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The administration of Ireland, too, was His great achievement, however, as a for him to defend in Parliament. Whig Minister was the emancipation of Mr. Stanley had a very difficult task. the negro slaves in all the colonies of The state of Ireland, excited by its Great Britain. His speech of May 14, triumph in the struggle for Catholic 1833, in bringing forward that glorious Emancipation, seduced by the efforts of measure, was a noble utterance of geneits priests and demagogues, and com- rous philanthropy and an admirably mencing a new agitation for the Repeal clear exposition of the complicated subof the Union, was full of danger. The ject. His ardent indignation was never social grievances of the land laws and more worthily bestowed than in de. the Church Establishment were intensely nouncing the shameful outrages upon felt by the people. Tithe murders, as humanity then practised in our West well as land murders, were frequent all Indian plantations, and the persistent over the country; there were alarming evasion or neglect of protective regulariots, bloody conflicts of the peasants tions by the colonial governments. In with the constables or soldiers, burnings the progress of the Bill through Com. of houses and ricks, maimings of cattle mittee, where all its details were dis- every sort of mischief. The Lord cussed and readjusted, including the loan Lieutenant, the Marquis of Anglesey, or grant of twenty millions to the did his best to uphold public order and planters and the arrangement of the to soothe the furious nation under his term of apprenticeship, Mr. Stanley disrule. But it was neceşsary to pass a charged a most laborious duty, in spite Coercion Act, with other such measures, of manifold opposition, with a zeal that which the Chief Secretary had to intro- showed his heart was truly in this work. duce. In so doing Mr. Stanley was often In 1834 Lord Stanley separated him. embroiled with O'Connell, who was his self from the Whigs on the question of bitter opponent. Mr. Stanley was doing the Irish Church; he, with Sir James much good work for Ireland. The Irish Graham, the Duke of Richmond, and Board of National Education, in which others, resisting the proposed appropriathe Protestant Archbishop Whately and tion of its surplus revenues to purposes the Catholic Archbishop Murray, with of education. He rejected the overtures the Presbyterians of Ulster, could unite made to him by Sir Robert Peel, when their efforts to provide an unsectarian, that statesman, on the fall of Lord Mel. but not irreligious, system of teaching bourne's Ministry, in 1834, undertook to for the peo was one of the acts of his form a Government; but seven years official time. The Irish Board of Works, after, when these overtures were re. the Shannon navigation improvements, newed, he accepted them, and became and other useful performances must also Secretary of State for the Colonies. Lord be placed to his credit. He had much Stanley proved a tower of strength to to do with the arrangements for compen. the Tory party, though he was much too sating the clergy for the non-collection independent and too willing to smite of tithes. He had ceased to be Chief friends as well as foes to make its leader Secretary for Ireland, and was promoted feel perfectly at ease with him. Sir to be a Secretary of State, just before Robert Peel was glad of an excuse to the Irish Church Temporalities Bill was raise Lord Stanley before his time to the introduced, in the Session of 1833 ; but Upper House, and he had good reason he declared, in the debate on the second for his distrust. The Repeal of the Corn reading, that no one was more respon. Laws could no longer be delayed, and sible for it than himself. It went to the Lord Stanley was bound by all the tradi. abolition of two archbishoprics and ten tions of his family to resist Free Trade. bishoprios; the payment of Church cess The result of the great conjuncture of was to be stopped, and other ecclesiasti. 1846 was that Lord Stanley broke loose cal abuses to be redressed. Mr. Stanley, from Peel, and the rank and file of while he still refused to allow that any the Tories rallied round him. Lord Church property could be directed to Stanley was now formally, and by the secular purposes, yet supported the advice of the Duke of Wellington, in147th clause of the Bill ; for he always stalled in the leadership of the Tory held, with the other Whigs, that the party, and though in Parliament there contemplated surplus, thus to be appro. was a tremendous force arrayed against priated, was not property actually be. it, he found in Lord George Bentinck longing to the Church ; it was a fund to and Mr. Disraeli lieutenants of great be gained by an improvement in the courage and force of character, men whe mode of leasing episcopal estates. His could fight a losing battle with skill and consistency was afterwards vindicated keep the party together. In 182, by reference to this distinction.
