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his meals with a wooden spoon for ever after. Steuben continued in the army till the close of the war, perfecting its discipline. The silence and dexterity of his movements surprised the French allies. He possessed the particular esteem of gen-, eral Washington, who took every proper opportunity to recommend him to congress; from which body he received several sums of money, that were chiefly expended in acts of charity, or in rewarding the good conduct of the soldiers.
Upon the disbandment of the continental army at Newburgh, many affectionate bonds, formed amidst the danger and hardships of a long and arduous service, were to be broken asunder for ever. At this season of distress, the benevolent Steuben exerted himself to alleviate the forlorn condition of many. He gave his last dollar to a wounded black, to procure him a passage home. Peace being established, the baron retired to a farm in the vicinity of New York, where, in the society of his friends, and the amusements of books and chess, he passed his time as comfortably as his exhausted purse would allow. The state of New Jersey had given him a small farm, and that of New York 16,000 acres of land in the county of Oneida. The exertions of colonel Hamilton and general Washington subsequently procured him an annuity of $2500, from the general government. He built a log house, and cleared 60 acres of his tract of land, a portion of which he partitioned out, on easy terms, to twenty or thirty tenants, and distributed nearly a tenth among his aid-de-camps and servants. In this situation he lived contentedly, until the year 1795, when an apoplectic attack put an end to his life, in his sixty-fifth year. An abstract of his system of military manoeuvres was published in 1779. The year preceding his death, he published a letter on the established militia and military arrangements. (For further information concerning baron Steuben, see Johnson's Life of Greene,· Thatcher's Journal, Garden's Anecdotes.)
STEUBENVILLE, a flourishing post-town of Ohio, on Ohio river, is the seat of justice for Jefferson county. It was laid out in 1798, with streets crossing each other at right angles. In 1810, it contained 800 inhabitants; in 1817, 2032; and in 1830, 2937. It is 147 miles east by north from Columbus, and thirty-eight west of Pittsburg; lat. 40° 25′ N.; lon. 80° 35 W. It contains three churches, a markethouse, a woollen factory,—the machinery of which is moved by steam, a steam
paper-mill, and a flour and cotton factory, also moved by steam. There are two printing-offices, an academy, two banks, the county buildings, and many shops for mechanics and traders. The country around it, on the Virginia as well as the Ohio side of the river, is rich and populous.
STEVENS, George Alexander, a whimsical and eccentric character, was born in London, and brought up to a mechanical business, which he quitted to become a strolling player. In 1751, he published a poem entitled Religion, or the Libertine Repentant, which was succeeded, in 1754, by the Birthday of Folly. These were followed by a novel called Tom Fool, and the Dramatic History of Master Edward and Miss Ann. He subsequently invented his entertainment, called a Lecture on Heads, which possessed no small portion of drollery, and became very popular. Several of his songs have also been much admired.
STEVENS, Edward, an officer in the American revolution, was a native of Virginia. At the battle of the great bridge, near Norfolk, he commanded a battalion of riflemen. Soon afterwards, he was made a colonel. At the battle of Brandywine, he was greatly instrumental in saving the American forces, and received the public thanks of the commander-in-chief. He was honored in the same way for his behavior at the battle of Germantown. He was soon afterwards intrusted with the command of a brigade, and despatched to the southern army. He evinced his wonted gallantry in the battle of Camden. In that of Guilford court-house, he received a severe wound in his thigh; but, before quitting the field, he brought off his troops in good order. He closed his military career at the siege of Yorktown. From the foundation of the state constitution until the year 1790, he was a prominent member of the senate of Virginia. He died in August, 1820.
