Page images

Budget request (regular) ----- $300,000,000 Conference of the House and Senate the appropriations made for telephone seryCommittee approved.

400,000,000 House approved--

committees approved a compromise of ice over the recent year.
$382,500,000. Final amount approved,

Senate approved-------

$382,500,000. I, with practically all

The committee has had reported to it This was under the 80th Republican other Members, voted for this large sum. many instances where private power sources Congress, which voted more funds in the

82d Cong., 1st sess., 1951

are placing more and more restrictions on 2 years it was in power for REA than

the activities of REA cooperatives as conhas ever been voted in 2 years since Budget request_

$109,000,000 dition to negotiating contracts to supply REA was adopted. There was no record There was no record Committee approved.--

109,000, 000 the necessary power. Many times contracts House approved-

109,000,000 vote and practically no opposition. I

offered by the private power companies are Senate approved.-

109,000,000 voted for these large sums, as the other

on a year-to-year basis. In the opinion of

the committee, REA cooperatives are enMembers did.

No amendment or record vote. No

titled to a firm source of power at reasonable 81st Cong., 1st sess., 1949

conference necessary. Final amount ap- rates and on a dependable basis, with the Budget request----

proved, $109 million. I, with practically full right to operate on a basis which will

$350,000,000 Committee aprpoved------ 350,000,000 all Members, supported the amount by render maximum service to eligible conHouse approved--350,000,000 a voice vote.

sumers. The committee feels that the AdSenate approved. 350,000,000

ministrator's authority to provide loans for

82d Cong., 2d sess., 1952 I supported this amount by a voice Budget request..

power generation should be fully utilized, ---

$75,000,000 if necessary, in order to assure adequate vote. There was no record vote.

Committee approved-

75,000,000 power to REA cooperatives on a reasonable Now, since there are always some peo- House approved---

75,000,000 basis. ple who are more interested in politics Senate approved..

75,000,000 The committee report we wrote is imthan they are in the farmers, I want to

portant, and shows the Congress is de

No conference necessary. Practically termined to protect the REA as it grows in quote what I said with reference to the

all of the House Members voted for the the future to the extent that they may REA bill when we were considering it

$75 million. No record vote was neces- build their own power-generation plants, on April 5, 1949, 5 years ago. You will sary.

when necessary, to assure them adequate find my remarks in the CONGRESSIONAL

83d Cong., 1st sess., 1953

power, at reasonable competitive rates. RECORD, volume 95, part 3, page 3921.

When they are not able to secure adequate Budget request --

$200,000,000 My comments then reflect the support I Committee approved..

power in an area without unreasonable

185, 000, 000 have always given REA loan funds House approved----

rates, I want them to have this protection.

185, 000, 000 throughout my service in Congress. Senate approved --

202,500,000 I further stated "that Congress is deThis is what I said: Conference committee ap

termined to protect the REA as it grows Mr. Chairman, I had occasion to appear


202, 500, 000 in the future to the extent that they may before the subcommittee handling this bill. The CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, volume 99, build their own power generating plants, They have brought out a very good bill. It

part 4, page 5277, dated May 20, 1953, when necessary, to assure them adequate appeals to me in almost every section. Particularly do I appreciate and favor that will show that I voted “yes” on final power, at reasonable competitive rates.”

Now, the above shows that I, with a provision with reference to REA, which not passage. only provides for an appropriation of $350

83d Cong., 1st sess., 1954

majority of the Members of Congress, million, but has a proviso that the adminis

appropriated for the REA loan fund to Budget request

$55,000,000 trator of REA, Mr. Wickard, if he finds he is

bring light and power to the farmers of Committee approved.

100,000,000 running short of funds may go to the Secre

House approved---


America a total of $2,649,000,000, which tary of Agriculture and borrow in amounts

is $75 million more than was requested of $50 million, if he can so justify, until an I urged the subcommittee to increase by the three Presidents under whom I additional $150 million has been exhausted. the amount to $100 million, and we ap- have served during the past 12 years. I am glad this provision is worded so that

proved it on a voice vote. There was the administrator does not have to come

INTERIOR DEPARTMENT-RECLAMATION, ETC. no record vote. The Senate raised the back to Congress, if more funds are needed amount to $135 million. Inasmuch as

The following will show that I voted for the year 1949. The Congress by this provision has given REA full opportunity for I could not be present when the confer

with a majority of the Members of Conthe extension of its services, so much needed

gress to reduce some amounts for adminence report came back to the House, I

istration expenses

and construction by the people of the Nation.

made the following statement, which I SOIL CONSERVATION

quote from the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD work, because the hearings held before I am also interested in the provision with of June 22, 1954, page 8658:

the Appropriations Committee of 50

members showed these funds were not reference to soil conservation. The greatest Mr. Speaker, since it will be impossible necessary, and would be a waste of the contribution we can make to the posterity

for me to be present tomorrow when the conof this country, as well as for the immediate ference committee reports on the agricul

taxpayers' money. future is that we try to leave the soil in a ture appropriation bill, I should like for the

ROLL CALL NO. 40, APRIL 25, 1947 better condition than we found it, more fer

RECORD to show that I favor the report, and A motion was made from the Demotile, and more productive, for those who fol

if it were possible for me to be present, I low after us. If we have done that, then

cratic side to recommit the bill which would vote for the additional Senate $35we have really rendered a service to the coun- million loan authorization carried in the

would add funds to purchase 30 new try, not only for the present and the near report for REA.