through the dissensions of their chiefs, the Whigs were disorganized, and Lord following one he resigned the direction Derby—who had succeeded to the title of his Government and of his party to in 1851-was commanded by the Queen Mr. Disraeli, himself retiring very much to form a Government. He enjoyed the into private life, and content to serve sweets of office for but a short time, rather as an adviser than as a com. however. He had a hopeless minority mander of the Tory host. He made a in the House of Commons, and the last and characteristic speech in the opposing chiefs in a few months agreed House of Lords on the occasion of the to sink their differences and to join in a second reading of the Irish Church Bill, coalition of "all the talents," under Lord which he vehemently denounced. Aberdeen. For five years Lord Derby “ We have spoken of Lord Derby,” was in Opposition, and then once more, says the Times, chiefly as a statesman. through the dissensions of the Liberal But, after all, it was the man-over party, found himself in Downing-street. brilliant and impulsive—that most won He had now, however, a stronger Cabi. the admiration of his countrymen. He net, and all that he wanted for success was a splendid specimen of an English. was a majority in the House of Commons. man; and whether he was engaged in The Tory Ministry of 1858-59 made a furious debate with demagogues, or in good fight. In face of considerable re- lowly conversation on religion with sistance they carried their India Bill, little children, or in parley with jockeys, by which the Government of our most while training Toxophilite, or rendering splendid dependency was transferred Homer into English verse, or in stately from the East India Company to the Latin discourse as the Chancellor of his Sovereign ; and in a most memorable University, or in joyous talk in a draw. debate on Lord Canning's Indian Ad. ing-room among ladies, whom he de. ministration they completely routed lighted to chaff, or in caring for the their adversaries. The Colonial Admi. needs of Lancashire operatives,—there nistration of Sir Edward Lytton, too, was a force and a fire about him that showed a vigorous originality, which acted like a spell. Of all his public acts gave great satisfaction, and the attempt none did him more honour, and none of Mr. Disraeli to carry a measure of made a deeper impression on the minds Parliamentary Reform, although it was of his countrymen, than his conduct on unsuccessful, extorted the praise even of the occasion of the cotton famine in his opponents. The country, when ap- Lancashire. No man in the kingdom pealed to, failed to give it support. Lord sympathized more truly than he with Palmerston returned to power, and for the distress of the poor Lancashire spin. seven long years the Tories languished in ners, and, perhaps, no man did so much the wilderness.
as he for their relief. It was not simply During this period Lord Derby began that he gave them a princely donation : to show signs of advancing age, though he worked hard for them in the com. his mind, indeed, gave no proof of decay. mittee which was established in their He was still willing to sacrifice himself aid ; he was, indeed, the life and soul of for his party, and no one joined more the committee; and for months at that earnestly than he in its struggles with bitter time he went about doing good by Mr. Gladstone when the French Treaty precept and example, so that myriads in was under discussion. His speech on the Lancashire now bless his name. He will repeal of the Paper Duty was a wonder long live in memory as one of the most in its way—a marvel of felicitous state. remarkable, and indeed irresistible, men ment and clear arrangement of financial of our time—a man privately beloved details, but it could give those who heard and publicly admired, who showed exit no adequate idea of his old style—its traordinary cleverness in many ways; music, its fire, its rapidity, its irresistible was the greatest orator of his day, and dash. In his youth he had been fond of was the most brilliant, though not the translation, and he now set himself the most successful, Parliamentary leader of task of translating the “Iliad.” He exe. the last half-century." cuted this with much spirit and correct- The Earl of Derby left three children ness, and it was a work of which he had -the eldest, Edward Henry, Lord Stan. reason to be proud.