STEWARD. The lord high steward of England was formerly an officer who had the supervision and regulation, next under the king, of all affairs of the realm, both civil and military. The office was hereditary, belonging to the earls of Leicester until forfeited to Henry III. (See Montfort.) The power of this officer was so great, that the office has for a long time only been granted for some particular act, as the trial of a peer on indictment for a capital offence, the solemnization of a coronation, &c. The lord high steward is the first of the nine great officers
of the crown.-The lord steward of the household is the chief officer of the king's household: his authority extends over all officers and servants of the royal household except those of the chamber, chapel and stable. Under the lord steward, in the counting-house, are the treasurer of the household, cofferer, controller, clerks of the green cloth, &c. It is called the counting-house because the household accounts are kept in it. (See Courts.) STEWARD, in naval affairs, is an officer in a ship of war, appointed by the purser to distribute the different species of provisions to the officers and crew.
STEWART, Sir James Denham, an eminent political writer, was born at Edinburgh, Oct. 10, 1713. His father was solicitor-general of Scotland. After having been admitted to the bar, he travelled on the continent five years, and formed an intimacy with the Pretender, whom he aided in his attempt in 1745. On the failure of that attempt, Stewart retired to France, and, in 1755, to Flanders. Here he published a Vindication of Newton's Chronology, a Treatise on German Coins, and a Dissertation on the Doctrine and Principles of Money, He returned to Scotland in 1763, where he was allowed to remain unmolested, and concluded his Inquiry into the Principles of Political Economy a work of much research and acuteness, though the style and method are imperfect. He obtained a full pardon in 1771, and afterwards published various works of a philosophical and politico-economical character. His complete works were published in 1805 (in 6 vols., 8vo.).
He died in 1780.
STEWART, Dugald, was born in 1753, and was the son of doctor Matthew Stewart, professor of mathematics in the university of Edinburgh. He was educated at the high school, and admitted, at the age of thirteen, as a student in the college, under the tuition of doctor Blair and doctor Ferguson. Such was the progress he made, that, at the age of eighteen, he was appointed to read lectures for his father, which he continued to do till the death of the latter. In 1780, he received a number of pupils into his house, and, in 1783, visited the continent in company with the marquis of Lothian. When doctor Ferguson was sent to North America on a mission, Mr. Stewart taught his class in moral philosophy during his absence; and, in 1785, when the professor resigned, Mr. Stewart was chosen to fill his chair, in which be continued many years with great reputation. His Elements of the Philosophy
of the Human Mind (1792) was succeeded by Outlines of Moral Philosophy, for the Use of Sudents (1793); Doctor Adam Smith's Essays on Philosophical Subjects, with an Account of the Life and Writings of the Author (1801); An Account of the Life and Writings of Doctor Robertson (1803); An Account of the Life and Writings of Doctor Thomas Reid. The memoirs of Smith, Reid and Robertson were afterwards collected into one volume, with additional notes. In the election of a mathematical professor of the university of Edinburgh, Mr. Stewart was reflected on for his conduct to the successful candidate, and he therefore thought proper to publish a statement of facts relative to that election (1805). In 1796, he again took a number of pupils under his care; and, besides adding a course of lectures on political economy to the usual courses of his chair, he repeatedly supplied the place of his colleagues in case of illness or absence. In 1806, he accompanied his friend, the earl of Lauderdale, on his mission to Paris, and, in 1810, relinquished his professorship, and retired to Kinneil house, about twenty miles from Edinburgh, where he continued to reside till his death, June 11, 1828. His publications subsequently to his removal were Philosophical Essays (1810); Dissertation on the Progress of Metaphysical and Ethical Philosophy, prefixed to the Supplement to the Encyclopædia Britannica (unfortunately rendered imperfect by the author's ignorance of German philosophy, and left incomplete in regard to ethical philosophy-a deficiency partly supplied by Mackintosh's Essay on the Progress of Ethical Philosophy); a second volume of the Philosophy of the Human Mind (1813), with a continuation (1827); and the Philosophy of the Active and Moral Powers (1828). Stewart was a man of extensive and various acquisition, but not of a profound or original mind. As a writer, he is too often heavy and prolix, though his style is clear, pure and elaborate. In philosophy, he was a disciple of Reid, whose method and principles he followed with little deviation. (See Philosophy.)
