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something more; hence there is a well

at large proposes to increase this annudefined movement to create and oper- ity to a maximum of $500, as soon as it ate sound pension plans for the minis- can secure the necessary funds. Lesser ters and their dependents. The schemes benefits are offered to disabled men; have all been framed under actuarial and lesser still to widows and orphans. guidance, but they vary so radically in The relation is strictly contractual; the structure and detail that anything ap- Church agrees to do a certain thing proaching criticism would be unwise on condition that the minister does a and unfair. It may be said that any certain thing. Those ministers who plan which will work is sound, and elect to enter the scheme purchase anthe workability of a particular scheme nuity insurance at eighty per cent dismust be judged with full cognizance of count a feature that follows the the ecclesiastical polity through which plans of the Congregational and Presbyit is to be realized. For instance, it is terian churches. This pension scheme, obvious that a prospectus written for however, is moving slowly, as the relief a firmly knit organization such as the feature is being the more stressed at Protestant Episcopal Church must be present. strikingly different from that devis- "To provide an orderly, uniform and ed for the independent communities reasonably adequate old-age annuity of Congregationalism. These various based on actuarial principles, with colplans also are either in the incubation lateral benefits for their families in case stage or are only a little way advanced of death or disability,' is the proposal in development; their consummation of the Congregational Church. The will depend entirely upon whether or plan is as follows: an annual payment not the leading laymen of each denomi- by the minister of one fifth the amount nation are willing to allow their new needed to provide an annuity of $500 industrial conscience to apply itself to from the age of sixty-five to death; contheir church relationships; for there is tributions by churches and individuals not a shadow of doubt that each de- sufficient to meet the remaining four nomination has wealth ample for an fifths of the cost. Three fifths of this easy and swift realization of the plan annuity passes to the minister's widow, proposed.

or at her death to minor children; payThe Baptist Church (Northern) has ments proportionate to length of servhad local organizations for relief, but ice are to be made in case of disability only recently has a National Board or death prior to the age of sixty-five; been created. An endowment is rapid- the fund is to be purely mutual - all ly growing, and altogether nearly proceeds will inure to the benefit of $2,000,000 is held in the various funds members. of the denomination. This relief is pure

Evidently this is a contributory pencharity, distributed not as a matter of sion in which the beneficiary pays a prejustice, but on the basis of need as mium; thus it comes into the insurance proved by the claimant. In 1914, the class. Out of 5923 Congregational minNorthern Baptist Convention brought isters, 275 have thus far become memforward a 'Proposed Plan for the Pen- bers of the fund. Assets from premium sioning of Baptist Ministers.' Minis- payments and contributions already

. ters are to pay annual premiums scaled received amount only to $38,000. The to age, sufficient to earn annuities of National Council of the Congregationone hundred dollars by the time they al Church, at its recent meeting, passed are sixty-five years old, and the church the following resolution: 'It is the con

viction of this National Council that conferences, and a report will not be the supreme duty of the years in which available until the General Conference, we approach the tercentenary of the in May, 1916. landing of the Pilgrims is the securing The Presbyterian Church has inauof a fund of not less than $3,000,000, gurated a campaign for raising a capiof which $1,000,000 shall be devoted to tal pension fund of $10,000,000, toward Ministerial Relief and $2,000,000 to the which it has already received and inAnnuity Fund.' The older fund for re- vested $517,445, and it has outstandlief is apparently to remain intact, to ing and collectable pledges of $352,445 be distributed as charity to such as can- more. The scheme has an insurance not or do not join the Annuity; thus aspect, in that only the ministers who the dole will continue and, as long as join the fund will participate in its benit is compelled to operate, justice will efits. Their premiums will amount to remain as a condition only partially 20 per cent of the total required, the realized.