ley, Foreign Secretary from 1866 to 1868, In 1866 the Reform Bill of Lord Rus. born in 1826; the second, the Hon. sell's Government was rejected, and Frederick Stanley, M.P., who married a Lord Derby, for the third and last time, daughter of the Earl of Clarendon ; and returned to power. During the next Lady Emma Charlotte, wife of Colonel year the great Tory chief induced his the Hon. W. Talbot, brother to the Earl followers to pass an Act establishing of Shrewsbury. Household Suffrage ; and early in the
SIR J. EMERSON-TENNENT. Antrim, and Fermanagh, and a Knight
Commander of the Greek Order of the Sir James Emerson-Tennent, Knight Saviour. He was a frequent contributor and first Baronet, of Tempo Manor, in to magazine literature, and a constant the county of Fermanagh, who died sud. correspondent of Notes and Queries. He denly on the 6th of March, was the was the author also of some works of third and only surviving son of the late a more permanent character, among Mr. William Emerson, of Ardmore, which we may mention his “ Travels in county Armagh, an eminent merchant at Greece in 1852 ;" his “ Letters from Belfast, by Sarah, youngest daughter of the Ægean ;" his “ History of Modern the late Mr. William Arbuthnot, of Rock. Greece ;" his " Belgium in 1840 ;" his ville, in the county of Down. He was born “Essay on the Copyright of Designs," a at Belfast on the 7th of April, 1794, and subject which he had studied very carewas educated at Trinity College, Dublin, fully while in Parliament; his “Wine, its where he took the usual degrees, and Use and Taxation;" his “ Account of Cey. ultimately proceeded LL.D. Soon after lon,” an admirable and exhaustive work; this he travelled abroad, and, among and, lastly, his “ History of Christianity other countries, visited Greece ; he was in Ceylon.” In politics Sir James was a enthusiastic in the cause of Greek free- Conservative of the English rather than dom, and while there made the acquaint- of the Irish type. In early life, indeed, ance of Lord Byron. In 1831 he was he had been a Liberal of a somewhat called to the Bar at Lincoln's-inn, where advanced character, and he first entered he had entered himself as a student by Parliament as a Reformer.
He was, the advice and under the auspices of however, one of those who went over to Jeremy Bentham, but we are not aware the Tories about the same time with that he ever practised or intended to Lord Stanley, and during several Ses. practise that profession, as in the June of sions his votes were given on the Tory the same year he married Letitia, only side ; but in his advanced years he ad. daughter and heiress of Mr. William hered to the policy of Sir Robert Peel; Tennent, a wealthy banker at Belfast, and it was from Lord Palmerston's Gowhose name and arms he assumed by vernment that he accepted his baronetey. Royal licence in addition to his own. By his marriage with Miss Tennent He entered Parliament as M.P. for Bel. Sir James had issue one son and two fast in December, 1832, and was again daughters. elected in December, 1834 ; but he failed to obtain re-election at the dissolution consequent upon the King's death in the THE BISHOP OF EXETER. summer of 1837, though he was seated on petition in the following year. He This remarkable prelate was born at was again returned for Belfast at the Bridgewater, in Somersetshire, on May general election of 1841 ; but he now 6, 1778, being the second son of Mr. found the tables turned upon him, for a John Phillpotts, a wholesale brickmaker Parliamentary Committee unseated him. of that place, who afterwards became He regained his seat, however, in the landlord of that old-fashioned hotel at following year, and held it until 1845, Gloucester, the Bell Inn, once kept by when, having held for some time the the father of the Rev. George Whitfield, post of Secretary to the India Board, he born in the same house. The elder son accepted from Sir Robert Peel the Colo- of Mr. John Phillpotts became M.P. for nial Secretaryship of Ceylon. He was Gloucester, but died in London many knighted on his appointment to this years ago. Henry Phillpotts was edu. post, which he held until the end of the cated at the College School, Gloucester, year 1850. He discharged the office of and thence passed to Corpus Christi Secretary to the Poor-Law Board under College, Oxford, where, before he had Lord Derby's first Administration from attained his fourteenth year, he was February to November, 1852, during elected to a scholarship. In June, 1795, which year also he sat in Parliament as he took his degree of B.A., and soon M.P. for Lisburn. Just before the re- obtained the Chancellor's prize for an tirement of Lord Derby from office he essay