STEWART, John; commonly called Walking Stewart, from his pedestrian feats; an eccentric individual, who wandered, on foot, over a great part of the habitable globe. He was born in London, and, having received the rudiments of education at the Charter-house, was sent out, in 1763, as a writer to Madras. Before Le had been in that situation quite two years, he wrote a letter to the directors,
telling them that he "was born for nobler pursuits than to be a copier of invoices and bills of lading to a company of grocers, haberdashers, and cheese-mongers;" and a few weeks after, he took his leave of the presidency. Prosecuting his route over Hindoostan, he walked to Delhi, to Persepolis, and other parts of Persia, traversing the greater part of the Indian peninsula, and visiting Abyssinia and Nubia. Entering the Carnatic, he obtained the favor of the nabob, who made him his private secretary; and to this circumstance he, in his latter days, owed his support, the British house of commons voting him £15,000 in liquidation of his demands upon the nabob. Quitting the service of this prince, he set out to walk to Seringapatam, where Tippoo Saib compelled him to enter his army, with a commission as captain of sepoys. After serving some time in this capacity, sir James Sibbald, the commissioner for settling the terms of peace between the presidency and the sultan, procured his liberation. Stewart then started to walk to Europe, crossing the desert of Arabia, and arriving at length safely at Marseilles. Thence he proceeded, in the same manner, through France and Spain, to his native country; and, having walked through England, Scotland and Ireland, he crossed the Atlantic, and perambulated the U. States of America. The last ten years of his life were passed in London, where he died in 1822.
STEWART, Robert, marquis of Londonderry. (See Londonderry.)
STEWART, Gilbert, an eminent portrait painter, was born at Newport, Rhode Island, in 1757, gave early manifestations of his fondness for the pencil, and was sent to London, where he was placed under the care of Benjamin West. In the execution of portraits, the pupil soon surpassed the master. In 1784, he was established as one of the first portrait painters of London, and had, in the exhibition of that year, several full lengths of distinguished individuals. He lived elegantly and gayly; but it is believed that, notwithstanding his great success, he was obliged, by pecuniary distresses, to remove to Dublin. In 1790, he returned to his native country, from which he never again departed. He resided successively in New York, Philadelphia and its neighborhood, Washington, and last in Boston, continuing to paint with unabated power, although for years racked by the gout. Soon after his return to America, he painted the best portrait of Washington. The head he
carefully finished, but never completed the remainder. He made several copies, all varying from the original. His death occurred at Boston, in July, 1828; and such of his works as could be collected were exhibited for the benefit of his family. Mr. Stewart was gifted with uncommon colloquial powers, and his genius for portrait painting was of the highest order.
STHENIC DISEASES. (See Brown, John.) STHENO; one of the Gorgons. (q. v.) STICHOMANCY (from orixos, a line, verse, and pavrsia, prophecy); a kind of divination, in use even among the Romans. Verses from the Sibylline Books (q. v.) were written on small slips of paper, which were shaken in a vessel, and one of them was drawn out, in order to discover some intimation of future events. Something similar has often been practised by Christians, putting a pin at hazard between the leaves of a closed Bible. The verse which was pointed out served as an oracle. Even at the present time, this is not unfrequently done by the superstitious; and some sects even resort to it for guidance on important occasions. (See Bibliomancy.)
STICK, GOLD; an officer of superior rank in the English life-guards, so called, who is in immediate attendance upon the king's person. When his majesty gives either of his regiments of life-guards to an officer, he presents him with a gold stick. The colonels of the two regiments wait alternately month and month. The one on duty is then called gold stick in waiting; and all orders relating to the lifeguards are transmitted through him. During that month he commands the brigade, receives all reports, and communicates them to the king.-Silver stick: the field officer, of the life-guards when on duty is so called.
