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Beaten for Vice-President in Democratic Con-
The third Missouri Struggle; Enlargement of
NATIONAL Conventions for the nomination of candidates are of comparatively recent origin. In the earlier political history of the United States, under the Federal Constitution, candidates for President and Vice-President were nominated by congressional and legislative caucuses. Washington was elected as first President under the Constitution, and reëlected for a second term by a unanimous, or nearly unanimous, concurrence of the American people; but an opposition party gradually grew up in Toward the close of Mr. Madison's earlier Congress, which became formidable during his term, he was nominated for reëlection by a second term, and which ultimately crystalized Congressional Caucus held at Washington, in into what was then called the Republican May, 1812. In September of the same year, a party. John Adams, of Massachusetts, was convention of the Opposition, representing prominent among the leading Federalists, while eleven States, was held in the city of NewThomas Jefferson, of Virginia, was preemi-York, which nominated De Witt Clinton, of nently the author and oracle of the Republican New-York, for President. He was also put in party, and, by common consent, they were the nomination by the Republican Legislature of opposing candidates for the Presidency, on New-York. The ensuing canvass resulted in Washington's retirement in 1796-7. the reëlection of Mr. Madison, who received 128 electoral votes to 89 for De Witt Clinton.
Mr. Adams was then chosen President, while Mr. Jefferson, having the largest electoral vote next to Mr. A., became Vice-President.
a potent influence over such questions, being, on this occasion, unable to agree as to which of her favored sons should have the preference. Ninety-four of the 136 Republican members of Congress attended this caucus, and declared their preference of Mr. Madison, who received 83 votes, the remaining 11 being divided between Mr. Monroe and George Clinton. The Opposition supported Mr. Pinckney; but Mr. Madison was elected by a large majority.
In 1816, the Republican Congressional Caucus nominated James Monroe, who received, in the caucus, 65 votes to 54 for Wm. H. Crawford, of Georgia. The Opposition, or Federalists, named Rufus King, of New-York, who receiveά only 34 electoral votes out of 217. There was no opposition to the reëlection of Mr. Monroe in 1820, a single (Republican) vote being cast against him, and for John Quincy Adams.
In 1824, the Republican party could not be induced to abide by the decision of a Congres sional Caucus. A large majority of the Repub. lican members formally refused to participate
The first Congressional Caucus to nominate candidates for President and Vice-President, is said to have been held in Philadelphia in the year 1800, and to have nominated Mr. Jefferson for the first office, and Aaron Burr for the second. These candidates were elected after a desperate struggle, beating John Adams and Charles C. Pinckney, of South Carolina. In 1804, Mr. Jefferson was reëlected President, with George Clinton, of New-York, for Vice, encountering but slight opposition: Messrs. Charles C. Pinckney and Rufus King, the op-in such a gathering, or be governed by its deciposing candidates, receiving only 14 out of 176 sion; still, a Caucus was called and attended by Electoral Votes. We have been unable to find the friends of Mr. Crawford alone. Of the 261 any record as to the manner of their nomina- members of Congress at this time, 216 were tion. In January, 1808, when Mr. Jefferson's Democrats or Republicans, yet only 66 ressecond term was about to close, a Republican ponded to their names at roll-call, 64 of whom Congressional Caucus was held at Washington, voted for Mr. Crawford as the Republican nomito decide as to the relative claims of Madison nee for President. This nomination was very and Monroe for the succession, the Legisla- extensively repudiated throughout the country, ture of Virginia, which had been said to exert and three competing Republican candidates
were brought into the field through legislative | New-York, presided over the delil erations of the and other machinery-viz., Andrew Jackson, Convention, and the nominees received each Henry Clay, and John Quincy Adams. The re- 108 votes. The candidates accepted the nomi. sult of this famous "scrub race" for the Presi- nation and received the electoral vote of Verdency was, that no one was elected by the mont only. The Convention did not enunciate people, Gen. Jackson receiving 99 electoral any distinct platform of principles, but apvotes, Mr. Adams 84, Mr. Crawford 41, and Mr. pointed a committee to issue an Address to the Clay 37. The election then devolved on the people. In due time, the address was published. House of Representatives, where Mr. Adams It is quite as prolix and verbose as modern powas chosen, receiving the votes of 13 States, litical addresses; and, after stating at great against 7 for Gen. Jackson, and 4 for Mr. Craw-length the necessary qualifications for the ford. This was the end of "King Caucus." Chief of a great and free people, and presentGen. Jackson was immediately thereafter put ing a searching criticism on the institution of in nomination for the ensuing term by the