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given, the loss of life would have been much erty is impressed for the use of the army and greater.
navy, or for other public use, under said act, the The Housatonic was a stcam-sloop, with a ton- same shall be paid for at the time of said impressnage of one thousand two hundred and forty, and ment, unless an appeal shall be taken from said she carried a battery of thirteen guns. She was valuation, as hereinafter provided, according to completed about eighteen months ago, and has the valuation agreed upon between the parties, been in the blockade ever since. She is the first or ascertained by loyal and disinterested citizens vessel destroyed by a contrivance of this char- of the city, county, or parish in which the imacter, and this fact gives to this lamentable af- pressment may be made, in the manner and acfair a significance which it would not otherwise cording to the regulations provided in the first, possess. Deserters tell us that there are other second, and third sections of the above-recited machines of this kind in the harbor, ready to act, or in the eighth section thereof, where it is come out, and that several more are in process applicable. of construction. The country cannot attend too Sec. 2. Whenever the officer making the imearnestly to the dangers which threaten our pressment of property, under the act hereby blockading fleets, and the gunboats and steamers amended, shall believe that the appraisement is on the Southern rivers.
X. fair and just, he shall indorse his approval upon OFF CHARLESTON, February 22, 1964.
the appraisement, and make payment according
ly ; but if he shall believe that it is not fair and ORDER BY ADMIRAL DAHLGREN,
just, then he shall refuse to approve, and indorse FLAG-STEAMER PHILADELPHIA, PORT ROYAL
the reasons of his refusal on the certificate, and HARBOR, S. C., Feb. 19, 1961, Order No. 50:
shall have the right to appeal from the decision The Housatonic has just been torpedoed by a
of the appraisers, by reporting the case to the rebel David, and sunk almost instantly:
commissioners appointed under said act to which It was at night, and the water smooth.
this is an amendment, for their decision, whose The success of this undertaking will, no doubt, judgment shall be final
, and in the mean time the lead to similar attempts along the whole line of property shall be held and appropriated by the
officer impressing the same, who shall give a reblockade. If vessels on blockade are at anchor, they are the right of appeal as herein provided.
ceipt therefor to the owner, who shall also have not safe, particularly in smooth water, without the right of appeal as herein provided.
Sec. 3. The said commissioners shall have power out-riggers and hawsers, stretched around with
to summon and examine witnesses to enable them rope netting, dropped in the water.
Vessels on inside blockade had better take to fix the value of property impressed which shall post outside at night, and keep underweigh, un
be a just compensation for the property so im
pressed, at the time and place of impressment; til these preparations are completed.
All the boats must be on the patrol when the and when the commissioners shall have fixed the vessel is not in movement.
value of property in cases of appeal, they shall The commanders of vessels are required to use statement of such value, which valuation by the
furnish the owner and impressing officer with a their utmost vigilance-nothing less will serve. I intend to recommend to the Navy Depart- the time of impressment.
commissioners shall be within three months from ment the assignment of a large reward, as prize
Sec. 4. That said commissioners shall be sworn money, to crews or vessels who shall capture, or, beyond doubt, destroy one of these torpedo faithfully to discharge all their duties under this
act and the act to which this is an amendment. boats. John A. DAHLGREN,
Sec. 5. That the tenth section of the act of Rear-Admiral, Commanding S. A.'B. Squadron. which this is an amendment be stricken out, and
the following inserted instead thereof: “No slave
laboring on a farm or plantation exclusively deDoc. 85.
voted to the production of grain or provisions
shall be taken for public use, without the conREBEL IMPRESSMENTS.
sent of the owner, except in case of urgent neADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR-GENERAL'S OFFICE,
cessity and upon the order of the general comRICHMOND, VA., March 7, 1864.
manding the department in which said farm or GENERAL Orders, No. 80.
plantation is situated." Tue following act of Congress concerning im- Sec. 6. That the act amendatory of the above pressments, and the instructions of the War De- recited act, approved April twenty-seventh, one partment respecting it, are published for the in- thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and so formation and direction of all concerned :
much of the first section of said act as requires An Act to amend "an act to regulate impress- an affidavit to be made by the owner or his agent,
ments," approved March twenty-sixth,one thou- that such property was grown, raised, or prosand eight hundred and sixty-three, and to re- duced by said owner, or held, or has been pur: peal an act amendatory thereof, approved April chased by him, not for sale or speculation, but twenty-seventh, one thousand eight hundred for his own use or consumption, be and the same and sixty-three.
