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pictures, statues, and libraries can be and Mr. J. S. Morgan, his own partner stored up for delight of intellectual in business, informing them that a sum leisure. He might have devoted his of 150,0001. stood in the books of entire wealth to his own indulgence in Messrs. George Peabody and Co., to be these things, inviting a select circle of applied by them for the amelioration of fashionable acquaintance to sit round the condition of the poor of London. him and enjoy them; he would have The gentlemen above named duly en. been envied, admired, flattered, and re. tered on their trust, which has been apnowned. Whatever the world affords plied in the mode indicated by the donor and “ men of the world” profess to de. ---namely, in the erection of model dwell. sire was in the reach of so rich a man; ings for working men. In January, 1866, political power, if he had chosen it, Mr. Peabody added another 100,0001. to might have been his in America ; social the fund; and on December 5 last he power and pride either there or in Europe ; made a further donation of about fifteen --all that could minister to the luxury of acres of land at Brixton, 56 12 shares in sense or fancy, or to the vanity of per. the Hudson's Bay Company, and 51051. sonal distinction. But Mr. Peabody in cash, making a total of 100,0001., cherished a singular opinion of his own. thus raising the amount of his gift to He believed, from his experience and London to 350,0001. This gift is held observation of the world, that none of by the trustees under two deeds, the these things would make a man happy; first having reference to the 150,0001. though a man who has set his heart first given, and the second including the upon such things might be very unhappy remaining 200,0001., which latter was if they were taken from him. He thought not to be put in operation until July, he knew a surer way to obtain hap- 1869, and has, therefore, but now begun piness by the use of riches ; and so, to be dealt with. It appears by the state. having wherewithal, he resolved to ment of the trustees for the year 1868 teach this lesson, by a few striking in. that they now hold property under the stances, both to his own countrymen first deed valued at 173,3131., the in. and to ourselves.

crease being the produce of rents on the Some of his first notable acts of pecu. buildings added to the interest on niary munificence went to save the re- expended capital. Four ranges of build. putation of the American people. At ings have been already erected, which the time of the Great Exhibition of 1851 house a population of 1971 individuals, he promptly supplied the sum needed to composed of the families of working men pay for the arrangements of the United earning wages on the average under 213. States' contributions. In the following a week. The trustees have acqnired year he joined Mr. Henry Grinnell, the other sites, on which they are about to New York shipowner, in fitting out the complete further blocks of houses for expedition to the Arctic Seas in search

similar purposes. of Sir John Franklin. In the same year, By the last will and testament of Mr. 1852, he bestowed a large donation, since Peabody, opened on the day of his funeral, augmented to 100,0001., to found a free his executors, Sir Curtis Lampson and library and educational institute at Dan. Mr. Charles Reed, M.P., were directed vers, his native place. In 1857 Mr. Pea. to apply a further sum of 150,0001. body revisited his native country, after to the Peabody Fund in London. This more than twenty years' absence. On makes half a million sterling bestowed this occasion he gave 100,0001. to found by Mr. Peabody for that single object. in Baltimore a noble institute devoted to This extraordinary beneficence of a science and the arts, in conjunction with a private American citizen was acknow. free library. The corner-stone of the ledged in Great Britain. The freedom building for this institute was laid in of the city of London was conferred 1858, and the building was completed, upon him by the Corporation. The but its opening was delayed by the out. Queen, not content with offering him break of the Southern rebellion. It was either a baronetcy or the Grand Cross of not until after the conclusion of the war the Bath, which he respectfully declined, that it was finally dedicated to the wrote him a grateful letter, and invited purposes for which it was founded. The him to visit her at Windsor. Mr. Pea. founder afterwards

gave second body also received from Her Majesty, in 100,0001. to this institution.

March, 1866, just before his departure On March 12, 1862, Mr. Peabody ad. on a second visit to his native country, dressed a letter to Mr. C. F. Adams, the gift of a beautiful miniature porAmerican Minister; the Right Hon. trait of herself, framed in the most costly Lord Stanley ; Sir J. E. Tennent; Mr. style, which he deposited in the Pea. (now Sir Curtis, Bart.) M. Lampson; body Institute at Danvers. The last

a

success.

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token of public honour which was ren- appeared his “Historical and Critical dered to this good man in London before Picture of French Poetry and of the his death was the uncovering by the French Theatre in the Sixteenth Cen. Prince of Wales, in July, of Mr. Story's tury” (1828). The

Consolation" apfine bronze statue of himself, behind the peared shortly after, and met with better Royal Exchange.