automobiles for the Interior Departfuture, but for the years to come.

ment-mind you, not REA—and provide

When the above bill was before the for $1,700,000 for administration of the The RECORD further reads as follows:

House, the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD of Bonneville project, meaning they could Mr. RANKIN. Mr. Chairman, will the gen- April 12, 1954, page 5036, carried my employ more people who were not needed tleman (Congressman VURSELL] yield? Mr. VURSELL. I yield. remarks, as follows:

and spend more money. Mr. RANKIN. This bill appropriates $350


The facts prove they had a carryover million for rural electrification, and makes $150 million additional available if necessary.

Mr. Chairman, I am pleased to note that of $141 million in the Department that That is right, is it not?

our committee has provided additional loan had not been spent. The Washington Mr. VURSELL. Yes.

funds for rural electrification in the amount Post, the leading Democrat newspaper in Mr. RANKIN. That would mean $500 mil

of $100 million in this bill. I would like Washington, published an editorial comlion would be available.

to point out that the Appropriations Com- mending the action the committee had Mr. VURSELL. That is correct.

mittee has increased the budget request of

$55 million by $45 million, which will bring taken in reducing the Interior approThe above reflects the position I have the loan fund for the coming year up to priation bill. always taken on REA loans and soil con- $100 million.

I voted against the waste of this servation.

amount of money because they already

FOR REA TELEPHONE SERVICE 81st Cong., 2d sess., 1950

had too many automobiles and plenty of

I would also like to say that I voted for Budget request (including

money for the administration of the the original Telephone Act and to point out rural telephones) $450,000,000 that we have provided the full budget re

project. I must have been right because House committee approved.--- 375,000,000 quest of $75 million loan fund to be used 197, including Representative NIXON, House approved.-

375,000,000 in the extension of the REA telephone sery- now Vice President, and Representative Senate approved..

390,000,000 ice, which is an increase of $7,500,000 over William G. Stratton, now Governor of Illinois, voted with me, while only 140 $6,856,000 to be spent on various con- gress attributable to the excesses of voted for the motion to recommit.

struction projects in the Southwest, congressional investigating committees. ROLL CALL NO 39, MAY 2, 1951

West, and Northwest parts of the United Having reported favorably House Reso-

lution 217 to create the special ComMr. GARY, chairman of the Appropria

The motion was voted down by a vote mittee it should be a duty given to the tions Subcommittee, and a Democrat

of 212 to 167. I voted to prevent spend- Rules Committee to exercise legislative from Virginia, offered an amendment to

ing $6,856,000, which was clearly un- oversight over it, and my resolution so strike out $3,400,000 for the Southeastern necessary.

provides. Power Administration. I quote from the

Mr. Speaker, in closing, on the roll- The case for action is clear. On July CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, volume 97, part 3, calls I have just listed I would like to 2 after hearing 11 witnesses critical of page 4282, what Mr. GARY said:

point out that the Members of this the tax-exempt foundations and 1 witThe purpose of this amendment is to pre- House, by a big majority on every roll- ness favoring their activities, and before vent the useless expenditure of $3,400,000 to

call, voted as I did knowing it was our he foundations themselves were heard, the Southeastern Power Administration for

duty to prevent unnecessary waste of the special committee abruptly ended the construction of transmission lines to duplicate existing lines now in operation.

millions of dollars of the taxpayers' further public hearings, saying state

money. I am glad to have helped render ments could be submitted that could be Mr. GARY has the respect of every that service.

made public. The predecessor Cox comMember of the House. His amendment

mittee heard 40 though this present carried on the roll call by 248 yeas to

committee was said to be justified be149 nays. I was glad to vote with Mr. RESOLUTION ON SPECIAL COMMIT

cause its predecessor did not do a good GARY to prevent this waste.


enough job. Terminating public hearROLL CALL NO. 40, MAY 2, 1951 EXEMPT FOUNDATIONS

ings when only one side has been heard Congressman HARRIS, an able and re- The SPEAKER. Under the previous is not the American way and the House spected Democrat of Arkansas, offered order of the House the gentleman from should not tolerate it. It resulted in the the amendment to reduce SWPA by New York [Mr. JAVITS] is recognized for New York Herald Tribune calling this

particular inquiry a senseless investi$550,000. In support of his amendment, 20 minutes. I quote from the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, Mr. JAVITS. Mr. Speaker, I ask gation and the New York Times calling volume 97, part 3, page 4295, his words, unanimous consent to reduce my special

it another stupid inquiry. These are as follows: order to 4 minutes.

authoritative publications and such edi

The SPEAKER. Mr. Chairman, this amendment is an ef

Is there objection to

torials are not conducive to the prestige fort to reduce in some small way the burthe request of the gentleman from New

the House seeks to, and should, sustain den—the load of the taxpayer. It does not York?

on a high level. handicap or adversely affect the program or

There was no objection.

