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was enhanced by her wonderful system strategy of Germany in ruins. Thenceof military railways. That system, by forward a new plan of campaign had to giving an unrivaled mobility to her be devised. And it was in the second armies, practically duplicated their phase of the war that German generalvalue. She could always have her men ship revealed its strength, its boldness, where she most needed them. She had its breadth of conception, and its renot only mass, but volition, and could sourcefulness. It had failed when its strike her blow where she pleased. advantages were at their maximum;

The measure of this intrinsic superi- it recovered when those advantages, ority was only slowly realized by the though still great, were declining. Allies as the war progressed, but it had The fact is due, I think, mainly to been the basic fact from which German the part which personality still plays strategy started. Its value was highest in war. Germany entered the struggle, in the early stages of the struggle, when not with the wrong strategy, not with the Allies were staggering under the unsound ideas of relative values, but shock that came with such frightfulsud- with the wrong men in command. The denness; but it continued to dominate contrast between events up to the the war far into the second year, and at disastrous failure of the attempt on the time of writing it may be said that Calais, which led to the deposition of the initiative is still in the hands of the Count von Moltke, and the events of Germans, though the command of ex- 1915 is the most striking fact of the war. terior lines, the evolution of a common It is not easy to say how far Moltke strategy, and the slow development of was responsible for the failure of the superior resources are visibly chang- first four months and how far he was ing the balance in favor of the Allies. over-ruled by the Supreme War-Lord.

It will be the task of the historian to It is clear, however, that both before discover why, with so overwhelming a Paris and before Calais there was a very superiority of men, material, prepara- remarkable indecision — the result, aptive study, centrality, and mobility, the parently, of sharp divergences of view. Germans did not succeed in shattering This was especially true in the attack the Allies before they collected their on Calais. No military authority has strength. The programme was simple defended the reckless squandering of and apparently easily within achieve- effort on four separate attempts to ment. France was to be crushed in one break through the Allied line - on the overwhelming movement; Russia, held coast, at Arras, at Armentières, and up temporarily by Austria, was to be finally at Ypres. It is agreed that the disposed of at leisure, and the war was episode revealed a collision of political to be over in six months. Three things and military aims and a serious conflict

a vitiated the scheme: (1) The rapidity in the higher command. Moltke was of the Allied retreat through France never more than the shadow of a great led the Germans to outrun themselves, name, and it is generally assumed that so that when they came to deliver the his power was entirely subordinated to fatal blow at the Marne they were an the will of the Kaiser, who, though a exhausted army; (2) the Russian raid cavalry commander of very considerinto East Prussia disarranged the plan able ability, is far too impulsive and of campaign; (3) the collapse of Aus- neurotic for the large operations of war. tria fundamentally changed the prob- And if the higher command in this lem of the war. The subsequent failure stage of the war was defective, it was no to reach Calais finally left the original less obvious that the commands in the

IV

field were in indifferent hands. The trict of East Prussia. When it was proCrown Prince was a mere popinjay posed to drain that region he fought whose incapacity was notorious and for his marshes as a wild animal for its whose extravagances and improprieties young, and finally stampeded the Kaiwere a legend of irresponsible folly or ser himself on the subject by the energy worse. The Crown Prince of Bavaria of his advocacy. The region had been was conspicuous only for the venom of his favorite theatre of study, and in the his tongue; the Duke of Württemberg manæuvres there he unfailingly engiwas a name and nothing more. Hausen neered his foe into the marshes. “We're vanished after the Marne, and Kluck going to have a bath to-day,' was the is remembered only for his vain boast saying of the soldiers when ‘old Hinthat he had the British Army in ‘a ring denburg' was against them. But when of iron’at Maubeuge, and for his fatal the war broke out Hindenburg was negattempt to march across the British lected, and his application for a post front at the Marne when the reinforce- was ignored until the Russian invasion ments from Paris appeared on his flank. of the sacred soil of East Prussia spread

panic in the capital and throughout the country. Then the boycott collapsed.

'Suddenly,' he said, after he had become It is to the appointment of Falken- the national hero, 'there came a telehayn as Chief of the General Staff and gram informing me that the Emperor to the emergence in the field of Gener- commissioned me to command the Eastals Hindenburg and Mackensen that ern Army. I really only had time to buy the remarkable revival of German pres- some woollen clothing and make my old tige during 1915 was due. Of these three uniform presentable again. Then came men, not one was in a position of great sleeping cars, saloon cars, locomotives authority when the war began. Indeed, - and so I journeyed to East Prussia only one, Mackensen, was in active serv- like a prince. And so far everything has ice at all. Hindenburg was in retire- gone well.' ment at Hanover; Falkenhayn was in It had. On the ground that he knew the political position of Minister of War, so thoroughly he manœuvred Samand Mackensen was in command at sonov's army into the swamps and Danzig, where he had come into serious achieved the most sensational victory collision with the Crown Prince and of the war. He became the savior of his was in consequence under a cloud. country and in the popular imagina

Of the three reputations made by the tion overshadowed every other figure. war, that which has had far the great- He had the whole nation at his feet, est réclame is probably least important. and being rather a breezy, simple-mindHindenburg's victory in the Masurian ed man who had never before known Lakes district was certainly one of the what popular acclamation was like, he

, few decisive incidents of the war. It reveled in the sunshine with the frank was a victory in that complete and final enjoyment of a schoolboy.