is hereby repealed. The Congress of the confederate States of Sec. 7. That no impressment shall be made America do enact, That in all cases where prop-I under this act, or the act to which this is amend. atory, for the use or benefit of contractors with appraisement, he will decline to approve it, and the government.
indorse the reason for his refusal on the certifi. Sec. 8. Nothing in this act shall be construed cate, and forth with report the case to the comto authorize the impressing officer to enter an missioners appointed under the fifth section of appeal from any decision of the local appraisers, the act to which the act above recited is an under the seventh section of the act to which this amendment, and in the mean time the property is amendatory.
will be taken and a receipt describing the propApproved February sixteenth, 1864.
erty and the proceedings for the adjustment of I. Impressments according to this act, and the the price and the appeal, given to the owner. act to which this is an amendment, may be made The impressing officer will immediately report for necessary supplies for the confederate armies the case to the appraisers, with a statement of in the field, and for their accumulation in maga- the quality and condition of the property, and his zines and at posts and dépôts, and to carry on opinion upon the subject. the various operations of the military bureau V. No officer or agent will impress the neces. connected with the war department, whenever sary supplies which any person may have for the the same cannot be obtained by contract.
consumption of himself and family, employés, II. They may be made under orders from the slaves, or to carry on his ordinary mechanical, generals commanding armies, departments, corps, manufacturing, or agricultural employments. divisions, and by commanders of detached parties If any question arise as to the fact whether when a necessity arises therefor. These orders the supplies are necessary, or whether there be may be executed by appropriate officers of the a surplus, it will be determined by appraisers staff belonging to the army. The chiefs of the mutually selected according to the preceding secvarious bureaux shall designate the officers and tion, and in this case the decision of the appraispersons who shall be competent to make im-ers will be binding on the officer, who will not pressments under the authority conferred upon be allowed an appeal therefroin. them.
VI. These regulations are published as a subIII. Before any impressment shall be made, stitute for the regulations contained in General the impressing officer or his agent will make an Orders Nos. 37 and 161, series of 1863. offer to the owner, his bailee, or agent, in writing, By order.
S. COOPER, for the purchase of the property, describing the
Adjutant and Inspector-General. property he wishes to purchase, the price he is willing to pay, and the mode of payment, and stating that, upon a refusal to accept the same,
Doc. 86. compensation will be made according to the acts
THE REBEL JUDICIARY. of Congress for the regulation of impressments. This notice will be considered as binding the STATE RIGHTS AND property until the completion of the negotiation for the sale and transfer of the same to the im- FIRST DECISION IN GEORGIA UNDER THE ANTIpressing officer. The property will remain in SUBSTITUTE Law. Judge 0. A. Lochrane, of the the custody of the owner, and at his risk, during Superior Court, Macon Circuit, delivered an orithe pending of these proceedings, unless a de-ginal and highly important opinion under the act livery of the same be thereupon made to the im-repealing the substitute law, in the case of Denpressing officer, with his consent. In case of a nis Daley and Philip Fitzgerald vs. C. J. Harris, change of possession under these circumstances, on Thursday morning, February eleventh, as is the confederate States will be regarded as the reported by the Macon Telegraph : owner, and the property held for its use and at lle held it was not only the right but the duty its risk.
of a nation to protect itself, and that any contract IV. In all cases in which the offer of an im- or right flowing out of the operation of law which pressing officer is refused, he will proceed to ad- came in conflict with the preservation of the just the price according to the first section of State, was an unconstitutional act, not obligatory the act above recited—that is, by the judgment on the law-making power, and within the constiof two loyal and disinterested persons of the city, tutional power of the government to repeal, county, or parish in which the impressment may That the act allowing substitutes was to be rebe made-one to be selected by the owner, his garded as a contract discharging principals from bailee or agent, and one by the impressing offi- being called into the service; it was then a concer. In the event of their disagreement, these tract that the principal should not fight in the detwo will select an umpire of like qualification. fence of the country, when it was endangered, The persons thus selected will proceed to assess and such contract was unauthorized by every just compensation for the property so impressed, principle of constitutional law. If our first Con. whether the absolute ownership or the tempo- gress had agreed to exempt all men from taxrary use thereof be required. If the impressing ation during the war who paid into the treasury officer believes that the appraisement is fair and five hundred dollars, such exemption could have just, he will indorse his approval, and pay for been set aside by any subsequent legislature, the property; and the right in the object im- when the public safety and self-preservation of pressed will become the property of the confed- the government demand it. erate States. But if he does not approve of the He held that the interest of every citizen was
GENERAL GILLMORE'S DESPATCH.