The whole investigation of foundaservice of the Southwestern Power Adminis- Mr. JAVITS. Mr. Speaker, I am glad

tions has been conducted upon the theory tration. * * * If there ever was a time when we have a good attendance here prepar

that the foundations have been engaged Federal expenditures unrelated to our na- ing for the Republican conference, be

in some conspiracy to infiltrate socialism tional defense should be reduced to the bone, cause I have something very serious to

into American educational institutions it is now

say to the House and it is a very fortui- and social life. As against this, we have I was glad to help save this $550,000. tous circumstance.

the findings of the predecessor Cox comThe amendment carried by 222 yeas to We have heard a lot pro and con about

mittee unqualifiedly to the contrary. rules of congressional procedure for in

The Cox committee said in their report: ROLL CALL NO. 41, MAY 2, 1951 vestigating committees in both this It seems paradoxical that in a previous

congressional investigation in 1915 the fear Simply a vote for language to be in- House and the other body. serted that no funds of the appropriation There seems to be no practical way in most frequently expressed was that the

foundations would prove the instruments of could be expended for the construction which once an investigating committee

vested wealth, privilege, and reaction, while of facilities designated as comprising the is organized and endowed with an ap

today the fear most frequently expressed is western Missouri project. Yeas 247, nays propriation the House can recapture its

that they have become the enemy of the cap152.

control over it. We have in this body,

. We have in this body, italistic system. In our opinion neither of

in my opinion, a special committee which these fears are justified. ROLL CALL NO. 42, MAY 2, 1951

needs to have the recapture of control at This motion was made to reduce the

least reviewed as far as the House is Aside from the pressing needs of national amount appropriated for Bonneville

concerned. It is the Special Committee security there are ever-widening and lengthproject by $592 million. However, that on Tax-Exempt Foundations.

ening avenues of knowledge that require releft $62 million for that project, more

The power of the whole House of search and study of the type and kind best than they could or did spend for the Representatives being vested in any in

furnished or assisted by foundations. The coming year. Motion carried 225 to 167.

foundation, once considered a boon to sovestigating committee the House should I voted to save $542 million.

ciety, now seems to be a vital and essential now assert the right to review that

factor in our progress. ROLLCALL NO. 44, MAY 2, 1951

power with respect to its exercise by the This had to do with construction un- Special Committee to Investigate Tax

The committee believes that on balance der the Bureau of Reclamation, Mr. TA- Exempt Foundations. I am introducing the record of the foundations is good. It BER made a motion to reduce the amount

a resolution for that purpose today the believes that there was infiltration and that from $207,190,000 to $197,000,000. That text of which is as follows:

judgments were made which, in the light of still left an enormous sum. I voted Resolved, that the Committee on Rules

hindsight, were mistakes, but it also believes "yea" to slow down the spenders; 237 is hereby authorized and directed after in

that many of these mistakes were made quiry to make recommendations to the

without the knowledge of facts which, while voted "yea" to only 160 "no." I voted

later obtainable, could not have been readily against unnecessary waste. House of Representatives respecting the ac

ascertained at the time decisions were taken. tivities of the Special Committee to InyestiROLLCALL NO. 45, MAY 2, 1951

It further believes that the foundations are gate Tax-Exempt Foundations created purThis was an attempt on the part of suant to House Resolution 217, 83d Con

aware of the ever-present danger and are gress, and the termination thereof, the re

exerting and will continue to exert diligence the spenders to duplicate transmission

in averting further mistakes. While unport thereof to the House of Representalines already rendering adequate serytives, the disposition of the papers and

willing to say the foundations are blameless, ice; 226 voted "yea," only 165 voted

the committee believes they were guilty prindocuments of the said special committee and “nay." I voted with the 226. such other measures relating thereto as may

cipally of indulging the same gullibility

which infected far too many of our loyal ROLLCALL NO. 32, APRIL 28, 1953 be appropriate.

and patriotic citizens and that the mistakes This vote was on a motion to recom- It is high time that the House of Rep- they made are unlikely to be repeated. The mit the bill which had been considered resentatives asserted itself in one of

committee does not want to imply that for many weeks by the Appropriations these investigations that has gotten off

errors of judgment constitute malfeasance. Committee, and had been approved by the track, as the best answer to the Nothing material has appeared bethat committee after long hearings. danger of any loss of prestige which may fore the present committee to alter the The motion would add to the bill about be suffered by either House of the Con- validity of these conclusions of its prede

173 nays.



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cessor committee. I hope very much give us an insight into the nature of the archy, two-house parliament, labor unionism, that my colleagues will very seriously struggle of the free society in our day. In free press, and guaranty of civil liberties

ever since the abortive revolution of 1848 think about this question of what con- fact, this experience concerns all of us most

which sent waves of democratic Germans to trol we do have and whether it is not intimately because what happened in Ger

many can happen anywhere in the world, at this country. Germany had also emancivitally important that we have some

any time. Only a clear knowledge of what pated the Jews earlier than any other counresidual control over these investigations took place there, the will of those who be- try, and they had contributed their fair as there is a possibility that they may go lieve in human dignity to make the sacrifice share to government by law, to science, and off the track.

to preserve it, and eternal vigilance will spare to the arts. It had too broad and educated Mr. BUSBEY. Mr. Speaker, will the other countries the same ordeal and the same and experienced an intelligentsia not to see gentleman yield? tragic loss. While the scene and the special the devil's horns and hoofs under the