STIGMA (Greek); with the Greeks and Romans, a mark impressed with a hot iron on the foreheads of slaves who had run away or committed theft. The Greeks used a , signifying puros (fugiendus) or øeʊKTIKOS (runaway), and the Romans an F, signifying fur or fugitivus. A black coloring substance was put in the wound. Such slaves were called stigmatici, inscripti, literati, ortypariai, ortywves. The Samians, who freed many slaves, and admitted them to office, were called, in derision, Toλvypapparoi, literati. This name, however, may have had another origin, as many believe. Prisoners of war were also branded, as the slave-traders now brand the negroes with the marks of their several owners. (See Slavery.) Recruits also were burned in the hand, generally with the name of the general. This was
not considered a disgrace. In some countries, criminals sentenced to the galleys are branded in a similar way to this day. STILES, Ezra, a president of Yale college, was the son of the reverend Isaac Stiles, of North Haven, Connecticut. He graduated in that institution in 1746, with the reputation of being one of the greatest scholars it had ever produced. He then studied law, but subsequently devoted himself to theology, and settled at Newport, as pastor of the Second church, where he continued from 1755 to 1776. During this and several succeeding years, the enemy were in possession of Newport, and the inhabitants of the town scattered, Doctor Stiles was solicited to preach in several places: he accepted the invitation from the church at Portsmouth, where he was looked up to with great admiration. In 1788, he was chosen president of Yale college, and continued to adorn that station, by his great learning, abilities and piety, until his death, May 12, 1795, in the sixty-eighth year of his age. In person doctor Stiles was small, but well proportioned. His countenance was expressive of benignity and mildness, and his manners were amiable and kind. He had a thorough knowledge of the Hebrew, Greek and Latin, and French languages; in the Samaritan, Chaldee, Syriac and Arabic he had made considerable progress, and had bestowed some attention on the Persian and Coptic. He was well versed in most branches of mathematical knowledge. He had a thorough acquaintance with the rabbinical writings, and with those of the fathers of the Christian church. Sacred literature was his favorite study; and next to it he most delighted in astronomy. As a preacher, he was impressive and eloquent in a high degree: the intrinsic excellence of his sermons was enhanced by the energy of his delivery. He published various discourses, among which was an election sermon, entitled The United States elevated to Glory and Honor, preached May 8, 1783. He also wrote a history of the three judges of Charles I (Whalley, Goffe and Dixwell), and left an unfinished ecclesiastical history of New England, and more than forty volumes of manuscripts. STILICHO; a Vandalic general, in the service of the emperor Theodosius the Great, whose niece Serena he married. Theodosius having bequeathed the empire of the East to his son Arcadius, and that of the West to his second son, Honorius, the former was left under the care
of Rufinus, and the latter under the guardianship of Stilicho. (See Western Empire.) No sooner was Theodosius no more, than Rufinus stirred up an invasion of the Goths in order to procure the sole dominion, which Stilicho put down, and effected the destruction of his rival. After suppressing a revolt in Africa, he marched against Alaric, whom he signally defeated at Pollentia. After this, in 406, he repelled an invasion of barbarians, who penetrated into Italy under Rhadagasius, a Hun or Vandal leader, who formerly accompanied Alaric, and produced the entire destruction both of the force and its leader. Either from motives of policy or state necessity, he then entered into a treaty with Alaric, whose pretensions upon the Roman treasury for a subsidy he warmly supported. This conduct excited suspicion of his treachery on the part of Honorius, who massacred all his friends during his absence. He received intelligence of this fact at the camp of Bologna, whence he was obliged to flee to Ravenna. He took shelter in a church, from which he was inveigled by a solemn oath, that no harm was intended him, and conveyed to immediate execution, which he endured in a manner worthy his great military character. Stilicho was charged with the design of dethroning Honorius, in order to advance his son Eucherius in his place; and the memory of this distinguished captain has been treated by the ecclesiastical historians with great severity. Zosimus, however, although otherwise unfavorable to him, acquits him of the treason which was laid to his charge; and he will live in the poetry of Claudian as the most distinguished commander of his age. (See Gibbon's Decline and Fall, ch. 29 and 30.)