the same as that of the government of which he under the command of General Seymour, left formed a part, and the military service rendered Hilton Head on the morning of the sixth. The by the substitute was just as much rendered to forces consisted of cavalry, artillery, and infantry. the principal as a citizen of the government it- The entire fleet arrived without accident of any self; his life, his honor, his property, and his lib- kind at the bar off the mouth of St. John's River, erty were defended by the act, and the consider- between the hours of eight and ten A.M., to-day. ation inured to him as a member of the society In consequence of the ebb-tide, only thirteen which composed the government.
of the vessels were able to ride over the bar this Contracts and vested rights must all bend to morning. At twelve m., that number, including the exigencies of the government, of which the the Maple Leaf, General Seymour's flag-steamer, Legislature was the judge, and any act of the le- started to go up St. John's River.
On the pasgislature contravening the public interest, may saye up, the propeller Tilley and the side-wheel be repealed when the safety of the people be- steamer General Meigs got aground at a point comes the supreme law.
about five miles from here. At the present writing The vested rights of fathers may be annulled they have not arrived, but they will probably be over their minor children, to make them soldiers here in the course of two or three hours, as the when the public interests demand it, and the law- high-tide at eight o'clock will enable them to float. making power has so declared.
The gunboats Ottawa and Norwich were on duty All rights, all property, all persons who are cit- at the mouth of the river. The Norwich took izens of a government, may be used by the gov- the lead up the river, and anchored off Jackernment in time of war, and it was the duty of sonville, with her starboard-guns trained on the courts to sustain the government in the appro- town. Immediately following the gunboat was priation of the means exercised rightfully by the the flag-steamer Maple Leaf, which was followed legislature to protect the whole people from sub- in turn by the other vessels. jugation and ruin.
Not a gun was fired until the Maple Leaf and the
General Hunter were making fast to the piers at Doc. 87.
Jacksonville, when a squad of rebel infantry, who
were skulking in a piece of woods on the outTHE CAMPAIGN IN FLORIDA. skirts of the town, fired three shots at the General
Hu er, one of which wounded the second mate,
Mr. Norris, the ball entering the chest and comBALDWIN, FLA., February 9. To Major-General H. W. Halleck, General-än- ing out at the back. The wounded man received Chief:
prompt medical attendance, but his condition is GENERAL: I have the honor to report that a
precarious. part of my command, under Brigadier-General F.
Soon as the boats touched the piers, General Seymour, convoyed by the gunboat Norwich, Seymour gave orders for the troops to instantly
disembark, form by companies, and pursue the Captain Merriam, ascended St. John's River on the seventh instant, and landed at Jacksonville enemy. The first troops to land were companies on the afternoon of that day.
A, B, and D, Fifty-fourth Massachusetts, (colorcomprising the Fortieth Massachusetts infantry, First Massachusetts cavalry, Captain Webster, The advance, under Colonel Guy V. Henry, ed,) next came the colored troops from the Gen
eral Hunter, and at the same time company C, independent battalion of Massachusetts cavalry from the Rappahannock. under Major Stevens, and Elders's horse battery of First artillery, pushed forward into the inte
The colored troops filed into the streets borrior. On the night of the eighth, passed by the dering on the river, and at the word of command enemy drawn up in line of battle at Camp started on a double-quick for the enemy. The Vinegar, seven miles from Jacksonville, surprised enemy did not number over twenty-five foot and and captured a battery three miles in the rear of mounted soldiers. He fired six or seven shots,
and then fled to the woods. None of our men the camp, about midnight, and reached this place about sunrise this morning. At our approach,
were wounded. The pursuit was maintained by the enemy absconded, sunk the steamer St. Ma the colored troops for a distance of two miles. ry's, and burned two hundred and seventy bales They then (having been relieved by company C, of cotton a few miles above Jacksonville.
First Massachusetts cavalry) returned, bringing have taken, without the loss of a man, about one
with them five prisoners. Two of the prisoners hundred prisoners, eight pieces of artillery in serv- toward Baldwin. The cavalry went a distance of
were taken from a wagon which was being driven iceable condition, and one well supplied with am- five miles, and brought in eleven prisoners, inmunition, and other valuable property to a large cluding two signal-officers who were on their staamount.