Führer's uniform, which he revealed almost Mr. JAVITS. I yield to the gentle- emphasis may change, the nature of the basic

human problems as well as the potential immediately. When Reichspräsident von man from Illinois.

human reaction to them will remain the Hindenburg received Hitler in 1932 as a Mr. BUSBEY. May I inform the gen- same in any country. Only those afflicted candidate for the position of Reichskanzler, tleman that there are some of us in this with racialism would deny this, and en- and asked what his conditions were, Hitler body who do not take our evaluations deavor to indict whole nations or other col- said, "I need the right to destroy physically of congressional committees from the lective groups. For this reason we may my political opponents." The old gentleNew York Herald Tribune or from the remind ourselves that our present quarrel man gasped, and, horror struck, inquired, New York Times. Some of us disagree temporary regime which rejects the basic is not with the Russian people, but with a "What did you say you wanted to do?”

When Hitler stubbornly repeated his claim violently with their position and I am tenets of the philosophy of freedom.

to the rank of overlord of gangsters, the one of them.

What happened in Germany from 1933 field marshal snapped, "The audience is Mr. JAVITS. That is proper and the until this day is full of meaning to us in

over." gentleman is entitled to his opinion. America, the more so since we are intimately Unfortunately for the Germans, the domesBut the gentleman will notice that the concerned with that country. The Ameri- tic political deadlock, the social distress, first thing I spoke of was the cessation

can people have twice defeated the German and the desolate international situation of any public hearings after one side was

armed might in battle, and have twice done created such a crisis that a few months

their best to rebuild Germany. Today our later Hitler acceded to power anyway. His heard. I first gave the facts before I troops are protecting it and our Government and his henchmen's orders were plain: “Get gave anybody's opinion.

still guides its course in domestic and foreign tough, muss them up, spare nobody; crush Mr. JACKSON. Mr. Speaker, will the affairs. In 1933 Germany was 1 of the 3 any opposition physically-cow them all. gentleman yield?

leading and scientifically advanced indus- This will change the situation and speed Mr. JAVITS. I yield to the gentle- trial countries of the world; it had built a

recovery." It actually did. But terror man from California.

modern democracy and an orderly govern- stalked the country from the day Hitler Mr. JACKSON. The House exercises ment by law. In that year it sank into took over.

totalitarianism, and almost perished. its constant and continuing control over

In December 1932 Ambassador Bullitt,

Under the impact of a lost war, a disastrous special envoy of President-elect Roosevelt, any investigating committee and at any

runaway inflation, and the worldwide detime it is the consensus of the Members pression, the democratic German society of government by law were still in force under

visited with me in Berlin. Democracy and of the House that any committee has the Weimar Republic foundered, owing to Chancellor Schleicher, and the worst of the overstepped the bounds of decorum in the same sort of political deadlock which at depression had been passed 6 months before. the conduct of its operations it can cut this very moment brings France, even in the When Philip LaFollette, Governor of Wisoff that appropriation.

midst of prosperity, to the edge of revolution. consin, toured Berlin with me in the spring JAVITS. I have suggested a To grasp the enormity of the events that

of 1933, the atmosphere of intimidation and culminated in the assassination of the Germeans by the filing of this resolution by

arbitrary use of power and perversion of man elite after July 20, 1944, we must trace which the House can make its will felt. the rise of the tyrant and his might-is-right us.

truth and justice were already all around

Assured of immunity by Göring, the I think that some means to enable the regime of terror and plunder.

Storm Troops were waging a civil war against Houses of the Congress to see to their By 1933, one-third of the working popula- all whom they proscribed. In the sanctum own prestige is vitally needed here and tion of Germany was unemployed and living of a private club an air force officer mimicked in the other body.

on a meager handout from the tottering Hitler before a small group. Hitler heard democratic state. The impractical constitu- of the episode and ordered the man shot. tion of the Weimar Republic contributed Göring pleaded clemency. The officer was

considerably to this impasse, just as her unTENTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE AS

slain just the same. Jews, Catholics, liberals, workable constitution is troubling France to- Social Democrats, Freemasons, and all conSASSINATION OF THE GERMAN day. Not quite one-half of the German scientious dissenters of any philosophy or ELITE votes were cast for Hitler in 1933. He

conviction were under persecution. The 6 promised employment, economic recovery, The SPEAKER. Under special order and new security. This platform made a

million Communists promptly sided with

the ruling brand of totalitarianism; only a heretofore entered into, the gentleman lot of sense to many despairing people. handful of outstanding figures were jailed. from California [Mr. YOUNGER] is recogAfter having gone through the agony of a

By April 1933 storm troopers had taken nized for 30 minutes. misconstrued and sabotaged political process

over an abandoned brewery at Sachsenhausen Mr. YOUNGER. Mr. Speaker, today, in a multiparty democracy, the German

near my family farm north of Berlin. A citizen felt that discipline under a dictator July 20, marks the 10th anniversary of

white-painted sign over the gate read: “Conwould get him out of the mess. President the assassination of the German elite.