The Cénacle was brushed away Mr. Peabody remained in his native by the Revolution of 1830, and Sainteland three years, during which time he Beuve then joined the staff of the Globe, largely increased the amount of his the avowed organ of the Simonian sect; donations, and founded more than one but he soon grew tired of the association, or two important institutions. He gave and transferred his services to the Revue 2,000,000 dols. for the education of des Deus Mondes, in the pages of which blacks and whites in the South; 300,000 he resumed the series of literary “ Por. dols. for museums of American relics at traits” commenced in the Revue de Paris. Yale and Harvard Colleges ; 50,000 dols. Not long after he joined the National, for a free museum at Salem ; 25,000 then under the able management of dols. to Bishop M'Ilvaine, for Kenyon Armand Carrel, and contributed some College ; and presented a sum of 250,000 excellent papers to that popular journal. dols. to the State of Maryland. He also In 1837 he made a visit to Switzerland, expended 100,000 dols. on a “Memorial and there conceived a History of Port Church” to his mother, and distributed Royal,” which took him eight years to among the members of his family complete. In 1810 he accepted a libra2,000,000 dols. In recognition of his rianship in the Mazarin Library; and in many large gifts to public institutions 1815 he was admitted into the French in America, he received, in March, 1867, Academy to fill up the vacancy caused a special vote of thanks from the United by the death of Casimir Delavigne. In States Congress.

1850 he joined the Constitutionnel, and in Mr. Peabody's illness began while in its columns first appeared that charming America a few months before, but he budget of literary biography and critiseemed to have partially recovered. He cism entitled, “ Causeries du Lundi," or returned to this country in order to con. "Monday Conversations,” an improved sult his medical adviser, Dr. Gull, and continuation of his “Portraits," which then to pass the coming winter in the form a series of volumes. Soon after south of France. His death at the house the Coup d'Etat in December, 1851, he of his friend Sir Curtis Lampson, in was attached to the Moniteur, and Eaton-square, caused universal regret. named Professor of Latin Poetry at the Having been born February 18, 1795, he College of France; but the insubordina. was in the seventy-fifth year of his age. tion of the students exhibited at his

first lecture obliged him to discontinue

the course. In 1857 he was appointed SAINTE-BEUVE.

Professor at the Normal School. The

Emperor signalized the occasion of his Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve, an departure for Algiers at the end of April, eminent French poet and critic, who 1865, by a graceful tribute of esteem for died in the beginning of October, was a distinguished man of letters in the born at Boulogne-sur-Mer on the 23rd of elevation of M. Sainte-Beuve to the December, 1801. At the age of fourteen dignity of Senator. A list of his writ. he went to Paris, where he completed a ings, historical, critical, and poetical, course of study in the College Charle. would occupy considerable space. magne. On leaving College he studied medicine and anatomy, and received the appointment of Out-door Surgeon to the

LORD JUSTICE SELWYN. Hôpital St. Louis. The incompatibility of his profession with his poetical ten. The Right Hon. Sir Charles Jasper dencies had already given rise to feelings Selwyn, P.C., LL.D., Q.C., one of the of repugnance, which he has described Judges of the Court of Appeal, who in his preface to the “ Poésies de Joseph died on the 11th of August, at his Delorme," when the appearance of the seat, Pagoda House, Richmond, was the “ Odes and Ballads” of Victor Hugo de. youngest son of William Selwyn, Esq., cided his future course. He resigned Q.C., of Richmond, by his wifo, Lo. his situation as surgeon, and abandoned titia Frances, daughter of Thomas himself, heart and soul, to poetry and Kynaston, Esq., of Witham, Essex, and literature. He was presented to Victor was brother of the Right Rev. George Hugo, and allied himself with De Musset Augustus Selwyn, D.D., Bishop of Lichand others in the Cénacle. Soon after field. He was born in 1813, and was

educated at Eton, and at Trinity College, Viscount Strangford, of Strangford, in Cambridge, where he graduated B.A., the county of Down, in the Peerage of in 1836, and M.A. in 1839.

He was

Ireland, and Baron Penshurst, of Pens. called to the Bar by the Hon. Society of hurst, in the county of Kent, in the Lincoln's Inn in 1810, and attained great Peerage of the United Kingdom, a eminence as an equity lawyer. He be- Grandee of Portugal, who died on the came a Q.C., and a bencher of Lincoln's 9th of January, at his town house, 58, Inn in 1856. He was M.P. for Cam. Great Cumberland-place, Hyde Park, bridge University from 1859 to 1868, was the youngest son of Percy Clinton and held the office of Commissary of Sydney, sixth Viscount Strangford, by that University since 1855.

