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Exhibition of all Nations was promulgated, which was to be the golden chain to unite the kindreds of the earth in brotherhood, peace, and love. The palace was built, beautiful in its proportions, fairy-like in its construction. From the frigid to the torrid zone the products of the earth were poured into it, and the many-tongued and diverse-coloured races of men met beneath its glittering roof, apparently forgetful of their jealousies, and happy as a prosperous and united family could be. Oh, thought some, the halcyon days of the world have dawned-the panacea for national woe has been discovered. Henceforth the only emulation will surely be that of becoming the best as well as the greatest, and of developing the resources of every country and clime. The cloudless sun of prosperity has reached its meridian brightness, and far away in human imaginings lie stretched the elysian fields wherein the nations of the world are to roam in amity and friendship. Bright and happy thoughts, yet, alas, illusive and vain; for ere the last remnant of the world's place of assembly had been removed, the thunders of the Crimean guns dissolved the spell, scattered the illusion, and proved the insufficiency of such day-dreams to arrest the spirit of aggression, and check the tyranny and power of
'Despite the failure, the experiment has been again tried, but with no better success, for at this moment the vast continent of America is torn by a civil strife which scarcely finds its parallel in the history of the
world. Without entering into the merits of the question involved in this struggle, we speak but the feelings of humanity when we say the heart sickens at the remembrance of the sacrifice of human life by which the war has been characterised. It is estimated that upwards of 800,000 human beings, comprising the bravest, the noblest, and the best of America's sons, have been immolated to the god of war. The most fertile land beneath high Heaven reeks with human blood; broken hearts are counted by hundreds of thousands, and the frightful catalogue of widows and orphans affords terrible proof of the devastations of the sword. Nor is this all. The resources of what might have been the richest country in the world have been drained, and a national debt of £200,000,000 has been contracted, which, like an incubus, will spread its influence over the land, disturbing its quietude, arresting its progress, and paralysing its powers."
In our deep emergency as a people, both Northerns and Southerns have courted the favour of England; and to influence the government and public opinion, one party has reminded you that your destinies as a people were suspended on a thread, and that thread a very tender one, namely cotton-and the other that they were bound up by a blade, and that blade a very slender one, namely, a blade of wheat. When referring to the former, Mr. Mann, an eminent citizen of Georgia, said," With the failure of cotton, England fails. Stop her supply of southern slave grown
cotton, and her factories stop, her commerce stops, the healthful normal circulation of her life blood stops." Again, he says,-"In one year from the stoppage of England's supply of southern slave grown cotton, the Chartists would be in all her streets and fields; revolution would be rampant throughout the island, -and nothing that is, would exist. Why, sirs, British lords hold their lands, British bishops their revenues, and Victoria her sceptre, by the grace of cotton as surely as by the grace of God."
In the above sentiments Senator Wigfall united, saying, "If we stop the supply of cotton for one week, England would be starving. Queen Victoria's crown would not stand on her head one week if the supply of cotton was stopped; nor would her head stand on her shoulders."
Vice-President Stephens also said, "There will be revolution in Europe; there will be starvation there. Our cotton is the element that will do it." When referring to the latter, the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, in a sermon on Thanksgiving day, Nov. 28, 1861, reported in the New York Tribune, said,— "Providence in giving us plenty, and ordaining scarcity abroad, had taken the crown from king cotton, and put it on the head of corn. The speaker had gone through the corn fields, and had heard the corn rustling, and he thought it was the wind blowing through the corn; but it was God speaking to him, and interpreting to him in a language he now understood, but then did not. And every blade lift
ing up its head said, "Liberty is coming, Emancipation is coming." But how was liberty or emancipation to come? Hear him! "Now, just when mechanical England would have demanded our ports to be opened, she needs our corn more than cotton. The scarcity of food in England and France had put them on their good behaviour; and these two antagonists, liberty and God, slavery and the devil, were to fight out the matter between themselves."
Both parties, therefore, profess to hold your destinies in their hands, try to prepossess you in their favour, and lift up the thread and blade in turns as Ward Beecher says, "to put you on your good behaviour!"
England, therefore, say the Southerns, is bound to interfere her supply of cotton, her commercial interests, her existence demands it. England dare not interfere, say the Northerns, for if she do so, bread riots will break out, and the people of this country will be thrown into a state of starvation!
One party says, we will compel you to break the peace of nations by the "grace of cotton!" And the other says, we will compel you to keep the peace by the influence of "king corn!" According to one, the British lion must wag his tail, and growl defiance to the North, or he must cease to be! According to the other, if he should do so, the lion rust die of hunger. Either way, you have got to die. Therefore, it is not so much our national existence that is imperilled in America as your own! How monstrous the delusion! What a story to tell by a people who were
born to national existence with falsehood on their lips, and the fruit of robbery in their hands; and who are now undergoing a severe punishment, justly due for the enormous guilt of their crimes!
What arrogancy and pride such language discovers! We are a great people ain't we! And we can't help thinking that if the interests of this country are in the hands or our American people-they are like the interests of freedom in "villainous custody." For it is impossible to "recognise in the corrupt mass of American politicians, North or South, the chosen instruments of the world's regeneration."
"Whilst the Hon. Gentleman," (Roebuck), says Bright, "told them that the North was overbearing, he forgot to tell them that its government had hitherto been administered by his friends of the South." This is quite true, but not the whole truth, since that administration was with the consent of the North, and no truth looms up to our view more clearly or distinctly in connexion with the inexorable logic of facts in our American history, than this, that if our Northern people had sought to embody the original charters of her freedom in the spirit of impartial justice to all, irrespective of colour or condition, the Union would long ago have been destroyed, and slavery too. When God created the world, He said, "let there be light;" but all great parties in America, both North and South, have combined to put down agitation. Peace, peace, shouted the President from his chair of State in the White House-the governors in their annual