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may refer to the stereotyped Calvinistic reply to the Universalist denial of strict endlessness, as the equivalent of “everlasting," as the word appears in Matt. xxv. 46. This reply avers that inasmuch as the same word is aflixed to the happiness of the righteous as to the punishment of the wicked, if the word does not express endless duration in the one case, it cannot necessarily in the other. American Universalists concede the point alleged, but deny the Calvinistic conclusion, by affirming that neither as respects the case of the righteous or the wicked, does the term in question distinctively express duration but quality—the kind of a condition but not the necessary continuance of it. But the authoress of “The Friendly Disputants” denies the allegation, that if the word everlasting expresses a limited duration in the one case, it expresses the same in the other case; and submits a learned and highly interesting argument in support of her position. We single out this specimen of the difference between the English style of Scripture interpretation and that which generally obtains here, because this peculiarity gives the book a special value to us.

Our readers will find the Universalism in the book to be sufficiently identical with their own, but some of the argumentation will have for them the charm of freshness. The portions of the work which rest more directly upon reasoning-particularly as respects personal identity, the freedom of the will, the Divine Sovereignty, the mission of evil, the relations of justice and mercy—are presented with much clearness and force. We hail the appearance of “The Friendly Disputants efficient aid in the work of giving the world the more cheering views of the nature and the purposes of God, and the ultimate destiny of human souls. We commend our English ally to the regards of the American brethren.

as an

5. Optimism the Lesson of Ages. A Compendium of Democratic Theology, designed to illustrate Necessities whereby all things are as they are, and to Reconcile the Discontents of Men with the Perfect Love and Power of Ever-Present God. By Benjamin Blood. Boston: Bela Marsh. 1860. pp. 132.

The plan of this work is so comprehensive, it discusses so many distinct branches of the theological theme, that no mere potice can give the reader any clue to its special contents. We have never wavered from the blessed doctrine that some how (and the how is often mysterious) all events are for ulterior good. The reality of evil does indeed seem to us a palpable fact, but though this fact perplexes our reason it does not shake our faith. Mr. Blood's philosophy of evil is ingenious, and is apparently supported by good logic; yet it does not fully satisfy our reason. We must continue to think, that there is a problem involved in this matter of evil, which the finite mind cannot solve. Our author has written something out of the beaten track. He does not disappoint his readers with mere common place. He, indeed, enounces some doctrines from which we heartily dissent; nevertheless we thank him for the book.

6. Methodism Successful, and the Internal Causes of its Success. By Rev. B. F. Tefft, D. D., LL. D. With a letter of Introduction by Bishop Janes. New York: Derby & Jackson. 1860. pp. 588.


enemy of Methodism, though as well informed in the same facts as Dr. Tefft, would doubtless make out of the facts a very different book. We are fully convinced that the real merits of a sect cannot be stated by either its warm partisan or its warm foe. We have examined this book with some care, and in many cases the facts seem to us at war with the author's deductions. But we have an instinctive dislike of the peculiar instrumentalities of Methodism; the author has, perhaps, an instinctive preference for them.

We are glad, however, to see a statement of the causes of the apparent success of Methodism, (and much of its success we deem only apparent) stated by one who has the prosperity of the sect so much at heart. We agree with the author, that love, rather than force, gives the Gospel its efficacy. Indeed, we build our whole theology upon this basis. Herein Methodism is by no means peculiar-we think not logically consistent. We confess ourselves instructed, if not in all particulars convinced, by Dr. Tefft's book.

7. Lectures on Logic. By Sir William Hamilton, Bart. Edited by the Rev. Henry L. Mansel, B. D., LL. D., and John Veitch, M. A. Boston: Gould & Lincoln. 1860. 8vo., pp. 731.

We should probably satisfy the publishers did we announce, in the briefest phrase, the appearance of this work ; for the name of Sir William Hamilton as the author, is in itself a commendation to which our most enthusiastic word can but slightly approach. We cannot satisfy ourselves, however, without taking the occasion to congratulate the thinking world on so great a contribution to its solid literature. Logic as an abstract science is, by common consent, a dry theme. One would be expected to grow enthusiastic over a table of logarithms as soon as over a treatise on the art of reasoning. The popular orator scrupulously avoids its technicalities and its formulas. The logician, himself, when engaged upon real problems, is anxious to hide the mental machinery by which he works out the solution, Students take to Logic as a necessity, a drill, very seldom with the anticipation that the labor in itself will prove agreeable. It may seem an extravagant promise, that even Sir William Hamilton has dis-enrobed the subject of its repulsive garb. We will, however, state a fact, and this at the risk of being suspected of affecting singularity: we have read 120 pages of Hamilton's Logic, and found the labor fraught with pleasure as well as with profit.