He was

his wife, Ellen, youngest daughter of Sir appointed Solicitor-General in August, Thomas Burke, the first Baronet, of 1867, on which occasion he was knighted, Marble Hill, in the County of Galway, and was made Judge of the Court of and widow of Nicholas Brown, Esq., of Appeal in Chancery and sworn of the Mount Hazel, in the county of Galway. Privy Council in 1868. Sir Charles He was born November 26, 1825, and married, in 1856, Hester, daughter of was educated at Harrow, and at Merton H. G. Ravenshaw, Esq., of Richmond, College, Oxford. He was appointed an Surrey, which lady died in 1868. Lord Attaché to the Embassy at Constanti. Justice Giffard thus alluded to his de. nople in May, 1815, and ultimately beceased colleague on the first day of came Oriental Secretary in July, 1857, Michaelmas term :-“ It is impossible which post he vacated in October, 1858. that this Court can resume its sittings He was an eminently accomplished lin. without referring to that which on this guist, and was a member of several day is doubtless present to the minds literary and scientific societies. “The of all in both branches of the pro- linguistic and philological attainments fession--namely, the loss we have all of Lord Strangford,” says the Saturday sustained by the death of the late Lord Review, were something simply amaz. Justice Selwyn. Called to the Bar in ing. It was wonderful to talk to a man 1810 he became a Queen's Counsel in to whom all the languages of Europe 1856, and afterwards attained the office and civilized Asia seemed equally faof Solicitor-General, and was raised to miliar. But this was not all. He was the Bench, having had in these Courts a a scientific and historical philologer of practice extending over twenty-seven a high order. He not only knew a vast years, successful from the commencement number of languages, but he knew all of his career, and not, on the whole, in- about the languages which he knew . ferior to that of any of his contemporaries. It is really sad to think how small It was therefore to be expected that he is likely to be the permanent fruit of would administer the law, of which he powers which were so diligently exer. had so much experience, with ability cised, and of a mind which was so richly and with decision, nor was that expec- stored. We know of no published writ. tation in any respect disappointed. It ings of Lord Strangford's, save some conwas my lot, and, I may add, my happi- tributions to various periodicals, and tho ness, to be associated with the late Lord chapters which he added to Lady StrangJustice as his junior on the Bench, and ford's book on “ The Eastern Shores of though that was for a few, a very few the Adriatic." Lord Strangford suc. months only, I may be permitted to say ceeded his brother, George Augustus how certain I am that no man could Frederick Percy Sydney, seventh Vis. have brought to the discharge of his count Strangford, a promising and distin. duties a more complete and ready know- guished politician, November 23, 1857. ledge, a more manly judgment, a more He married, February 6, 1862, Emily anxious desire that in every case truth Anne, youngest daughter of Admiral Sir and justice and right should be done. F. Beaufort, K.C.B., by whom, who surHis memory is also dear to all of us as vived him, he had no issue. Lord that of a personal friend in all truth Strangford's father, Percy Clinton Sydand sincerity.”

ney, sixth Viscount, an eminent diplo. matist and a graceful poet, the trans

lator of Camöens, the Portuguese bard, VISCOUNT STRANGFORD. was created, January 26, 1825, Baron

Penshi of Penshurst, in the county of The Right Hon. Percy Ellen Algernon Kent, in the Peerage of the United Frederick William Sydney Smythe,eighth Kingdom.

REMARKABLE TRIALS.

I.

SAURIN v. STAR.

THE CONVENT CASE.

This was a very extraordinary case, and excited an unusual degree of public interest. The action was brought by a late inmate of a convent at Hull against the Superioress, Mrs. Star, and Mrs. Kennedy, another member of the Order ; and the charge was that the defendants wrongfully and maliciously conspired together to compel the plaintiff to cease to be a member, and to procure her expulsion by subjecting her to various indignities, persecutions, and annoyances, by depriving her of the food and clothing to which she was lawfully entitled, by imprisoning her, by preventing her from attending the services of the convent chapel, and by preferring false charges of disobedience, contempt of authority, neglect of duty, and other misconduct. There was a charge for appropriating a watch, wearing apparel, books and papers, and also one for libel, in respect of allegations made against the plaintiff to the Roman Catholic Bishop of Beverley. The damages were laid at 50001. The defendants pleaded “ Not guilty,” that the plaintiff was not a member of the Order nor entitled to the privileges and advantages of the institution, and that after the accruing of the matters of complaint and cause of action, the same and all matters of difference were referred to the Bishop, whose award was unfavourable to the plaintiff.

