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struction it is not only certain that there are only these three forms of the living motion of bodies, but the universal law is found for all particular determinations of the same, from which they can be seen as equally necessary.

I here confine myself to the chemical process, because the science of its phenomena has been made a special branch of natural science. In modern times, the relation of physics to chemistry has ended almost in a complete subordination of the former to the latter. The key to the explanation of natural phenomena, even the higher forms, magnetism, electricity, etc., should be given in chemistry, and the more all explanation of Nature has been brought back to chemistry, the more it has lost all means of comprehending its own phenomena from the early beginnings of science, when the conception of the inner unity of all things lay nearer the human spirit. The chemistry of the present day has retained several figurative expressions, such as affinity, etc., which, however, far from being the intimation of an idea, have become only sanctuaries of ignorance. The supreme principle and the extreme limit of all knowledge have become more and more things to be recognized by weight (gravity), and those potent inborn spirits of nature which produce indestructible qualities have become mere matter which could be caught and held in vessels.

I do not deny that modern chemistry has enriched us with many facts, although it is still to be desired that this new world had been discovered from the beginning by a higher organ, and it is a ridiculous conceit that the stringing together of those facts, held together by the unmeaning words matter, attraction, etc., forms a theory, for they have not an idea of quality, of combination, of analysis, etc.

It may be advantageous to treat chemistry separately from physics, but it must then be considered as a mere experimental art, with no pretension to science. The construction of chemical phenomena does not belong to a special science, but to a general, comprehensive science of Nature, in which it is recognized as one manner of manifestation of the universal life of Nature, not as phenomena of a peculiar law of conformity, independent of the connection of the whole.

The presentation of the general dynamic process which takes place in the world system, and with respect to the whole earth, is meteorology in the broadest sense, and is so far a part of physical astronomy as the general changes of the earth can be comprehended only through its relation to the general world system.

physics, it belongs to applied mathematics; but the universal type of its forms, expressed as purely objective, is prescribed by physics; they are as it were the dead forms of the dynamic process.

The province of the latter physics in its ordinary separation is limited to the sphere of the general antithesis between light and matter or gravity. The absolute science of Nature comprehends in one and the same whole as well these phenomena of separated unities as those of the higher organic world, through whose products the entire subject-objectivation manifests itself in its two sides at one and the same time.

A NEW WORK ON KANT.

Professor John Watson, of Queen's University, Kingston, Canada, has a new book in press, entitled, "Kant and his English Critics," which will appear, it is expected, about the first of next year from the press of M. Macehose, of Glasgow. The book will defend the Critical Philosophy against Empirical Psychology, and will contain a criticism of the latter in its main features, showing, however, that Kant's theory must be freed from certain unwarrantable assumptions which destroy its unity. Our readers are fully familiar with the vigorous thought of Professor Watson, and will welcome a treatise from him on a theme so important.

BOOKS RECEIVED.

Die unter Philonis Werken stehende Schrift ueber die Unzerstoerbarkeit des Weltalls, nach ihrer urspruenglichen Anordnung wiederhergestellt und ins Deutsche Uebertragen von Jacob Bernays. Aus den Abhandlungen der Koenigl.-Academie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. 1876.

The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. Edited by J. S. Jewell, M. D. January, 1877. (New series.) Vol. ii., No. 1. Chicago.

[In this number Dr. George M. Beard presented a new theory of trance, and its bearings on human testimony, and the editors reviewed at some length Herbert Spencer's "Psychology" and David Ferrier's "The Function of the Brain."]

By Thomas H. Music, of 1878.

A Brief on the Doctrine of the Conservation of Forces. the Missouri Bar. Published by the Author. Mexico, Mo. ["The aim of this little pamphlet is not to trace out and define the boundaries of the doctrine, but to demonstrate that it is but of partial and limited application—neither broad enough nor well enough established to form a safe basis for any philosophical system. . . . I think that I have shown that in both plant and animal life there are principles of a higher order than any form of force, and which are not transformations or correlations of force; and, indeed, for which no correlations can be found in physics."]

