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carriage; a thoughtful countenance; a blue eye, in repose rather than vivid; and darker in complexion than the French generally. This was his appearance to me to-day.”

I wish I could transfer the many pleasing incidents now narrated by Mr. Rush under Louis Napoleon's adıninistration, but can only make room for one-alike illustrative of the admiraable tact of Chevalier Wikoff, described in my first volume (Anecdote LXXXIV), and the ready recognition of his old friend Louis :

March 13, 1849. Mr. Wikoff, of Philadelphia, called on me a few days ago, to request that I would present him to the Prince President. What need of this, I asked ? you have known the President longer than I have. I had read the account of the visit he paid the latter at Ham, when he was a State prisoner, and remembered the predictions it contained. He replied that, having recently come to Paris, he would prefer, as a stranger and an American, to be reintroduced by the Minister of his country. I replied that, although I had not been the first to suggest this, I thought he judged rightly. Accordingly, at the reception at the Palace Élysée this evening, I presented him. In doing it I had to watch the proper moment. The rooms were full. Others were being presented by the foreign ministers, and much of that ceremony was otherwise going on. I advanced nearer and nearer to where the Prince President stood, Mr. Wikoff keeping close to me. At length his turn came, and I was on the eve of doing my part, when the President, seeing who was with me, and directing his eye towards him, exclaimed, before I spoke, and in a tone of cordial recognition, “Mr. Wikoff!' It thus became unnecessary for me to mention his name first. He then took the latter by the hand and greeted him warmly. Mr. Wikoff bore himself becomingly under a recognition so complimentary, the incident having drawn attention from all near enough to witness it."

And now history is again repeating itself. The Emperor Louis Napoleon is dead; his son, the Prince Imperial, is dead; his widow, a mourner and a fugitive ; his relations feeble pretenders to a throne that never was theirs; and the French Republic established on foundations that will grow as strong and last as long as that of England, if the French Republicans continue to be as wise as they are to-day. For the first time since the Revolution of 1793, the Old World is gravitating to Liberty. A new spirit moves on the face of the human sea- -Peace. The cry for the disarmament of the nations comes even from Germany, and is re-echoed by a sweeping liberal majority in Great Britain, by bold protests against standing armies in Italy, by secret societies against the ambitions of the Czar in Russia, by attempts to kill the King of Spain, and the growing republican strength in France and Switzerland. All these signs are in the direction of amity and progress. The mission begins without kings and against kings; without armies and against armies; without ships that are not ships of commerce; and without churches save the churches of God and the people. It is this outlook which suggested the present tribute to Richard Rush. Let us, as we pause before inscrutable destiny, take heart in our own great mission and avoid the fate which always punishes treachery in the ruler, luxury in the wealthy, and ignorance and crime among the people.

Richard Rush was born in Philadelphia, August 29, 1780, and died in the same city July 30, 1859. His life was honorable, his death peaceful, and his name is preserved by a patriotic and faithful posterity.

IV.

ROBERT F. STOCKTON, THE SUCCESSFUL SAILOR AND EXPLORER.

