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D, APPLETON & CO., 90, 92 & 94 GRAND STREET,


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ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1865, by

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District

of New York.


The flattering reception by the public of the previous volumes of this work, with the numerous testimonials of eminent individuals, has been such as to induce the publishers to believe that they have been successful in furnishing a truthful and valuable record of the great events of each year of the work. The same efforts have been made as heretofore, with increased earnestness, to secure the completeness and accuracy of the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA, and to preserve it free from every mark of partisanship.

The events of the year 1864 have been more varied than those of any previous one during the war. The contest was carried on with an earnest purpose to make it, at once, decisive and final; and the reconstruction of States was commenced in the most thorough manner. Emancipation became a subject of State action, and was incorporated as a principle in the fundamental law of several of the States. In other parts of the world, although no extensive war has been waged, the discussions of principles and the agitation of the minds of men have been no less intense than in former years. .

Among the numerous questions discussed in the United States were those respecting the relations of the insurrectionary States to the Union; the principles on which the reconstruction should be effected; the powers of the Federal Government; the amendment to the Constitution; the equality and rights of the colored men; the encroachments of military authority; the terms of peace; the exciting topics involved in a Presidential election; and the relations of foreign governments arising upon numerous international questions.

A detailed statement of the vast military and naval operations in this country is continued, which presents the movements of the armies day by day, and step by step, illustrated with complete topographical maps of the field, and the objects of those movements and their consequences; also the efforts of the humane through the Sanitary, Christian and Union Commissions to relieve the hardships of the soldiers and to aid refugees from the South.

The details of the internal affairs of the country embrace the replenishing of the armies North and South; the number and condition of the troops ; the important measures and debates in Congress; the acts of State Legislatures and results of elections; the finances of the Federal Government and of that of the insurrectionary States, and the important public measures of the latter; the discussions relative to peace, and the efforts to obtain it; the commerce of the country and the regulations for commercial intercourse with the South-and ·all these important occurrences comprised in the history of the nation.

The interesting events relating to foreign nations in all parts of the world are presented ; also the famous encyclical letter of the Pope, the manner of its reception, and the questions raised thereby.

In mechanical industry considerable progress has been made, especially in the department of military implements; and inventions and improvements have been numerous also in other departments.

The applications of science to useful purposes have been pursued with much diligence, and interesting results are described.

Geographical explorations have been very actively continued in all quarters of the globe, and the discoveries which have followed are very carefully and fully presented.

The unusual enterprise which has been awakened by successfully refining and converting to various uses the article of Petroleum, has caused not less astonishment than the unbounded wealth which it is likely to yield to the country. The history of this branch of industry, including an investigation of all the scientific questions relating to Petroleum, has not been overlooked.

The record of Literature is not less important than in any previous year. By a reference to that title its most interesting features may be seen.

A notice of the principal religious denominations of the country states their branches, membership, views on civil affairs, and the progress of their distinctive opinions.

In no year has the number of distinguished men who closed their career been so large. A brief tribute has been paid to their memory.

All important documents, messages, orders, despatches, and letters from official persons, have been inserted entire.

State officers, committees of legislative and other public bodies, principals of public institutions, whether benevolent, educational, reformatory, scientific, etc., will confer a favor by sending their printed reports and documents to the Publishers.

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