centration camp of the standard 202 of the Franklin Roosevelt and Hitler were in

SA.” Soon two of my farm workers were In memory of that occasion I would like augurated about the same time on similar

taken to it for a week's education with rubto read from an address delivered by economic and social platforms: to start up ber truncheons. Gradually the camp filled Prof. Karl Brandt, associate director of

the idle wheels of industry, to create full with inmates, and so did scores of others the Food Research Institute, Stanford employment, to lift prices for the farmer, and

all over Germany. to put planning and social reforms into the University, before the World Affairs

In May 1933 I visited with my many Jeweconomic system. The two men were worlds Council of Northern California on July 8, apart in every sense, but it took Roosevelt

ish friends during the first feeble boycott,

and helped them plan how to get out from when he said as follows: until 1937 or 1938 fully to size up even the

under it. On July 15, 1933, my late friend, We are assembled here today to pay our contours of Hitler's wickedness. The Ger

Hubert Knickerbocker, and Edgar Ansel tribute of respect and admiration to those man people did not admire Hitler's looks, his

Mowrer—both courageous American journalGerman men and women who put their lives harsh, rasping voice, his Austrian dialect, or

ists of renown-told me the shocking facts at stake in resisting the tyranny and lawhis cheap, demagogic manners. But most of

of the "bloody night of Koepenick," in which lessness of the Hitler regime, and who were them felt that the deadlock in politics and

a score of Social Democrats were murdered assassinated for doing so. In honoring the economics had to be broken somehow, even

by the SA. In Kiel, the police surrendered memory of those gallant martyrs for the if at the temporary cost of some liberties.

a prisoner to a lynch mob. The aged former cause of freedom and human dignity, we

Late in March 1933 I asked farmers

president of the police, von Jagow, comhave a phase of contemporary events to

throughout the country why they had voted mented: “In 84 years this is the first time ponder which, for the vivid contrast between for Hitler. Their answer was: “How could such a thing has happened in the Prussian man's most vicious and diabolical capacities

you go on with such ruinous prices for wheat police force. It takes decades to build a relion one side and his noblest emotions and

and rye and all the other products?” All able law-enforcement body, but only a few acts on the other, constitutes one of the they wanted was recovery—and this they got; days to despoil it.” greatest tragedies in the history of the west. Hitler rapidly gained more support.

Thus far the atrocities were a domestic We are commemorating those past events Germany had had a long and honorable concern, but on June 30, 1934, the Hitler in a distant country tonight because they record along the lines of constitutional mon- gang demonstrated its nature before the



world. In throwing down the supposed re- facts of the internal struggle against Hitler friends, Secretary of Agriculture Dr. Hans volt of Captain Röhm, an orgy of annihila- does not hurt the Germans, but it hurts us Krüger, had this experience in 1935. The tion of opponents swept Germany. Ex-Chan- in our foreign policy and our understanding Gestapo notified him to appear before an incellor Kurt von Schleicher, his wife, General of history.

spector at headquarters 2 weeks after the von Bredow, State Secretary Klausener, Vice The truth is, indeed, radically different date of the citation. When, slightly tattered Chancellor von Papen's assistant, Edgar J. and much more complex. For many years, by the waiting and the worry about the Jung, and scores of others were slain in particularly so long as the emphasis was dreaded machine, Krüger appeared before the gangland style by SS murder detachments. upon recovery, and again when it looked inspector, he was offered a cigar and reEx-Chancellor Heinrich Brüning and my like success in war after the unexpected quested to be at ease with, “Please relax and friend Minister Gottfried Treviranus, through debacle of France, most of the German feel at home. You have recently been doing the courageous aid of British friends, just people

along with a national some unwise things. Oh, no?

Would you escaped being shot. Open terror glowered policy conducted by a totalitarian chancellor like to read a little in your Gestapo file? from the eye sockets of the death's head on

with antidemocratic means. There was a Here it is—help yourself. No; take all the the caps of the ss. Soon the Germans no time in our own country when Anne Morrow time you want to examine it; there's no longer dared to utter aloud the name “Himm

Lindbergh's The Wave of the Future, which hurry." My friend read and read and ler” or “Heydrich" for fear the sound of the

took it for granted that it did not make sweated blood as he read: here was an acdreaded names might kill. Thousands of

sense to swim against the current, was a count of a private party he had given, atdoctors, scholars, and other professional men best seller.

tended by only three friends. Pieces of their left the country because they were perse- From the very outset there was a strong conversation were on record-dangerous cuted or had been declared racially, reli

opposition to and a real resistance among talk-revolt against the criminal regime, acgiously, or politically undesirable. From

the Germans against police-state rule in tual plans for sabotaging Nazi policies. The 1933 to 1937 Hitler gave Germany full em- Hitler's regime. As I said before, it was in inspector signed letters and puffed on his ployment and recovery, and rearmed it to the

April 1933 that the Sachsenhausen brewery cigar as my friend read. “Please don't feel teeth, bent all the time on revenge for Ver- had been converted into a concentration rushed,” he urged. Finally, he told Krüger: sailles and on the conquest of Europe, if

camp. This evil punitive "educational” in- "Don't be afraid. We won't arrest you. Just not more, consumed by a morbid lust for stitution sprang up in many places all over

be advised that we are watching you. You'd power and more power.