The Solicitor-General (Sir J. Coleridge, Q.C.), Mr. Digby Seymour, Q.C., and Mr. A. Wills were counsel for the plaintiff; Mr. Hawkins, Q.C., Mr. Mellish, Q.C., and Mr. Charles Russell for the defendants.

The case was tried before the Lord Chief Justice of England, and occupied the Queen's Bench for three weeks. A large number of witnesses were called, and the most trifling details of convent discipline gone into with extraordinary minuteness.

The Solicitor-General stated the plaintiff's case to the jury, and

Miss Susanna Mary Saurin, the plaintiff, who was attired in deep mourning, was the first witness. She said, I am the daughter of Mr. Michael Saurin, of Garballaugh, near Drogheda. In or about the year 1850 I was desirous of entering a religious house. My parents were opposed at first to my taking such a step, but they ultimately consented. The Convent of Mercy in Baggot-street, Dublin, was selected as the convent which I should enter, I became a postulant

M

on the 21st of November, 1850, and remained there as a postulant till the 5th of August, 1851, when I became a novice. On the 3rd of October, 1853, I made my profession as a regular sister of the Order, taking the name, in religion, of Sister Mary Scholastica Joseph. The defendant, Mrs. Star, entered Baggotstreet Convent as a postulant a few months before I did, and also made her act of profession a few months before I made mine. She took the name of Sister Mary Joseph. Mrs. Kennedy, who was professed shortly after me, assumed the name of Sister Mary Magdalene. I became very much attached to both of them, and we were associated together in the work of education. In 1857 Mrs. Star left Baggot street on going to be Superioress of a new foundation at Clifford, near Tadcaster, in Yorkshire. I followed her to Clifford on the 16th or 17th of May, 1858. Mrs. Kennedy was at Clifford when I arrived there. I went over with Mrs. Delany, a choir-sister, Mrs. M'Owne, and a lay-sister. Mrs. M'Owne was called Sister Mary Agnes. My father and mother offered great opposition to my going to Clifford, though they ultimately gave their assent. In the course of 1858 there was a convent founded at Hull, and Mrs. Star went there. I after. wards joined her at Hull, but after remaining there a few months I returned to Clifford. From that time to 1864 I was sometimes at Hull, but more frequently at Clifford. During the greater part of that time Mrs. Star was chiefly at Hull, but sometimes she was at Clifford. She was the Superior of both houses. Mrs. Kennedy passed most of her time at Hull, being at one period Mother-Assistant. There was a local Superior appointed by Mrs. Star for Clifford. Mrs. Delany filled that office part of the time, and Mrs. M'Owne the remainder of the time. During the earlier period of my stay at Clifford Mrs. Star and Mrs. Kennedy paid a visit to Ireland. On her return, Mrs. Star told me they had seen my mother. She said she had explained the circumstances in which the convent was placed, and told me my mother was reconciled to my remaining. My mother, she said, expressed a wish that I would write to her once a month. At Clifford I discharged the duties of infirmarian, and was also employed in the housekeeping and in the visitation of the sick. I, with several others, were engaged in the school in the morning and afternoon. These duties necessarily brought me into contact with people in the outer world. At this time I was on the most friendly terms with Mrs. Star and Mrs. M'Owne. Prior to the year 1860'my life was passed very happily. Some time in that year Mrs. Star asked me to tell her what had passed between myself and the priest at confession. I refused to do so, as I doubted it would be contrary to honour and every regulation. I said I did not remember all the priest had said to me. She told me to go away and try to remember and then come back and tell her. I persisted, however, in my refusal to tell her my confession. She asked me several times the same day, and remarked that no member of the community, with the exception of myself, would refuse. I said I thought it would be a breach of honour on my part to repeat any thing that had been said to me in confession. She said I showed great want of confidence in her. Up to then we all had free communication with one another during recreation hours, but after this occurrence Mrs. Star used to go away every day in company with the senior sister, Mrs. M'Owne, while I was left with the novices and postulants. Mrs. Star assigned no reason for wanting to know my confession. Some sisters from Baggot-street afterwards came on a visit to Hull, and on that occasion the Mother-Assistant from Dublin found me alone with the novices and postulants. We had some conversation, and afterwards Mrs. Star told me she had sharply reproved the Mother-Assistant. In

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