. sense which has become so unusual But great as the achievement was, it under modern conditions. It was a vic- was not so great as the public estimate, tory, too, due entirely to superior gen- inflated by the panic that preceded it, eralship. Hindenburg had been some- conceived it to be; and those who have thing of an oddity in the Army owing followed the campaigns on the Eastern to his obsession on the subject of the frontier with expert knowledge and military importance of the lake dis- have examined the battles in detail

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have a higher regard for the genius of iar reward then than now. It really inMackensen than for that of Hinden- dicated work of rare individual courburg. Like Hindenburg he was ignored age, which is not necessarily the case at the beginning of the campaign. His to-day. Indeed, there are few things troubles with the Crown Prince at Dan- more significant of the change which zig had culminated earlier in the year has come over the temperament of in a request to the Kaiser that either Prussia than the contrast between the he or the Prince should be removed. parsimony with which decorations were Mackensen remained and the Prince given in 1870 and the lavishness with was recalled to Berlin; but when the which they were given in the early war broke out it was the latter who phases of the present war. was in command of the central army Unlike Hindenburg, Mackensen is a in the West, while Mackensen was left man of silent, almost morose habit. It to cool his heels in obscure tasks. Not is popularly attributed to the blow until some months had passed with which the loss of a much-loved wife intheir tale of disappointed hopes did he flicted on him, but it is in reality the emerge as the second in command to natural habit of a singularly absorbed Hindenburg on the Russian front. and self-contained character. His brev

His name first came into prominence ity of speech is the expression of a ruthby his skillful extrication of his army less temper, and in the severity of the when its envelopment east of Lodz was demands he makes on all who come regarded as complete; and thencefor- under his iron will, as well as in his ward every task of critical importance cold and concentrated silence, he is was committed to his hands. It was reminiscent of Lord Kitchener. Mirahe who delivered that smashing blow cles have been performed by soldiers on the Dunajec which opened so sen- and civilians alike during his advances, sationally the new and most formidable not because of the affection they have phase of German attack. The series of for him, but because of the fear of his operations that followed by which he merciless hand. He has been said (with forced the Russian left back to the what truth I do not know) to have Privit marshes revealed a grim power Scots blood in his veins, but in all his not inferior to Hindenburg's and a characteristics he is typical of the Prusconstructive subtlety which, except on sian mind, manner, and thought. the ground that he had studied all his But the true key to the renascence of lifetime, Hindenburg has not rivaled. the German cause after the failure of

The campaign in Serbia was on a 1914 is to be found in Falkenhayn, who smaller scale, but again the strategy was appointed Chief of Staff on the fall was of that fresh and original character of Moltke. Falkenhayn is, apart from that commands the respect of the stu- the royal leaders, considerably the dent of war. It is, I believe, true to youngest of the generals in high posisay that no campaigns in connection tion in the German army. He is 54 with the war are being studied by the the same age as General Haig. He is a military experts with so much atten- man whose ambitions are as unlimited tion as those of Mackensen. Like Hin- as his powers to achieve them. Four denburg, Kluck, Bülow, and most of years or so ago he was unknown to the German generals, he is nearer the German public, and his promotion seventy than sixty. He won the Iron from an obscure provincial command Cross in the War of 1870, and the Iron to the position of Prussian Minister of Cross was relatively a much less famil- War is supposed to have been the result of one of those court intrigues which avail himself of this fact. He estabplay so large a part in Prussian public lished over his master an intellectual life. He had family influence in the Kai- authority which left him the practical ser's household and his advancement dictator of military policy. This ascenwas not unconnected with that fact. dency has been confirmed by the suc