Le-free-masonry in its moral and political bearings, gislature of Tennessee, having only Mr. Adams somewhat intensified from the excitement for an opponent in 1828, when he was elected caused by the (then recent) alleged murder of by a decided majority, receiving 178 Electoral William Morgan, for having revealed the secrets Votes to 83 for Mr. Adams. Mr. John C. Cal- of the Masonic Order, the Address comes to the houn, who had at first aspired to the Presidency, conclusion that, since the institution had bein 1824, withdrew at an early stage from the come a political engine, political agencies must canvass, and was thereupon chosen Vice-Presi- be used to avert its baneful effects-in other dent by a very large electoral majority-Mr. words, "that an enlightened exercise of the Albert Gallatin, of Pennsylvania, (the caucus right of suffrage is the constitutional and candidate on the Crawford ticket,) being his equitable mode adopted by the Anti-Masons is only serious competitor. In 1828, Mr. Calhoun necessary to remove the evil they suffer, and was the candidate for Vice-President on the produce the reforms they seek." Jackson ticket, and of course reëlected. It was currently stated that the concentration of
the Crawford and Calhoun strength on this DEMOCRATIC OR JACKSON NATIONAL ticket was mainly effected by Messrs. Martin Van Buren and Churchill C. Cambreleng, of NewYork, during a southern tour made by them in 1827. In 1828, Richard Rush, of Pennsylvania, was the candidate for Vice-President on the Adams ticket.
U. S. ANTI-MASONIC CONVENTION-1830. The first political National Convention in this country of which we have any record was held at Philadelphia in September, 1830, styled the
United States Anti-Masonic Convention. It was composed of 96 delegates, representing the States of New-York, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Vermont, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New-Jersey, Delaware, Ohio, Maryland and the Territory of Michigan. Francis Granger of New-York presided; but no business was transacted beyond the adoption of the following
Resolved, That it is recommended to the people of the United States, opposed to secret societies, to meet in convention on Monday the 26th day of September, 1881, at the city of Baltimore, by delegates equal in number to their representatives in both houses of Congress, to
make nominations of suitable candidates for the office of President and Vice-President, to be supported at the next election, and, for the transaction of such other business as the cause of Anti-Masonry may require.
There was no open opposition in the Democratic party to the nomination of Gen. Jackson for a second term; but the party were not so well satisfied with Mr. Calhoun, the Vice-President; so a Convention was called to meet at Baltimore in May, 1832, to nominate a candi. date for the second office. Delegates appeared and took their seats from the States of Maine, New-Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois.
Gen. Robert Lucas, of Ohio, presided, and the regular proceedings were commenced by the passage of the following resolution:
Resolved, That each State be entitled, in the nomination to be made for the Vice-Presidency, to a number of votes equal to the number to which they will be entitled in the electoral colleges, under the new apportionment, in voting for President and Vice-President; and that two-thirds of the whole number of the votes in the Convention shall be necessary to constitute a choice.
This seems to have been the origin of the famous "two-thirds" rule which has prevailed of late in Democratic National Conventions.
The Convention proceeded to ballot for a candidate for Vice-President, with the following
In compliance with the foregoing call, a Na-result:
For Martin Van Buren: Connecticut, 8; Illinois, 2;
legates from the States of Maine, New-Hampshire,
For Philip P. Barbour: North Carolina, 6; Virginia, 28; Maryland, 8; South Carolina, 11; Alabama, 6—
duly nominated as the candidate of the party | diate predecessor (J. Q. Adams) by Gen. Jackfor Vice-President. son in his Inaugural Address, and adds:
The indecorum of this denunciation was hardly less glaring than its essential injustice, and can only be paralleled by that of the subsequent denunciation of the same Administration, on the same authority, to a foreign government.
The Convention passed a resolution cordially concurring in the repeated nominations which Gen. Jackson had received in various parts of the country for reëlection as President.
Mr. Archer, of Virginia, from the committee appointed to prepare an address to the people, reported that
The committee, having interchanged opinions on the subject submitted to them, and agreeing fully in the principles and sentiments which they believe ought to be erabodied in an address of this description, if such an address were to be made, nevertheless deem it advisable under existing circumstances, to recommend the adoption of the following resolution :
Resolved, That it be recommended to the several delegations in this Convention, in place of a General Address from this body to the people of the United States, to make such explanations by address, report, or otherwise, to their respective constituents, of the object, proceedings and result of the meeting, as they may deem expedient.