“On the Influence of Religious was appointed Permanent Secretary to Principle.” Within a few weeks afterthe Board of Trade, an office from which wards he was elected a Fellow of Mag. he retired in 1867, in the February of dalen College, and subsequently received which year he was raised to a baronetcy. the prize offered by the Asiatic Society Sir James Emerson-Tennent was a de- for a Latin panegyric on the celebrated puty-lieutenant for the counties of Fer. Oriental scholar, Sir William Jones. managh and Sligo, a magistrate for Down, Having taken his degree of M.A., Mr. Phillpotts, in 1804, married Miss Surtees, to enjoy his Durham prebend, of not a niece of Lady Eldon, and resigned his much less value. In Parliament, for fellowship ; he became one of the chap- thirty Sessions and more, he figured as lains of Dr. Shute Barrington, then a bitter opponent of the Whig Govern. Bishop of Durham, in 1806. He first ment, and the tone of his speeches in the distinguished himself in theological con- House of Lords was extremely virulent. troversy by publishing a defence of an He was the most vehement opponent of episcopal charge delivered by Dr. Bar- the Reform Bill, Irish Church Reform, rington, whose remarks had been at- National Education, the Ecclesiastical tacked by Dr. Lingard, the Roman Commission, and the New Poor Law. Catholic historian. Three years after- In his diocesan administration, during wards he was made a Prebendary of more than a quarter of a century, he Durham Cathedral, and with that dignity involved himself in manifold contentions held the cure of one of the larger parishes and litigations with some of the clergy in the city of Durham for ten years, and with some of the influential laity of when he was preferred to the rich rec- Devonshire, having his own notions both tory of Stanhope. In 1821 Mr. Phillpotts of ecclesiastical discipline and of the took his degree of D.D., and in 1825 he rights of patronage and of presentation entered upon a controversy with Mr. to benefices of the Church. His contests Charles Butler, the author of "The Book with the late and the present Duke of of the Roman Catholic Church.” Dr. Somerset, and with the Rev. James Phillpotts published his answer in an Shore, minister of the Duke's chapel-ofoctavo volume, entitled “Letters to ease at Bridgetown, Totnes, were highly Charles Butler, Esq., on the Theological characteristic; as well as his proceedings Parts of his Book of the Roman Catholic against the Rev. H. E. Head, Rector of Church, with Remarks on Certain Works Feniton, upon a charge of heresy, and of Dr. Milner and Dr. Lingard, and on his refusal to institute the Rev. G. C. some parts of the Evidence of Dr. Doyle Gorham, Vicar of Brampford Speke, on before the Committee of the Houses of the ground of his imperfect belief of the Parliament.” In the ensuing year Dr. doctrine of baptismal regeneration. After Phillpotts followed up the controversy a vast amount of litigation, the Judicial by the publication of “A Supplemental Committee of the Privy Council finally Letter to Charles Butler, Esq., on some decided in favour of Mr. Gorham, and parts of the Evidence given by the Irish ordered the Bishop of Exeter to perform Roman Catholic Bishops, particularly by the legal act of his institution. He Dr. Doyle, before the Committee of the refused to do so; and it was therefore Two Houses of Parliament, in the Session performed by the Archbishop of Canterof 1825; and also on Certain Passages bury, Dr. Sumner, in due execution of in Dr. Doyle's Essay on the Catholic the law. The Bishop thereupon declared Claims.” In the year 1827, when the that his ecclesiastical superior was question of Roman Catholic emancipa- fautor of heretical tenets; that as such tion occupied so much public attention, his Grace had “forfeited all right to Dr. Phillpotts published two “Letters Catholic communion;" and that be, the to Mr. Canning," in which he insisted, Bishop, “thereupon renounced commuas he had done before in a “ Letter to nion with him." As to the Judges, Earl Grey," that the claims of the Catho- “they had committed themselves to a lics to political enfranchisement ought statement notoriously at variance with not to be conceded without “adequate the facts of the case; their judgment securities for the Church of England.” proceeded on an utter disregard of the But in 1828 he accepted the Deanery of canons of the Church; and their senChester from the Duke of Wellington, tence, swayed by other motives besides who about that time, in conjunction justice and truth, was a grievous perver. with Sir Robert Peel, made up his mind sion of justice.” The Bishop attempted to grant Catholic emancipation. To. to get up a diocesan synod to support wards the end of 1830 the see of Exeter him in resistance to the law; but it became vacant by the translation of Dr. proved a failure, and he ever after that Christopher Bethell to that of Bangor, time refrained from any conspicuous and Dr. Phillpotts was appointed to fill action in the politics of the Church. it. As the income of the see was but The Bishop's death took place in the 27001. a year, he endeavoured to get ninety-second year of his age, on the 18th permission to keep the Rectory of Stan. of September, at his marine villa of hope, worth 50001. a year, along with Bishopstowe, near Torquay, which had his bishopric. This was refused by the been his constant residence.