other 80 per cent to be contributed by The Methodist Episcopal Church the church at large, either in gifts to has 18,881 ministers and has projected the capital account or by periodic suba fund of $10,000,000, the interest of scriptions. When the fund is complete, which shall be used for pensions. It is a flat annuity of $500 will be paid on hoped that this, with other available in- retirement at the age of seventy, after come, will give an annuity of one half thirty years of ministerial service. of a minister's average salary comput- Provision is made for earlier disability, ed on thirty-five years of effective ser- and likewise for widows and minor chilvice. In case of earlier disability, the dren. The plan is already in operation; benefit will be prorated; widows and it has 995 premium-paying members minor children will likewise become out of the 9685 ministers on the roll of beneficiaries. At present there are some the church; it pays 43 pensions; and other resources available for relief pur- even though the $10,000,000 has not poses (straight charity), such as the been nearly subscribed, the fund feels interest of a long-established 'Char- justified in paying to each beneficiary tered Fund,' the profits of the Method- 70 per cent of the full benefit. Joining ist Book Concern (amounting in 1913 the Sustentation Department is not to $250,000), and an annual collection obligatory, but failure to participate from all the churches. Whatever is will leave the ministers nothing but the left over from the 'Necessitous Fund' charity of the Relief Fund in old age, , will go into the pension account; and, and to receive that, they must prove when the pension scheme is in full work- actual necessity. ing order, practically the entire amount The Relief Department or Board of will be available for social justice. Ulti. the Presbyterian Church has a permamately, therefore, all the resources of nent fund of $3,000,000, and received, the conferences will merge in the cen- in 1915, $139,510 by subscription; maktral scheme. While no direct and uni- ing altogether, by interest and gifts, versal levy in the form of a premium $328,694 available for the year's distrihas been made upon the ministers, some bution. At present, under the volunconferences have voluntarily adopted tary pension scheme, the work of the an assessment on behalf of the $10,000,- Relief Board will have to continue, but 000 capital. What progress has been if every minister should join the Susmade cannot be stated, as the scheme tentation or Pension Department, the is being worked out through the local Board would have no further function, VOL. 117 - NO.4

and, legal difficulties overcome, its in- ever, is so calculated that it not only vested funds might pass over to the pays the pension to its rector, but enpension capital account.

ables the pension in the weaker parishThe Protestant Episcopal Church es to be brought up to a minimum of is appealing for $5,000,000 for the $600, which is half of the average ac'Church Pension Fund,' not, however, tive salary throughout the Episcopal to be held as capital, but as an initial Church. reserve for accrued liabilities - a pre- The Episcopal Church now has relief caution absolutely necessary under the funds, retirement funds, or emeritus Episcopal scheme. This proposes a levy provisions, amounting to $222,908 per on each parish of seven per cent on annum, but this amount comes from the annual stipend paid to the incum- more than fifty separate sources. When bent. Such an amount ultimately will the national plan goes into effect, it will pay a deferred salary, or pension, of comprehend and supersede the Dioceat least $600 per annum, at the age of san, General Clergy Relief, and local sixty-eight, to every clergyman of the retirement funds, and from the Church church. The very thorough actuarial Pension Fund will meet disability or study upon which this conclusion rests approaching age as a matter of liabilcomprehended the age of every clergy- ity. The Episcopal Church, with its man now in orders. But, as those who 5700 clergymen, proposes to abandon will participate are of all ages, it is ob- its haphazard charity and to recognize vious that the seven per cent will not that its servants have a life-long and be sufficient at the start - hence the indisputable equity in the ecclesiastical $5,000,000 to meet such accrued liabil- corporation. The scheme must go into ities. The Church Pension Fund will effect as a whole, and it cannot even also provide for exceptional disable- be launched until the $5,000,000 for ment and for widows and children. In a accrued liabilities is in hand. normal case, the plan will work out as Other denominations are facing the follows: át the age of sixty-eight, on question, some of them having already retirement from active work, an annu- launched schemes that promise well. ity is to be provided, which, for techni- The sample sketches of pension plans cal reasons, is calculated at one and a given above do not pretend to be an quarter per cent of the average stipend exhaustive account of what the churchmultiplied by the number of years of es have in mind; no judgment should the receipt of salary, no annuity to be be passed upon any of them from this over fifty per cent of the average sal- cursory survey; it has been my purpose ary. When ordination takes place at the simply to show that several ecclesiasaverage age, twenty-eight, and service tical bodies have at least reached the in the church has been continuous, the threshold of economic justice — and forty years of service multiplied by one that it will be an unspeakable disgraceif and a quarter per cent means fifty per the forward movement does not reach a cent, or half-pay. Two things stand consummation. Christian institutions out clearly in this scheme: the churches must not allow purely industrial organwill pay the premiums, and the amount izations to eclipse them in a matter of of the pension will vary according to applied morals. And, to be severely these premiums and therefore accord- logical, if the Protestant church caning to the salary the beneficiary has re- not reach the level of the industrial ceived during his active ministry. The ethics of this age and land with its prespremium in the stronger parish, how- ent conception of the ministry, then it

should, in common honesty, revise its As sure as there is a conscience in the definition of the clerical office and race there will be a frightful Nemesis function. It is quite conceivable that if the alternative is not faced. Already Protestantism could continue with a there is difficulty in getting a supply of celibate clergy; it is conceivable that high-calibre candidates for the minisProtestantism could continue without try; the men of broadest mind and a paid ministry at all; but it is in- most sensitive soul are not willing to conceivable that Protestantism shall pay the toll. And there are many miniscontinue in honor and in power if its ters, too old to serve the church but not treatment of the ministry, based on the too old to suffer, who secretly envy the family unit, shall fall below the current Jesus of Nazareth who died at thirtymoral standard of the industrial world. three with his work done.