Germany. The camps were soon over- better go straight. I should deeply regret it With the success of domestic recovery, and

crowded. Why? Because from the first days if we had to hurt you, particularly since you unlimited rearmament, Hitler was presented there was a determined resistance to the have a wife and children. Watch your step. with diplomatic success on a platter, first

totalitarian state by individuals who could So long--have a good time." by France and Great Britain, then by not stomach the arbitrariness and tyranny All the men who revolted against the imRussia. While the Western democracies deof the police state.

morality of the whole hideous system knew livered Czechoslovakia to Hitler, Stalin went

To resist the all-powerful, ruthless totali- that they were in a scientifically designed and one step further and, in cahoots with Hitler,

tarian police state of the 20th century and efficiently operated trap. But a very large divided Poland and Rumania and gobbled its psychiatric shrewdness in breaking man's

body of them went right ahead, and became up the Baltic States. This at long last personality and his will to resist is immeas

accustomed to the always vigilant eyes and brought appeasement to an end. Molotov urably more difficult than the ordinary citi- ears of the Gestapo and the presence of inand von Ribbentrop ratified this carnivorous zen who has known nothing but government

formers. It is beyond belief how this changes deal. The same Mr. Molotov, incidentally, by law can possibly imagine, even now- people who do not possess the strongest of who is still ready, upon occasion, to offer

despite the fact that we know what hap- nerves. I had a visit from my aged parents similar deals, though now the conditions are pened to Cardinal Mindszenty, Robert Voge- in 1937 in New Jersey. It took me about 10 harder.

ler, General Dean, and scores of other sturdy days to persuade my father, at a lonely spot Hitler then went on the fatal warpath, and men. If you decided you could not go along in the countryside, that it would be safe to ultimately made the same error that Na- with every whim of the Nazi regime, you had, have an open word with me about what was poleon did-he invaded Soviet Russia, while even in the first days of the 12 years of Nazi going on at home. the United States and Great Britain pre- rule, only two choices: Either you could emi- You may ask when did the resistance bepared for the onslaught which led to his grate or you could stay and resist, passively gin to amount to anything, and did it ever doom.

or actively. I chose the easiest way, emigra- succeed in impeding the Nazi regime seriIn all the years from 1937 up to this day tion, because I was not sure I could stand ously? Did they perhaps begin to resist only it has been claimed that all of this perver- up under the ordeal of solitary confinement, when the jig was up and the American, Britsion of everything Germany had stood for in and I had many good friends in this coun- ish, and Soviet armies stood inside Gera long history was accomplished without the try, and thus an easy opportunity to go. many? These are certainly legitimate quesslightest civic revolt or even objection. It the decision was to stay, as most Germans tions, and they cannot be answered simply is no exaggeration to say that even though had to, and you were not a moral contor- in a general statement. Yet today we have it has available the most elaborate means of tionist, it meant that at any time you might an almost complete record of what did hapinformation through radio comment, jour- literally have to put your life at stake, with- pen, particularly owing to the fact that the nals and magazines, and a vast array of out any assurance that anyone would ever captured documents now housed in Alexnews-gathering agencies, the American pub- know why you disappeared or even how. I andria, Va., comprise most of the Gestapo lic still holds the view that all Germans be- question the right of the smart critic and records. Owing to the German habit of came 100 percent Nazi the moment that Hit- the glib talker to sit in self-righteous judg- never throwing away a piece of paper with ler became Chancellor. They have also been

ment on the unfortunate people who were anything written on it, we also have the led to believe that it was inherently the will caught in the totalitarian trap. These critics German police and jail records, and also of all the people that this hideous system pat themselves on the back, sure they would a vast literature of memoirs. There are of denying all basic civil rights reflected be quite different from the German people- more than 340 books dealing with the Gertheir innate desire. The popular argument

the perfect heroes, hard as nails, and un- man resistance against Hitler. goes that the Nazi system was constructed fiinching defenders of the faith in the face What actually happened reflected anyby the most prominent philosophers and of sure death. Every individual is not a born thing but a uniform attitude. Some of the statesmen of Germany, with names like martyr, whether he is a German, a Russian, most lucid minds had sense enough to reaKant, Fichte, Hegel, Nietzsche, and Bismarck a Frenchman, an American, a Jew, or a Gen- lize before Hitler came to power that he studding the list. Supposedly all their phi

tile. He has an innate urge to survive, even was an insane force, possessed of a satanic losophy, their political creed, together with under most excruciating conditions. If he combination of skills and gifts tied to a their alleged opportunism, their docility, has relatives, dependents, and friends whom their servility, and their congenital militarhis resistance would jeopardize, his urge to

morbid personality. They also knew that

he had a rare and mystical sort of appeal to ism ended logically in licking with gusto the survive is intensified manyfold.

the mass mind and a psychopathic ciairboots of the tyrant. This theme has been The late Gestapo and its sister organiza- voyance. When at Teheran President Roosestated in endless variation by the army of tions, the GPU and MVD, or whatever letters velt made a remark about “this fool, Hitler," ex-post philosophers and the always pcpu- this modern corps of assistants to the police Stalin quickly countered, “You cannot call lar discoverers of the politically obvious state uses for camouflage, are a tough lot, this man a fool; anyone who has achieved truths of yesterday. Only for the German scientifically equipped with the latest elec- that much in history is certainly no fool.” Jews is an exception made, although they, tronic devices and the techniques of psycho- The men who had to deal with him first as too, by cultural background and centuries analytic and psychosomatic torture. As in

genuine and legitimate opponents were the of belonging to the German community any area where totalitarianism takes over, core of generals of the army whom Hitler were in every sense of the word Germans, Nazi Germany cast fear into the hearts of its had inherited from the small Reichswehr of and for the most part exemplary citizens.