But he had brains as well as influence, cess which attended his far-reaching and an aggressive personality disguised and powerful strategy throughout 1915, by the arts of the subtle and far-sighted and in presenting him with the Order intriguer. From his advent to the Min- of the Black Eagle the Kaiser used istry of War he set himself to under- terms of flattery which almost touched mine Moltke. It began to be hinted the level of obsequious reverence. that Moltke was getting old,' that the General Falkenhayn has fortified his General Staff needed new and young position by an artful policy of excluding blood, and so on; and when the Zabern possible rivals from access to his masincident occurred, Falkenhayn made a ter. In an unusually informing analybid for popularity with the army by his sis of the forces around the Kaiser at emphatic approval of the infamous ac- the present time, published in Le Temps, tion of Colonel Reutter and Lieuten- Mr. Hendrik Hudson, who, as a neuant Förstner. It was his hand more, tral, has spent a long time in Germany, perhaps, than another that forced the declares that Falkenhayn is the most declaration of war prematurely, in face powerful man in the country. "The of the hesitation of the Kaiser and the power of General Falkenhayn,' he says, opposition of Bethmann-Hollweg; but 'comes from the extraordinary influwhen the war came it was Moltke who ence, inexplicable even to those who remained in the position on which Falk- know this personage, which he wields enhayn had set his heart. The ambi- over the Emperor. He is very jealous tious minister waited for his opportun- of his authority, and keeps away from ity. He had Moltke's measure, knew headquarters all who he thinks might that he was unlikely to survive, opposed seek to gain the confidence of the sovhis strategy regarding Belgium, and, on ereign. This isolation of the Emperor the collapse of the campaign at Ypres, is an important fact, as the sovereign he knew that his moment had come. learns only what General Falkenhayn

In the military sense it is indispu- wishes him to know. William II is the table that his promotion has been tri- prisoner of his military camarilla.' umphantly justified by events. A new It is not the first time that the Kaiser and more masterful spirit pervaded has been the prisoner of a camarilla, as German strategy from the moment of the revelations of the Eulenburg case his assumption of the control of mili- witness. But it is not improbable that tary policy. There was no longer any he is on this occasion a willing prisoner. sense of conflict between political and in the vast disaster that has befallen military aims, still less of any evidence him, when his of the collision of wills. The disastrous

cloud of dignity experience of the first four months of Is held from falling with so weak a wind, the war had aged the Kaiser and modi

That it will quickly drop, fied his imperious self-will. He was in he turns for succor to the man whose the frame of mind to forget that he was strength gives him confidence and the Supreme War-Lord and to distrust whose success offers him still the refuge his own judgment, and Falkenhayn of hope in a world that is reeling be had the force and the adroitness to neath his feet.

THE MACHINES

BY WILLIAM J. ROBINSON

WHEN the British blockade was that pulls the big guns into action, the tightening its coils about Germany, a incredibly complicated machinery of sigh of relief went up from the Entente war is now dependent on an element powers, and their press proclaimed that which, at the time of the Spanishwith gasoline and rubber cut off from American War, was unknown to milithe enemy

the war would soon come tary use. automatically to an end. I am not con- It was chance which got me into the cerned with the failure of these prophe British Army; it was also by chance sies to reckon with German chemical that I was attached to the staff of a capingenuity; they merely throw light on tain of the 5th Dragoon Guards and the interesting fact that modern war- sent off to Belgium five days after my fare, with its demand for swift-striking enlistment, without the usual weary movement in every branch of the com- months of training in the riding-school. plicated military organism, could not On October 8, 1914, our regiment landexist without the motor vehicle in its ed at Ostend; this was the beginning of various forms.

13 months of service, during which I Through the illustrated weeklies and passed from my regular duties in the the moving pictures, Americans have Dragoon Guards to the Army Service become familiar with the Skoda howit- Corps as motor-driver to General Byng, , zers, taken to pieces for travel, rum- and was subsequently attached to the bling along behind great Mercédès Headquarters Staff of the 5th Army traction-motors. They have seen the Corps. While in this, I saw service in an London motor-busses, loaded to burst- armored car of the Royal Naval Air ing with grinning Tommies on their Service, went into action with the Moway to the front, flaunting Bovril and tor Machine-gun Section, and also actNestlé's Food signs against an unfam- ed as a dispatch rider. This enabled iliar background of canals and serried me to get a fairly good first-hand idea poplar trees. They cannot realize, how- of the use made by the British Army of ever, because they have not witnessed the various types of motor vehicle; and with their own eyes, the vast orderly if some of my experiences left me in ferment of wheeled traffic that fills the doubt as to the ability of the human roads on both sides of that blackened, nervous system to stand

up

under the blasted battle-line between the armies racking, killing pace demanded by of Western Europe. Where once the these branches of the service, I came task of fulfillment fell to straining away from my term at the front full of horse-flesh, the burden is now laid on admiration for the men behind the wheels winged by gasoline. From the organization which is responsible for flashing wire spokes of the dispatch- the smooth functioning of the motorrider's motor-cycle to the clanking, vehicle wing of the British Army. crushing feet' of the caterpillar tractor My first good opportunity to see this

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