The result of this election was the choice of General Jackson. who received the electoral vote of the following States:
Maine 10; New-Hampshire, 7; New-York, 42; NewJersey, 8; Pennsylvania, 80; Maryland, 8; Virginia, North Carolina, 15; Georgia, 11; Tennessee, 15; Ohio, 21; Louisiana, 5; Mississippi, 4; Indiana, 9; Illinois, 5; Alabama, 7; Missouri, 4-Total, 219.
For Mr. Clay: Massachusetts, 14; Rhode Island, 4; Connecticut, 8; Delaware, 3; Maryland, 5; Kentucky, 15-Total, 49.
For John Floyd, of Virginia: South Carolina, 11.
Exception is taken to the indiscriminate removal of all officers within the reach of the President, who were not attached to his person or party. As illustrative of the extent to which this political proscription was carried, it is stated that, within a month after the inauguration of General Jackson, more persons were removed from office than during the whole 40 years that had previously elapsed since the adoption of the Constitution. Fault is also found with the Administration in its conduct of our foreign affairs. Again the Address says:
On the great subjects of internal policy, the course of the President has been so inconsistent and vacillating, that it is impossible for any party to place confidence in his character, or to consider him as a true and effective friend. By avowing his approbation of a judicious tariff, at the same time recommending to Congress precisely the same policy which had been adopted as the best plan of attack by the opponents of that measure; by admitting the constitutionality and expediency of Internal Improvements of a National character, and at the same moment negativing the most important bills of this description which were presented to him by Congress, the President has shown that he is either a secret enemy to the system, or that he is willing to sacrifice the most important national objects in a vain attempt to conciliate the conflicting interests, or rather adverse party feeling and opinions of different sections of the country.
the United States Bank, and the necessity and Objection is taken to Gen. Jackson's war on usefulness of that institution are argued at considerable length. The outrageous and inhuman treatment of the Cherokee Indians by the State of Georgia, and the failure of the National Adacquired by treaty with the United States, ministration to protect them in their rights, is also the subject of animadversion in the the Address.
A resolve was adopted, recommending to the young men of the National Republican Party to hold a Convention in the city of Washington on the following May.
Such a Convention was accordingly held at the Capital on the 11th of May, 1832, over which William Cost Johnson, of Maryland, presided, and at which the following, among other resolves, were adopted:
NATIONAL REPUBLICAN CONVENTION1831.
The National Republicans met in convention at Baltimore, Dec. 12, 1831. Seventeen States and the District of Columbia were represented by 157 delegates, who cast a unanimous vote for Henry Clay, of Kentucky, for President, and John Sergeant, of Pennsylvania, for Vice-President. James Barbour, of Virginia, presided, Resolved, That an adequate Protection to American and the States represented were: Maine, New Industry is indispensable to the prosperity of the counHampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Con-try; and that an abandonment of the policy at this period would be attended with consequences ruinous to necticut, Vermont, New York, New Jersey, the best interests of the Nation. Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, Louisiana and Indiana. The Convention adopted no formal platform of principles, but issued an Address, mainly devoted to a criticism on the Administration of Gen. Jackson, asserting, among other things, that
Resolved, That a uniform system of Internal Improvements, sustained and supported by the General Governharmony, the strength and the permanency of the Rement, is calculated to secure, in the highest degree, the public.
Resolved, That the indiscriminate removal of public gross abuse of power; and that the doctrine lately officers, for a mere difference of political opinion, is a boldly preached in the United States Senate, that "to the victors belong the spoils of the vanquished," is detri mental to the interest, corrupting to the morals, and dangerous to the liberties of the people of this country.
The political history of the Union for the last three years exhibits a series of measures plainly dictated in all their principal features by blind cupidity or vindictive party spirit, marked throughout by a disregard of good policy, justice, and every high and generous sentiment, and, terminating in a dissolution of the Cabinet under DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION, circumstances more discreditable than any of the kind to be met with in the annals of the civilized world.
The address alludes to the charge of incapa
In May, 1835, a National Convention reprecity and corruption leveled against his imme-senting twenty-one States, assembled at Balti