey, in Monroe County, Virginia. Ingalls served till 1879, and Harvey till 1877. So with both the Senators from Iowa. George G. Wright was born in Indiana in 1820, and W. B. Allison at Perry, Ohio, in 1829--two strong men. Judge Wright is the brother of the well-known Governor Jos. A. Wright, of Indiana, who sat in the Senate as the successor of Jesse D. Bright from 1862 until 1863, when he was appointed by President Lincoln a Commissioner to attend the Hamburg Exhibition, and in 1865 was sent by President Johnson Minister to Prussia, dying at Berlin March 11, 1867. Senator Pratt, of Indiana, was born at Palermo, Maine, October 26, 1813, and removed to Indiana in 1832. Senator Richard J. Oglesby, of Illinois, was born in Kentucky, July 25, 1824; but settled in Illinois, at Decatur, where he still lives, in 1836. For his high abilities and social qualities, he was one of the most reserved members of the Senate. He has been in that body more than a year, and has made, I believe, but one or two short speeches. Both the Senators from Florida were Northern men, the one, Abijah Gilbert, was born in New York, and the other, Simon B. Conover, in New Jersey, in 1840. The same with both the Senators from Arkansas-Powell Clayton, born in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, in 1833, and Stephen W. Dorsey, born in Vermont in 1842; both Union soldiers, and both educated and competent men. Senator George E. Spencer, of Alabama, was born in Jefferson County, New York, in 1836. Senator John J. Patterson, of South Carolina, was born in Juniata County, Pennsylvania. The two Minnesota Senators, Alexander Ramsey, born near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, September 8, 1815, and William Windom, in Belmont County, Ohio, May 10, 1827, complete the list of what I have called pioneer men, or rather men moving from the old States into the new, or from the North into the South. They constituted powerful elements in an era of assimilation and intercourse.
I could illustrate my point more fully if I had time by showing how the pioneer column is represented in the House in our new States and Territories. The multitudes precipitated upon the Pacific coast in 1849, after the gold discovery, have all been represented in Congress by emigrants like Gwyn and Fremont, Broderick, Casserly, McDougall, Conness, Sargent, Hager, in the Senate; and their associates and contemporaries in the House, including such adventurous and daring men as Joseph McCorkle, Joseph C. McKibbin, Edward C. Marshall, did much to fix the peculiar character of the settlements beyond the Rocky Mountains.
Not less peculiar were the men who planted themselves in the earlier Western States and those thrown by the war into the South. These latter differ from the pioneers on the Pacific coast and those who preceded them in the great Territories between the Ohio and the Missouri, because they must contend against the immeasurable prejudices of the former slaveholders; and yet they were indispensable to the newly emancipated blacks, who could not trust their former owners, and were compelled to choose from the men carried into their midst by the triumphant wave of the war. There are other characters in Congress which deserve consideration. Take the Senators and Representatives who inherited and deserve distinction. These, like the old leaders of the South, are rapidly passing away, and are giving place to new men. Thomas Francis Bayard, the Senator from Delaware, and a very able and incorruptible man, had a grandfather of his name who was a Representative in Congress in 1796, and a Senator in Congress from 1804 to 1813. His father, James A. Bayard, was chosen a United States Senator from the same State, and sat from 1851 to 1854; and his father's brother was a member of the same body, and from the same State, from 1836 to 1839, and again from 1841 to 1845. Senator John W. Stevenson, of Kentucky, is the son of Andrew Stevenson, celebrated in Virginia politics, dying aged seventythree, January 25, 1857, after having passed through a long catalogue of distinguished offices—Speaker of the House of Delegates of Virginia, Representative in Congress from 1821 to 1834, and Speaker of the National House from 1828 to 1834; also Minister to Great Britain from 1836 to 1841. His son, John W., moving to Kentucky in 1841, was equally fortunate, and is now serving out his first term in the Senate of the United States. The father and grandfather of John P. Stockton, Senator from New Jersey, both served in the Senate of the United States, and his great-grandfather was a signer of the Declaration of Independence. His Republican colleague, Frederick T. Frelinghuysen, born August 4, 1817, in Somerset County, New York, is the nephew and adopted son of Theodore Frelinghuysen, a Senator in Congress from New Jersey from 1829 to 1835, a candidate of the Whig party for Vice-President with Henry Clay, President of Rutgers College, and a leading member of the American Bible Society and other religious organizations. His father, also named Frederick, served in the Continental Congress. Hon. S. S. Cox, the brilliant Representative from New York city, strong in himself, alike by his acquirements and his native genius, at once a writer and a speaker of the highest order, now in his fifty-seventh year, editor, traveller, linguist, and Congressman, may proudly turn to his ancestry. His grandfather, General James Cox, of Upper Freehold, New Jersey, was for nearly twenty years Speaker of the Lower House of the Legislature of that State, and died as a Democratic Representative in Congress in 1808. His father was a printer and an editor, graduated from The True American office in Trenton, and in 1818 established one of the first papers in Ohio. His grandfather on his mother's side was Judge Samuel Sullivan, of Delaware. Emigrating to Ohio, he was chosen State Treasurer, and it is a curious fact that every member of