Q. A. GILLMORE,
tion. Two signal-flags and a quantity of material
number of horses and mules were also driven in. JACKSONVILLE, Fla., Sunday, Feb. 7, 1864. To-night our troops are making preparations to The National forces occupied Jacksonville, Fla., march forward toward Baldwin at daylight to. at five P.m., this day.
morrow. Baldwin is a small town on the Florida The expedition, comprising twenty steamers of Central Railroad, and eighteen miles distant from various classes, and eight schooners, the whole here.
A NATIONAL ACCOUNT,
General Seymour has already established his I will state that the troops which had disembarkheadquarters on shore. We may look out for ed on the previous day left their camping ground lively times during the week.
at three P. m., and proceeded toward the interior The families remaining in Jacksonville do not of the State. The force was divided into three number over twenty-five. They are mostly wo- columns, commanded respectively by Colonel men and children. They had not the slightest Barton, Colonel Hawley, and Colonel Ilenry. intimation that we were coming, until they saw The columns travelled by different routes, Colthe gunboat Ottawa anchor off the town. Even onel Henry's taking a road at the right of the then they did not suppose the place was to be oc- main road, Colonel Hawley's one still further to cupied by our forces. The sight of our steamers, the right, and Colonel Barton's the main road however, coming up in quick succession, soon pre- itself. The side-roads join the main road at a pared them for the event.
point three miles above Jacksonville. From the As we neared the pier, a few handkerchiefs first day of the march the main body of the exwere waved at us from some of the buildings near pedition followed the line of the Florida Central the water. Every person in the place claims to Railroad. According to the original orders, the be Union.
columns were to unite at the three-mile point, The place itself is in a ruinous condition. march in a body that night an additional three Many of the houses are burne others have been miles, bivouac till morning, and then proceed to demolished. I learn from the citizens that the the rebel Camp Finnigan, which was situated rebel troops in Florida are under the command eight miles from Jacksonville. The last of the of General Finnigan. His force is scattered, and troops did not reach the three-mile point until amounts altogether to about two thousand five after dark, consequently it was considered adhundred.
visable for the infantry to halt there till dayThe Florida Central Railroad, which extends light. In the mean time, Colonel Henry with from this place to Tallahassee, is in running or his cavalry and artillery was ordered to push forder. A train came and departed to-day. It was ward on a reconnoissance. I was fortunato the intention of the rebels, however, to take up enough to join Colonel Henry's column at the the rails next week and transport them to an- outset, and more fortunate in having had an opother portion of the Confederacy. That move-portunity to accompany it throughout the raid. ment was to precede the abandonment of Florida. I shall now ask the reader to follow me with the We hope to push forward so as to prevent the ene- advance column, which I have no hesitation in my from damaging the road to any great extent. saying has completely eclipsed, during its six
A gentleman, named Bennett, à prominent days of experience and adventure, the achievecitizen of this place, and a Union man besides, ments of any raiding party within the same was to attend a convention to-morrow, with a space of time. It was quite dark when Colonel view of dissuading the rebel authorities from tear- Henry left the three-mile point; but notwithing up the railroad. The same gentleman has standing this circumstance, the column moved nearly two hundred bales of cotton near Bald-on at a brisk trot. It was thought the enemy win, which he had ordered to be sent to this place. would be met at a small creek two miles this side General Finnigan telegraphed him to-day, that, of Jacksonville ; but as it turned out, he did not in case the enemy should land at Jacksonville, attempt to make a stand between here and Camp his cotton would be burned. So it seems that Finnigan. Thus, it will be observed, Colonel the rebel general had some information of the ex- Henry, after detaching his column from the main pedition.
force, travelled over a space of five miles without I omitted to mention in the proper place that noticing any indications of opposition. The Major Stevens, of the First Massachusetts cav- country through which we passed is low, level
, alry , was with company C in the reconnoissance and marshy. The road on each side is flanked
Captain Ray, formerly lieuten- with pine forests, but by no means dense. The ant of the same company, and about to take a roads have a hard, sandy foundation; and, in command in another regiment now forming in many places, pools of water had settled, in some Massachusetts, volunteered his services to the instances forming a depth of one and two feet. expedition and was with his company to-day.
Unlike the roads in Virginia and other portions Every thing thus far has gone on in the most of the country, after a fall of rain, those in Florprosperous manner.
