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THE Author of "EASTERN MONACHISM" has nearly ready for the press, should the sale of this work warrant the risk of publication,

GÓTAMA BUDHA :

Containing an account of—1. The System of the Universe, as received by the Budhists. 2. The various Orders of Sentient Existence. 3. The primitive Inhabitants of the Earth; their fall from Purity; and their Division into four Castes. 4. The Budhas who preceded Gótama. 5. The Virtues of Gótama Bodhisat, and the States of Being through which he passed anterior to the Birth in which he became a supreme Budha. 6. The Ancestors of Gótama Budha. 7. The Legends of the Life of Gótama Budha. 8. The Psychology of Budhism. 9. Its Ethics.

EASTERN MONACHISM:

AN ACCOUNT OF THE

ORIGIN, LAWS, DISCIPLINE, SACRED WRITINGS, MYSTERIOUS RITES,
RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES, AND PRESENT CIRCUMSTANCES,

OF THE

Harvard Univesit,
18945

ORDER OF MENDICANTS

FOUNDED BY

GÓTAMA BUDHA,

(COMPILED FROM SINGHALESE MSS. AND OTHER ORIGINAL SOURCES OF INFORMATION),

WITH COMPARATIVE

NOTICES OF THE USAGES AND INSTITUTIONS OF THE WESTERN ASCETICS,

AND A

Review of the Monastic System.

BY

R. SPENCE HARDY,

MEMBER OF THE CEYLON BRANCH OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY.

Τὸ γεγεννημένον ἐκ τῆς σαρκὸς, σαρξ ἐστι·

I. H. S.

LONDON:

PARTRIDGE AND OAKEY, PATERNOSTER ROW;
AND 70, EDGWARE ROAD, (HANBURY AND CO., AGENTS).

1850.

R 1080.3.5

✓ B

HAR

CHA

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LLANTAN
MAMON 15, 1941

MEADEN, PRINTER,

13, GOUGH SQUARE, FLEET STREET.

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PREFACE.

It has been computed by Professor Neumann that there are in China, Tibet, the Indo-Chinese countries, and Tartary, THREE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-NINE MILLIONS of Budhists. The laws and regulations of the priesthood belonging to a religion so extensively professed as the system of Gótama, must necessarily be an object of great interest. But whilst Brahmanism has been largely elucidated, comparatively little is yet known of Budhism by Europeans.

In the month of September, 1825, I landed in the beautiful island of Ceylon as a Wesleyan Missionary, and one of the first duties to which I addressed myself was, to acquire a knowledge of the language of the people among whom I was appointed to minister. After reading the New Testament in Singhalese, I began the study of the native books, that I might ascertain, from authentic sources, the character of the religion I was attempting to displace. From the commencement, I made notes of whatever appeared to me to be worthy of remembrance in the works I read ; and about ten years ago determined to pursue my researches with more of method, from the intention I then formed of publishing the result, if permitted to return to my native land.

In preparing the present work, it has been my principal aim to afford assistance to the missionaries who are living in countries where Budhism is professed; but as I enter upon a field of speculation that has hitherto been little cultivated, I trust that my labours will be regarded as of some interest by students of all classes. I have also endeavoured to apply the great lesson herein taught to a practical purpose. In my illustrations of the manners of the western monks, I have taken the liberty to indulge the bias of early association ; but if this has been done to too great an extent, with all submissiveness I crave the reader's pardon.

A residence of twenty years in Ceylon, and several thousands of hours spent with the palm-leaf in my hand and the ex-priest of Budha by my side, to assist me in cases of difficulty, entitle me to claim attention to my translations as a faithful transcript of the original documents. Further than this, I speak of my ability for the undertaking with sincere diffidence. During my residence in Ceylon, I was not connected with any scholastic institution ; I resided, for the most part, in the midst of the native population, and had to attend to the usual engagements of a missionary, in preaching, examining native schools, visiting the sick, instructing the people from house to house, distributing tracts, and preparing other publications for the press, which left me no leisure for literary pursuits not immediately connected with my position. Since my return to England, about two years ago, I have been incessantly engaged in the work of the ministry, scarcely a day having passed over, in which I have not had either to preach or to deliver an address. It is, therefore, out of my power to make any pretension to western learning or general erudition. To add to my other disadvantages, my residence is in a village, where I have access to no public library; and I have had no

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