Mechanical Conversion of Motion. By George Bruce Halsted. (Reprint from Van Nostrand's Magazine. 1878.)

Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der aelteren deutschen Philosophie. II. Nicolaus von Cues.

Oration pronounced before the Massachusetts Council of Deliberation. By Rev. William R. Alger. Boston, June 28, 1878. "The Points of Permanent Miraculousness in Human Life." Boston: Rand, Avery & Co. 1878.

The Atomic Hypothesis from its inception till the present time. By H. E. Robinson. Maryville, Mo. 1873.

The Penn Monthly. September, 1877. (Contains an article concerning Pre-Existence.) Philadelphia: J. H. Coates & Co.

I. Address before the Iowa State Bar Association, at Des Moines, May 17, 1877. By G. F. Magoun, D. D., President of Iowa College. (On The Claims of the Legal Profession to general respect in civilized society.)

II. The Source of American Education, Popular and Religious. (By the same Author.)

Religion and Science; the Psychological Basis of Religion, considered from the standpoint of Phrenology. A Prize Essay. (Being No. 1 of Science Tracts.) By Francis Gerry Fairfield. New York: S. R. Wells & Co. 1877.

The Theory of Unconscious Intelligence as opposed to Theism. By Professor G. S. Morris, M. A. Being a paper read before the Victoria Institute, or Philosophical Society of Great Britain. To which is added the discussion thereon. London: Hardwicke & Bogue.

Live Questions in Psychology and Metaphysics. By Professor W. D. Wilson. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1877. (Being six lectures delivered to the classes at Cornell University, on sensation, consciousness, volition, insight, the test of truth, real causes.) The Religion of God and the Scientific Philosophy. By Joachim Kaspary.

Humanitarian. People's edition. Price one shilling. London: The Freethought Publishing Company. 1877.

The Best Reading: Hints on the Selection of Books; on the Formation of Libraries, Public and Private; on Courses of Reading, etc. With a Classified Bibliography for easy reference. Fourth revised and enlarged edition, continued to August, 1876, with the addition of select lists of the best French, German, Spanish, and Italian Literature. Edited by Frederic Beecher Perkins. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1877.

Rede zum Geburtsfeste des Hoechstseligen Grossherzogs Karl Friedrich von Baden und zur akademischen Preisvertheilung, am 22. November, 1877, von Dr. J. C. Bluntschli. Ueber die Eintheilung in Facultäten. Heidelberg: J. Hoerning. 1877.

Materialism and Pedagogy. By Professor W. H. Wynn, A. M., Ames, Iowa. (Reprint from the Quarterly Review of the Evangelical Lutheran Church.)

Vierteljahrsschrift fuer Wissenschaftliche Philosophie unter Mitwirkung, von C. Goering, M. Heinze, and W. Wundt, herausgegeben von R. Avenarius. I. Jahrgang. Erstes Heft. Leipzig: Fues's Verlag (R. Reisland). 1876.

[Contains articles on the relation of Philosophy to Science (by Fr. Paulsen); on English Logic of the present time (by A. Riehl); on the Cosmological Problem (by W. Wundt); on the life of the Cephalopods (by J. Kollmann); notice of new books.] What was He? or Jesus in the Light of the Nineteenth Century. By William Denton. Wellesley, near Boston. 1877.

Cholera; the Laws of its Occurrence, Non-Occurrence, and its Nature. By C. Spinzig, M. D. St. Louis, Mo. 1877.

The Theological Systems of To-day. Are they True? Read this and convince yourself of their Falsity. Chicago: Rand, McNally & Co. 1878.