THE CRUX OF THE PEACE PROBLEM

BY WILLIAM JEWETT TUCKER

I

sentiment into the peace movement.

The reason commonly given is the conTHE revulsion of feeling against war firmed unbelief of men in the practicaitself, engendered by the present war, bility of universal peace. I question the is beyond question the most powerful sufficiency of the explanation. When stimulus to the cause of universal peace men are stirred by tremendous convicthe world has yet known. It has creat- tions they are not daunted by the fear ed in many minds the conviction that of impracticability. I believe that we war must end, and it has stirred in are as clearly justified in committing some minds the determination to strive the cause of universal peace to 'the without ceasing to bring about this re- opinion of mankind' as were our foresult. The feeling is manifestly acquir- fathers in committing their new docing a strength and consistency of pur- trine of universal liberty and equality pose sufficient to carry it beyond the to the same accessible and sufficient generation in which it has been devel- authority. True, we thereby ask for oped, and to give it the cumulative nothing less than a reversal of the power of time.

habit of thought of the world. They And yet it cannot be claimed that in their time asked for nothing less. the progress of the peace movement is The great generations have always askproportionate to the stimulus which is ed in one way or another for the same constantly acting upon it. The current thing. Though in itself something of feeling which sets so strongly away new and strange, it is not without hisfrom war does not run with equal force toric warrant, that men who have intoward peace. It seems to be increas- herited the habit of thinking in terms ingly difficult to organize the anti-war of war should be expected to acquire

а.

the habit of thinking in terms of peace. mentality for serving a righteous cause.

We must go much deeper for the ex- Peace, in itself essentially good, may planation of the increasing hesitancy lose moral character from the failure to in the acceptance of the doctrine of uni- identify itself with a righteous cause versal peace. The problem of peace, for in the time of its extremity. I trace such the peace movement has now be- the popular suspicion of a latent selcome, does not lie in the conviction of fishness in peace to its undefined and its impracticability, unless it be deemed indeterminate attitude in so many cases morally impracticable. The suggestion toward ends outside and beyond itself. of the moral impracticability of peace

The constant insistence upon peace as seems like a contradiction of terms. an end in itself is to be deprecated. If Nevertheless, if we follow it but a little we are to create confidence in the trustway, it will lead to the disquieting dis- worthiness of peace to render that saccovery of a very strong suspicion in rificial service which is at times renderthe popular mind of a latent selfish- ed so effectively through war, it must ness in peace; and further, after due be made to wear a different aspect from observation and reflection, we shall be that which it now presents to the world. brought, I think, to see that the very We cannot afford to overlook the very crux of the problem of peace lies in the marked distrust of its moral reliability difficulty of eradicating this suspicion. for the more serious business of the naThe awful immoralities of war, so ter- tions. We cannot afford to ignore the ribly obvious, are offset in part by the hesitancy of men in the lower ranks of counteracting effect of the impressive rights and privileges, powerless except displays of unselfishness.

for numbers, to employ a new and unWe are all conscious of a grievous certain agency to secure broader rights inconsistency in our feelings about war. and higher privileges. Neither can we As the horrors of the present war press

afford to make light of the questionings steadily upon us, and the menace of in our own hearts as to our ability, unmilitarism becomes more threatening, der such conditions of peace as we have there are times when the argument known, to awaken and satisfy those against war seems to be complete and nobler instincts of human nature which final. But when the moral aspects of have at times found stimulating if not our own Civil War are brought before satisfying employment in war. Cerus in vivid retrospect, as in the recent tainly the ordinary routine of peace gathering of so many survivors of the would not be satisfying. Its luxuries conflict in their enfeebled but exultant would be debasing. Human nature comradeship; and when the moral re- would send up its continual challenge sult of that war is set forth in the words for some moral equivalent of war. I of a peace-loving President as 'a mir- note with careful attention this senacle of the spirit, in that, instead of des- tence, quoted by the reviewer of a retroying, it has healed'; and when, after cent book, The Unmaking of Europe: the lapse of the half-century, we can ‘Europe will never cease from war till see no other

way

than that then taken she finds some better thing to do; that through which we could have reached better business is neither trade nor our present state of unity and peace, philosophy, nor even art: it is - in one we are not so sure that the present war word — sacrifice.' has closed the case against war.

I am convinced that it will be to the War, in itself essentially evil, may ultimate advancement of the cause of acquire moral character as the instru- universal peace if we inquire with suffi

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