Possibly the surprise with which we have read these pages accounts, in part, for the interest the work has created in us; for, according to all rhetoricians, surprise in the perusal of a book is one of the elements which fascinate. We have been profoundly surprised, not so much at the allegations of ignorance which Hamilton brings against English writers upon Logic, as at the palpable justice of the allegations. He alleges that in Great Britain, “the nature of Logic has been most completely and generally misunderstood ;” that “Bacon wholly misconceived its character in certain respects ;” that with Locke the misapprehension was “ total ;” that even Dr. Whately " wrote his Elements of Logic in singular unacquaintance with all that had been written on the science in ancient and in modern times, with the exception, apparently, of two works of two Oxford logicians,” neither of which rose above " a humble mediocrity," and one of them abounding with “ the grossest errors ;” and we are certified that Whately's work has simply this recommendation, that it is the best book on the subject in a language which has absolutely no other deserving of notice!” Such allegations coming from the greatest philosophical authority of the century, and backed by his learned editors, may well surprise a reading public whose partiality has given Whately the post of an authority in the leading institutions of learning, in both Great Britain and America. The justness of the allegations appears in the process whereby Hamilton eliminates whatever has been illegitimately associated with pure Logic, in former definitions of the science. His own definition of the term is another added to those instances of analysis which have made the name of Sir William Hamilton immortal in the annals of pure thought. He strips off, one by one, the husks which under former tending have hidden the pure kernel, till we reach the final definition, that Logic is specifically not the science of thought, nor yet of thought as thought, nor yet of the laws of thought as thought, but the science of the Formal Laws of Thought as Thought.

The author proceeds to treat the whole subject under the two general divisions of Pure Logic and Modified Logic. From these a process of subdivision goes on, till the whole subjectmatter is distributed and organized and developed into the completeness and the symmetry of a system. In the limits of a notice we can not even enter upon a statement of the special contents of so great and so complex a work. For these, we must refer the reader to the book itself. We here take the occasion to record our thanks to the enterprising publishers, to whom we are indebted for so valuable a treatise in a form so attractive. The Lectures on Logic are uniform with the Lectures on Metaphysics. Let both works find their way into the libraries of all who make even the slightest pretensions to rank as students.

8. Prolegomena Logica: An Inquiry into the Psychological Character of Logical Processes. By Henry Longueville Mansel, B. D., LL. D. Boston: Gould & Lincoln. 1860. pp. 291.

A most fitting sequel to the Logic of Hamilton is this smaller work by his accomplished editor, Dr. Mansel. We say a sequel, for though psychological matters are prior to logical processes in the order of nature, they are subsequent to such processes in the order of time. In fact, without some knowledge of the science of logic, the “Prolegomena Logica," will be read to very little profit. Dr. Mansel has attempted to show some of the necessary relations of Psychology to Logic. The treatise distinguishes thought from other facts of consciousness, and then presents its different forms as the subject matter of the logical process. It is a masterly work, and will richly reward the labors of the diligent student.

9. The Lake Regions of Central Africa. A Picture of Explorations. By Richard F. Burton, Capt. H. M. I. Army, Fellow and Gold Medalist of the Royal Georraphical Society. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1860. 8vo., pp. 572.

This makes the sixth work published by the Harperson African Explorations. They have given the public Livingstone on South Africa, Andersson on Lake Ngami and Southwestern Africa, Cummings' Interior Africa, Wilson's Western Africa, Barth's North Africa, and now Burton's Lake Regions of Central Africa, while a seventh work is promised, Du Chaillu's Equatorial Africa. It is a matter of interest to this age of adventure that not only these books, but the facts they contain, are the fruit of the last twenty years' travel and observation. It would do something besides gratifying an idle curiosity, to compare a map of Africa engraved a quarter of a century ago, with a map prepared with an eye to the present state of geographical knowledge. With the exception of the margin of the African continent, the two maps would show but few points of similarity -very many of dissimilarity. While the new diagram would


exhibit many localities formerly left blank, it would omit not a few—such for example as the Mountains of the Moonwhich are laid down on all the old maps. We must confess that as yet we have been unable to examine the work of Burton on “ The Lake Regions of Central Africa,” with sufficient minuteness to record an opinion of its merit. We can therefore but announce its appearance; and direct to it the attention of those who are familiarizing themselves with the details of recent discoveries in Africa.

10. Pbilothea : a Grecian Romance. By L. Maria Child. A new and Corrected Edition. Boston: T. 0. H. P. Burnham. 1861.

pp. 290.

This is by many degrees the best production of the celebrated authoress. Pericles and his Aspasia, and others of the great names of the Periclean age in Athens, appear in the artistically wrought pages with wonderful fidelity to the truth of history. If there is an exception to this statement it appears in the character of Plato. Some readers, we apprehend, will find more of mysticism associated with her_picture of the great philosopher than will suit their tastes. Possibly an appreciation equal to that of the authoress, would show that any criticism of this nature is without foundation. We doubt if any classical romance equals Philothea as a vivid picture of Athenian intellectual life in the brilliant age of the democratic ascendancy. The paper slightly tinted, and the clear, round type are worthy of the literary gem they enclose.

11. Coins, Medals, and Seals, Ancient and Modern. Illustrated and Described. With a Sketch of the History of Coins and Coinage. Instructions for Young Collectors, Tables of Comparative Rarity, Price Lists of English and American Coins, Medals and Tokens, &c., &c. Edited by W. C. Prime. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1861.

The editor assures us that “it is no idle employment, though it seems so, to sit quietly over Greek or Persian, Roman or Punic, French, Turkish, English or American coins, and seek to trace, in pure fancy, the history of one and another shining piece ;” and he names, as one good result, that the “coins serve to fix historical facts with great firmness in the memory.” With handsomely engraved pictures of the several coins and medals, the editor furnishes the corresponding history, and shows that in more than in

any other movements, the past is preserved, and its heroes and great events kept memorable.” The book is full of curious information, and will be eagerly welcomed by a certain class of antiquarians. It is issued in a very neat style of typography,

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