people by the ridiculously simple yet most the Weimar Republic. They were truly conOn them one bestows by a contemptuous

effective device of inviting anonymous infor- servative men of advanced years, with comact of grace absolution from German sin by mation about others-not only inviting it, bat experience in World War I, who were racial exemption. Fortunately enough, the but making it a criminal offense not to in- brought up in the Prussian puritanical spirit. values of human dignity, freedom, and

form on others—even children on their Particularly after the disastrous loss of truth-and faithfulness to them do not have parents and husbands on their wives.

World War I, they were skeptical observers any relation to race or color. The lack of You may sense from the following sample of political democracy in troubled times, and knowledge in the American public about the what it all amounted to. One of my late unquestionably great patriots. Generals


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von Hammerstein-Equord, Beck, von Fritsch, behalf of the German resistance with lead- Aside from this circle, however, were invon Witzleben, Oster, Carl Heinrich von ing political figures, among them Felix Mor- creasing numbers of men, particularly Stülpnagel, von Brauchitsch, and the chief ley, Justice Felix Frankfurter, and a number among high-ranking officers of the Army, of the counter intelligence Admiral Canaris, of diplomats. President Roosevelt, in close who believed that to prevent the total deto name only a few—all men of extraordinary contact with London, turned down flat any struction of the country it was necessary stature—had made up their minds about attempt at negotiating with the German re- to eliminate Hitler and his lieutenants. who the sergeant of World War I really was. sistance. The same attitude prevailed in This conviction was deepened by the clear They saw in him the greatest menace to London. The leading idea already was: Un- realization that Hitler, in his craze, was their country, and in fact to the future of conditional surrender and nothing less. On forcing these professional soldiers to commit government by law in Europe. They were his way back to Germany via Japan and more and more crimes against the rules of conscientious men of order. Hitler was to Russia, Dr. von Trott stopped for a day at warfare and valid German and international them a mountebank and an illbred brigand. my home in Palo Alto. I bitterly criticized law. Leaders of this group, aside from GenBut they did not consider it their task to the leaders of the resistance for their fateful eral Beck, were military leaders in the headtake over the political leadership. Neither delays and hesitations, and ultimately said quarters of Army group central inside Rusin the United States, Germany, nor England to my daring and well-shadowed guest that sia, men in the command in Paris, and in has it been the normal course for the gen- their failure to stop the attack on Poland the Wehrmacht command in Berlin. erals and admirals to take over political would ultimately lead to the total destruc- On March 13, 1943, Colonel von Schlaresponsibility from duly appointed civilian tion of Germany by the United States and brendorff placed a time bomb in Hitler's cabinet officers who have legitimate author- his assassination and that of all his fellow plane. Despite several months of careful ity. Hitler, in turn, knew who his deadli- conspirators by Hitler. Von Trott was one preparation, and hundreds of trials with the est enemies were, and did not shrink from of the first to be murdered by Hitler's gang type of bomb selected for use, the mechausing the vilest and most vicous methods of after July 20.

nism failed in practice. General von Gersintrigue, bribery, and character assassina

As the war went on, the activities in re- dorff carried in his overcoat pockets two tion to get rid of some of them and split sistance circles began to coagulate, but this time bombs in order to blast Hitler and himthe ranks. As the Nuremberg trials have

could never grow into a mass movement. self to bits, but Hitler left the meeting a few proved, the German general staff was op

All the work had to be underground by minutes before the bombs were due to exposed to military adventures. It knew too

small groups of loyal friends. Men from piode. In the winter of 1943–44 some officers well the limitations of German military and

all spheres of life took part. Many ran afoul met with Hitler to display new uniforms, economic resources. Moreover, it had sense of Gestapo agents posing as resisters. There and brought along dynamite with which to enough to realize that one could probably

were prominent and outstanding figures of kill him. An air raid interrupted the whole win battles, but never a war in which the

labor, among them Dr. Julius Leber, Carlo demonstration. In December 1943 Count United States and Great Britain would in- Mierendorff, Theodor Haubach, and Wilhelm Stauffenberg manipulated a bomb through evitably become involved. They distrusted

Leuschner in the civilian underground. the guards of Hitler's headquarters on an Hitler on every ground-character, philos- (Kurt Schumacher had long since disap- occasion when Hitler was expected for a conophy, maturity of judgment, and even more,

peared in a concentration camp.) Most ference, but Hitler canceled his appointpolitical and military intuition. The assas- powerful resistance centers were the Catholic ment. All told, 10 separate attempts to kill sination, underworld style, which Hitler ad

and Protestant churches. Cardinals Faul- Hitler were made before the portentous final ministered to Generals von Schleicher and

haber of Munich, Count von Galen of one. von Bredow, to Messrs. Klausener and Jung