STILL. (See Distillation.) STILLING. (See Jung.) STILLINGFLEET, Edward, bishop of Worcester, was born in 1635, and received his education at St. John's college, Cambridge, where he was elected, in 1653, to the first fellowship that became vacant after he had taken his bachelor's degree. His chief work, Origines Sacræ, or a Rational Account of Natural and Revealed Religion, is esteemed for the erudition which it displays. It was followed (1664) by a treatise On the Origin and Nature of Protestantism. Having distinguished himself by the prominent part which he took previous to the revolution, against the establishment of the Romish church in England, he was elevated to the see of Worcester by William III. Besides
the writings enumerated, he was the author of an appendix to Tillotson's Rule of Faith (1676); the Unreasonableness of Separation (1683); and Origines Britannica, or Antiquities of the Churches in Britain (folio, 1685). A short time before his death, bishop Stillingfleet engaged in a controversy with Locke, respecting some part of that philosopher's writings, which he conceived had a leaning towards materialism. His death took place in 1699. His works have been collected and published entire, in six folio volumes (1710).
STILL LIFE, in painting; the representation of inanimate objects, such as dead animals (game, fishes, &c.), furniture, sometimes with fruits and flowers in addition. The interest of such representations can consist only in the form, grouping and light; hence the pictures of still life belong to the lowest species of painting. But some scenes of still life are of a higher order than others. The object of the lowest kind is merely to produce a close imitation of nature. A higher kind combines objects so as to form an interesting whole; and the highest employs the objects only to express a poetical idea, as in representing the room of a painter, a table with Christmas presents, the game of a hunter returned from his day's sport. All these may be so represented as to have a poetical character, by reminding us of the individuals with whom they are associated. The Dutch painters Van Elst, John Fyt, Francis Sneyders, David Koning, John Weeninx, Melchior Hondekoeter, William Kalf, and Van Streeck, are distinguished for the representation of still life.
STIMULANTS are all those medicinal substances, which, applied either externally or internally, have the property of accelerating the pulse and quickening the vital actions. They are among the most valuable and important of medicines, and perhaps are more often the direct means of saving life than any others. But as they are powerful, their injurious effects, when misapplied, have been even more prejudicial to mankind than their best use has been beneficial. In fact, it may be said, that the abuse of this one class of medicines, under the names of cardiacs, cordials, alexipharmics, &c., was the cause of more numerous deaths during the dark ages of medicine, than the sword and the pestilence united. The dreadful mortality of the small-pox and of fevers during the middle ages, and even during the earlier parts of the last century, were
mainly owing to the administration, by nurses and physicians, of strong cordials, and heating stimulants of all sorts, the tendency of all of which was to increase the violence of the disease, although they were intended merely to expel the noxious and poisonous humors from the system. But, happily for mankind, a more cautious use of these articles has been introduced, and they are now the constant means of preserving, when properly applied, the life which they were formerly so quick to destroy. Stimulants are either simple and direct in their operation, as the external application of heat in all forms, dry and moist, by friction, &c., the application to the stomach of hot liquors, spices, camphor, hartshorn, warm and aromatic gums and oils, as mint, cardamom, cajeput, ginger, assafoetida, red pepper, spirits of turpentine, &c.; or they act first as stimulants, but produce afterwards effects of a different character, as is the case with all which are termed diffusible stimulants, as wine, brandy, and spirits of all sorts, opium, &c., all of which are highly stimulant at first, and in small quantity, but afterwards, and when taken in larger doses, produce exhaustion, debility, sleep and death. The first class are, upon the whole, the most safe, and should be always used, in preference to the last, when they can be had, in all cases of suspended animation, from cold, drowning, suffocation, &c.; while the others are more valuable for their secondary and remote effects, by means of which they ease pain, relieve spasm, &c.; and for these purposes they should be used freely, as they can do no hurt, while the violence of the disease subsists. But they should never be resorted to, unless pain is urgent, or debility become so great as to endanger life.