Revista Europea. Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Lettere ed Arti. 1869-1878. Nuova serie, Anno IX. Editore Signor Carlo Pancrazj, 6 Via del Castellaccio, Firenze. Die Wahrheit wird Euch frei machen. I. "Eine Betrachtung ueber sehr wichtige Entweder-Oder." II. "Ueber Einige Sophismen, welche die Nichtsnutzigkeit des allgemeinen Wahlrechts beweisen sollen." By Moritz Mueller, Sr. Pforzheim. 1878.

The Watscka Wonder; a startling and instructive Psychological Study, and well authenticated instance of Angelic Visitation. A narrative of the leading Phenomena occurring in the case of Mary Lurancy Vennum. By E. W. Stevens. With comments by Physicians. Chicago: Religio-Philosophical Publishing House. 1878.

Lectures on the Unknown God of Herbert Spencer, and the "Promise and Potency" of Professor Tyndall. By Rev. George T. Ladd. Milwaukee: I. L. Hauser & Co. Physiological Metaphysics; or, the Apotheosis of Science by Suicide. A Philosophical Meditation. By Noah Porter, D. D. (Reprint from the Princeton Review.)

A Criticism of the Critical Philosophy: A Reply to Professor Mahaffy. By James McCosh, D. D. (Reprint from the Princeton Review.)

The Schools of Forestry and Industrial Schools of Europe, with other Papers. By B. G. Northrop, Secretary of the Connecticut Board of Education. New York: The Orange Judd Company. 1878.

Le Opere di Benedetto Castiglia e la Fase Definitiva della Scienze. Recensione di Giuseppe Stocchi. (Estratto dalla Gazzetta di Mantova.) Mantova. 1876.

An Account of the Department of Philosophy in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Boston: Lockwood, Brooks & Co. 1877.

[A very noteworthy "account." A pamphlet of 72 pages of fine print, giving (a) a history of operations, (b) thesis by graduates, (c) work by advanced special students, 1876-77. The summaries, analysis, conspectuses, and critical discussions in it are of great value, and all testify to the great loss which the department of the "Philosophy of Science" of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has sustained by the departure of Professor George H. Howison, the author of this pamphlet.]

How Shall we Keep Sunday? An Answer in Four Parts: I. Sunday in the Bible; II. Sunday in Church History; III. Sunday in the Massachusetts Laws; IV. The Working-man's Sunday. By Charles K. Whipple, Minot J. Savage, Charles E. Pratt, William C. Gannett, respectively. Boston: Free Religious Association. 1877.

Science: Her Martyrdom and Victory, a Sermon in Treville Street Chapel, August 19, 1877, during the assembly in Plymouth of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. By William Sharman. London: E. T. Whitfield.

American Education Analyzed; or, a Synoptical Disquisition on the Quality, Culture, Development, Rank, and Government of Man, with addendum describing the order of men to select for office. By Charles Edward Pickett. San Francisco. 1877.

Die Forschung nach der Materie. Von Johannes Huber. München: Theodor Ackermann. 1877.

Naturwissenschaft, Naturphilosophie und Philosophie der Liebe. Herausgegeben von A. F. Entleutner. München: Theodor Ackermann. 1877.

The Origin of the Will. By E. D. Cope. (Reprinted from the Penn Monthly for June, 1877.) Philadelphia. 1877.

Bi-Metalism: With each Metal a Legal Tender, and freely coinable only in proportion to its value. By H. D. Barrows. Los Angeles. 1876.

Darwinism and Morality. By John Watson, M. A., Queen's College, Kingston, Canada. (Reprint from The Canadian Monthly for May, 1876.)

Philosophie und Theologie. Von Dr. Leonhard Rabus, Professor der Philosophie am Koenigl.-Lyceum zu Speier. (Beigabe zu dem Jahresberichte der k. bayer. Studienanstalt. Speier. 1876.

Modern Metaphysicians: Arnold Ruge; the Philosophy of Humanism. Part I. and Part II. (Reprint from the British Controversialist, 1870.) By James Hutchison

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