Münster, and Count von Preysing of Berlin Finally, on July 20, 1944, Count Stauffenand scores of others was—if anything of that fearlessly fought a running battle against the berg placed a bomb in a satchel beside Hitsort was needed—an eyeopener to the gen

heathen creed, its racialism and inhuman ler's desk in his East Prussian field headeral officers. These men knew far more than

traits, the killing of the insane, and the per- quarters, "Wolfschanze," and the wooden the public about the cold blooded gang of

version of charity. They protected Jewish shack blew up, wounding Hitler, but not killers that had seized the German power

refugees and succeeded in saving a consider- killing him. The whole plot succeeded in of government. The proper question of

able number of them. Members of the con- Paris, and to some extent also in Berlin, course is, if they did know so much, why did

fessional synod fought a pitched battle under where troop units went into action, but it they not act and remove Hitler? This is

the leadership of Pastors Niemoeller, Bon- succumbed to successful counteraction from one of the most involved problems of the

hoeffer, Lilje, Dibelius, Gerstenmaier, and a Hitler's headquarters, and Hitler immediately whole exasperating struggle between the re- large number of outstanding laymen. The began to liquidate the opponents who had sistence and the Hitler regime.

handful of Seventh Day Adventists were revealed themselves. To begin with, these men actually did

indomitable opponents, and marched into From July 20 black terror raged throughmove all the time to achieve Hitler's elimina

the concentration camps. Other small sects out Germany and in all the German-occupied tion from power. But he surrounded himself

also had resistance cells. Diplomats Otto areas, just as the red terror gripped Soviet with his own pretorian guards, the ss and

Kiep, Von Hassel, Von Trott, Von Weiz- Russia after the attempt on Lenin's life. the SD, and packed the Wehrmacht with

snaecker, Count Bernstorff, and Count von It reigned savagely for almost 10 fateful young officers of his own choosing. Yet the

der Schulenburg were joined by agricultural months, spurred by Hitler, the cornered military-resistance leaders joined with ci- leaders in all parts of Germany, by indus- power maniac, who now, in his doom, did vilian protesters, at first particularly those

trialists, mayors, administrators, and pro- what he had told Hindenburg he wanted to of the conservative wing. Among these men

fessors—particularly of the social sciences. do. The Gestapo rounded up all known who were willing to resist actively were the One of the most powerful spiritual centers conspirators and by torturing the captives, former mayor of Leipzig, Dr. Karl Goerdeler, of the resistance was the so-called Kreisau- brought many others to light. Until the State Secretary Ernst von Weizsäcker, and circle under the leadership of Count Helmut very end, with foreign armies in Berlin, the former Reichsbank president, Hjalmar

James von Moltke. This circle did not work assassinations went on. All of the men were Schacht. They planned for September 1938

for the violent overthrow of the Hitler tortured, and after drumhead trials by the a coup d'etat with troops prepared for the regime, but prepared spiritually and intel- notorious people's court, were condemned attack on Czechoslovakia. Exactly at that lectually for the days to come after his down- to die. In a large number of cases concernmoment British Prime Minister Chamber- fall. This went so far that preparations were ing his most illustrious enemies, Hitler inlain, who had been advised of the conspiracy, made for the structure of a new government sisted on having the victims tortured to told Hitler that he wanted to compromise on and democratic representation of the people; death gradually rather than summarily exCzechoslovakia. On September 29 Hitler's a new constitution was written for a truly ecuted. Our Army captured the motion victory at Munich was complete. It sup- free society and government by law; and a pictures he ordered taken of these nauposedly saved the peace but it deprived the roster of future political leaders and cabinet seating scenes and at which he gazed during generals of that opportunity to execute their members was kept. The circle and their the final days in his bunker in Berlin. coup.

friends also prepared for bringing the Nazi This macabre business actually blotted out One of the most fateful errors of the gen- leaders to trial in court for their crimes. the main body of what one correctly can erals of the resistance was their failure to The philosophy of this circle offers the call the finest flower of the German nation prevent the invasion of Poland; at that time key to the thought of the Bonn government that had resisted the tyrant and belonged they could still have changed the whole today. These men refused to interfere with to the leadership of Christendom. During course of history. What they did later was the disaster which they saw coming, be- the years 1933 to 1944 approximately 32,500 to try to stop the extension of the war to cause they believed it vital for the restora

Germans were executed by so-called court the west. They organized a refusal by the tion of a decent society that this time the

procedure, not counting the vast number top command to order the attack, but two wicked course of a ruthless power policy

of victims who perished in concentration in their ranks refused to commit mutiny. come to its logical end. They wanted no

camps. Up to 1939 more than 1 million Hitler again had it his way. By that time, new legend about a betrayal of victory-cer

Germans had been sent to concentration however, the political activities of civilian tainly a momentous decision in view of the members of the whole conspiracy became enormous disaster it involved. But these camps; 300,000 of them were camp inmates stepped up. They negotiated via Norway people felt that the scope of the catastrophe

in that year. The war cost the Germans, a through intermediaries in London and at was no greater than was the disgrace and nation of 67 million, 312 million soldiers and the same time sent an emissary, Dr. Adam depravity which the Anti-Christ and his 500,000 civilians, but the assassination of von Trott zu Solz by air via Gibraltar to cohorts had brought upon the Germans in the elite was definitely the greatest loss of Washington, D. C., where he negotiated on the West.


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