He had, Government of Earl Grey, which had about a fortnight before, in a letter to just come in; but the Bishop was allowed the Archbishop of Canterbury, announced
his intention to resign his see, and to army dating from the 7th of August, accept the pension in that case provided 1794, and that of Lieutenant a month or by the late Act of Parliament; but had two later. His first regiment was the been unable, in his last illness, to com. 119th Foot, on the disbanding of which plete the forms of resignation. He had he passed into the 78th Highlanders, taken no active part in public affairs which he joined in 1795 at the Cape of since 1863, when he delivered his last Good Hope, in time to take part in the charge to the clergy of his diocese, at capture of that place and in that of the his triennial tour of visitation ; since Dutch fleet in Saldanha Bay. We next which time he had lived in seclusion, find him serving in the 87th (the Royal having the assistance of Dr. Trower, Irish Fusiliers) in the West Indies, and Bishop of Gibraltar, to perform the present at the attack on Porto Rico and episcopal business.
the capture of Surinam, and taking part A writer in the Times remarks,“From in the brigand war in St. Lucia. the days of Pitt and Fox down to had already gained a high reputation those of Gladstone and Bright few for soldierlike ability when, in 1809, he Parliamentary speakers have excelled proceeded to the Peninsula, to join the the late Bishop. Tierney may have army under the Duke of Wellington. been more witty, Canning more brilliant, As Major he had the temporary com. Sir James Mackintosh more philosophi. mand of his regiment, then before Oporto, cal, and Brougham more sarcastic, Lord and at its head took a brilliant part in Derby may be more of an orator, but the operations by which Soult was disthey never surpassed Bishop Phillpotts lodged. In the battle of Talavera he in his general command of all these was severely wounded in the side by a qualities, and in readiness and dexterity shell while charging the enemy, and he in debate. He was never at a loss either had his horse shot under him. His confor words or for matter; and, thoroughly duct in this action was so distinguished master of every subject that he took up, that the Duke of Wellington subsequently he surprised those who thought that the recommended him for promotion to a man who wielded the pen of controversy lieutenant-colonelcy, urging, also, that 80 well would prove an ordinary mortal his commission should be antedated from when he passed within the portals of the the date of his despatch, and it is reHouse of Peers."
marked in Hart's Army List, in reference to this fact, that Hugh Gough was the
first officer who ever received brevet FIELD-MARSHAL VISCOUNT rank for services performed in the field GOUGH.
at the head of a regiment. The next
battle in which he took part was that of The Right Hon. Sir Hugh Gough, Barossa, where the corps he commanded first Viscount Gough, of Goojerat, in the had a large share in securing the fortunes Punjaub, and of the city of Limerick; of the day. Among the spoils of battle and Baron Gough, of Chin-Kean-Foo in was an eagle with a collar of gold, which China, and of Maharajpore and the was captured from the 8th regiment of Sutlej in the East Indies, in the Peerage the enemy's light infantry, and which of the United Kingdom; and a Baronet; has ever since been borne as an honourK.P., G.C.B., G.C.S.I., P.C., a Field- able achievement on the colours of the Marshal in the Army, Colonel of the Royal Irish. We next find him taking Royal Horse Guards (Blue), and Colonel. part in the defence of Tarifa, where the in-Chief of the 60th Rifles, who died on portcullis tower and rampart, as the the 2nd of March, at his residence, St. post of danger, were entrusted to him Helen's, Booterstown, near Dublin, was and his regiment, and where they greatly a descendant of the Right Rev. Francis distinguished themselves in repulsing Gough, Bishop of Limerick in 1626, and the final attack of the enemy, and com. was the fourth son of George Gough, pelling him to raise the siege. It is Esq., of Woodstown, in the county of almost needless to add that the Royal Limerick, Lieutenant-Colonel of the Irish and their gallant leader were menLimerick Militia, by his wife, Letitia, tioned in terms of high praise in the daughter of the late Thomas Bunbury, General's despatches. Their conduct Esq., of Lisnevagh and Moyle, in the was scarcely less distinguished at Vitcounty of Carlow. He was born Nov. toria, where the 87th captured the bâton 3, 1779. At the age of thirteen young of Marshall Jourdan. At Nivelle Gough Hugh Gough obtained a commission in was again severely wounded, and was
father's regiment of Militia, from rewarded for his gallantry with the Gold 1 he was transferred to the Line, Cross, and shortly afterwards received mmission as
an Ensign in the the Order of St. Charles from the King