ROBERT FIELD STOCKTON, of New Jersey, grandson of Richard Stockton, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, was born near Princeton, in that State, in 1796, and died there October 7, 1866. Inheriting many of the qualities of his great ancestor, his career was longer, more varied, and, if possible, more exciting. He began the battle of life early. Leaving Princeton College, he entered the navy at fifteen, was an aid of Commodore Rogers on board the historic frigate President, and rose rapidly by his impulsive daring. He remained in the navy till 1849, and ended with the rank of commodore in 1845. Few have achieved a more enduring fame. He was at once sailor, statesman, and diplomatist. As commander of the frigate Erie, in 1821, he was instrumental in purchasing from Africa the original site of the Republic of Liberia. During this cruise he captured a number of slavers, and a Portuguese privateer and French sloop engaged in the vile traffic. On his return from this duty, he was ordered to the West Indies, and broke up a nest of pirates that were preying on our commerce. From 1826 to 1838 he remained at home, espoused General Jackson's cause with much activity, and began his labors for internal improvements in New Jersey, which only closed with his death. In 1838 he resumed active service in the navy, and soon distinguished himself by his knowledge of gunnery, steamengines, and naval architecture generally. The celebrated steam sloop of war Princeton was one of the products of his genius, and was superior to any war vessel afloat for speed, sailing qualities, model, and steam motive power. She attracted universal attention. Her armament was two 225-pound wrought-iron guns and twelve 42-pound carronades. After this he was sent to the Pacific coast, and there identified himself with the early acquisition of California; and to his dash, courage, and statesmanship, our country is incalculably indebted for the magnificent empire composed of the State of California and its jewelled sisters. In 1845 he carried reinforcements to the Pacific squadron, Commodore Sloat, at Monterey, and shortly after superseded him in the command. With a force of not over fifteen hundred men, six hundred of them sailors from the fleet, and some Californians, he, in six months, conquered the whole of California, and established the authority of the United States there. He returned to the East overland in June, 1847. In June, 1849, he resigned his commission in the navy, and, in 1851, was elected a Senator in Congress from New Jersey for the term ending in 1857, but resigned in 1853, after having been active in several measures, among others the bill abolishing flogging in the navy, which he introduced. But the steamer Princeton was not always fortunate. She was the pride of his heart; and, in order to exhibit the efficiency of his “big gun,” he carried her into the waters of the Potomac, and on the 28th of February, 1844, invited President Tyler and the gentlemen of his Cabinet, and a number of members of Congress and distinguished persons, to a sumptuous banquet on board, for the purpose of inspecting the ship and witnessing the performances of the iron thunderer. Among the company were President John Tyler; Hon. Abel P. Upshur, Secretary of State; Thomas Gilmer, Secretary of the Navy; William Wilkins, Secretary of War; Hon. Thomas H. Benton ; Virgil Maxcy; Captain Kennon; Mr.Gardner; Mr. Phelps; Mr. Tyson, Second Assistant Postmaster-general; and a number of ladies. It was a genial and joyous company. The gallant Stockton, with his large wealth, fine manners, high spirits, and love of society, was the beau ideal of a courteous host, and on that day he was unusually happy. All were delighted with the beauty of the ship and her appointments, and especially with the cordial hospitality of the commander. The big gun had been twice successfully fired, the guests had just completed a bounteous dinner, when, unfortunately, it was proposed to have another trial of the monster cannon. The company started for the main deck, and President Tyler was about to follow, when he was arrested by a favorite song, and remained to hear it, which probably saved his life. The ship was just approaching her anchorage at Alexandria. Around the big gun a large concourse was assembled, and Mr. Wilkins stepped back, quietly remarking that, though he was Secretary of War, he felt he was too near for safety. The next moment the terrible machine exploded. The massive breech split into two parts, one of which killed Mr. Upshur, Mr. Gilmer, Mr. Maxcy, Captain Kennon, and Mr. Gardner, and the other swept away a portion of the bulwarks and went into the river. Captain Stockton, Mr. Benton, Mr. Phelps, and several more were prostrated, but not severely injured. Seventeen of the crew were hurt, and some of them badly. The scene baffled all description. It shocked the whole country. The President sent a special message to Congress next morning, while all public and private business was suspended, and the honored dead were buried with appropriate ceremonies. Captain Stockton was deeply affected, and his sympathy for the victims was not less sincere than the general feeling which acquitted him of all blame.

These events took place in February of 1844. That was the year of the violent struggle between James K. Polk and Henry Clay, which resulted in the election of the former to the Presidency. In February of 1845 I was the guest of James Buchanan, then Senator in Congress. Captain Stockton and Mr. Buchanan were personal friends, and on the 3d of March of that year, one day before the inauguration of Mr. Polk, he gave a large dinner-party at the National Hotel, Washington, to which, as an inmate of Mr. Buchanan's house and an acquaintance of the Captain, I was invited. It was a superb affair. The company consisted of James Buchanan, of, Pennsylvania ; William L.

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