The State abounds in cat- ida are not made disagreeably muddy and imtle, and provisions are not scarce.
passable. If the water is too deep, or a fallen
tree obstructs the way, it is an easy matter to go JACKSONVILLE, Fla., Sunday, February 14, 1864. round it; and, judging from the numerous S's I have already noticed in a previous letter the in the road, such has frequently been the case. safe arrival at Jacksonville of the troops forming What I write in regard to the general condition the expedition which left Hilton Head on the of the roads and aspect of the country, applies sixth instant, for Florida. I now propose to to the entire district through which we passed, chronicle the events which have occurred in this from the commencement to the end of the road. region since the landing. Prudential reasons I did not observe but one vegetable patch and deter me from giving the numerical strength of not a single flower-garden anywhere along the the force. Commencing from the eighth instant, route. The eye is wearied with viewing nothing
but pine trees. Such a thing as a hill or a rise minutes' time came within sight of Camp Finni. of ground to even a moderate height is out of the gan. question. The houses situated between the set- The camp lay at the right of the main road tlements are isolated, and present an old, dilapi- and on the line of the railroad. Scouts were dated appearance. The soil is one fair for farm- sent ahead to reconnoitre, and approached so ing purposes. It must not be forgotten I am near the camp as to see two hundred cavalrymen speaking particularly of the land on the line of drawn up in line of battle, awaiting our charge. the railroad from Jacksonville to Lake City. The pickets immediately around the camp had Beyond the latter place, the country is entirely reported our advance. But to put to flight changed, the soil is a rich, sandy loam, and is and scatter two hundred men was not Colonel cultivated to a considerable extent. The best Henry's object, especially when he knew of arportion of Florida lies near the Gulf. Timber tillery that he might possibly capture by not and turpentine are the chief products of that heeding the enemy at Camp Finnigan. It is not portion which lay along our route. I noticed usually the case that an offensive force leaves miles and miles of trees that had been tapped for knowingly an enemy in the rear. Colonel Henry turpentine. In many places the dead grass and saw that the enemy was not sufficiently strong the trees were in flames. With this brief gen- to do him any harm, and also knew that if he eral description of the country I will go on with once got in his rear, the two bundred rebels my narrative of military events.
would have no chance for escape except by disA night's ride, with the darkness so dense we persing and taking to the woods. There was a could not see our horses' heads, through a hostile chance when the rebels saw their line of retreat country which affords advantages for guerrillas, cut off, that they would attack Henry, in which over a road the bridges of which the enemy had event they would have been gobbled up in a destroyed, and so forced our troops to ford the very short time. Henry was prepared for them, streams, would not be esteemed a pleasant ad- and I heard him express the wish more than venture by our timid friends at the North. once that the enemy was following. Another Every one, however, was in good spirits, and did gallop for two miles, and I witnessed the most not care how rapidly he rode, provided he could brilliant dash that a similar force of cavalry ever soon come up with the enemy. It was a little executed. It was upon an artillery camp situdisappointment not to have met some the ated like Camp Finnigan, on the line of the railrebels at the small stream, two miles this side road. The rebel cavalry, having been cut off at of Camp Finnigan, but the disappointment was Finnigan, no intelligence of our approach had of short duration, for we had not proceeded one reached the artillerists—consequently they were half-mile further, when we discovered a picket taken completely by surprise. Relying wholly station. A charge was made upon it by four men, upon the cavalry at Finnigan to give them warnbut the pickets had fallen back to their reserve ing of the enemy's presence, the artillerists nepost. We were now on the enemy's track. A glected to throw out pickets, so an advancehalf-mile gallop brought us within sight of the guard was enabled without difficulty to ride up post camp-fires, and round it could be seen the to within a few yards of the camp. The rebels pickets hurriedly arranging their traps prepara- had heard of our advance from Jacksonville, and, tory to joining their comrades at Camp Finnigan. not favorably impressed with the number of our The advance-guard of four men, led by Lieuten- men as represented to them, decided to retire ant Holt, of company A, Independent battalion with their guns and camp equipage to Lake City. Massachusetts cavalry, made the charge, and They would have been successful in their design succeeded in capturing all the pickets, five in had they given us credit for less celerity of movenumber. Another rebel, who was outside the ment. It must be observed that Henry throughline, received a severe sabre-cut across the head out the entire raid did not wait to give the eneby one of the sergeants. He ran into the woods nay the least intimation of his approach. He on the left, and when Captain Elder came on dashed upon him as a cat pounces upon a mouse, with his artillery, ran back toward the road The advance-guard having reported to Colonel shouting: “I surrender.” He was placed on a Henry the condition of the camp, that officer, togun-box and taken to Barber's Station, where gether with Major Stevens, of the Independent his wound was dressed by our surgeon. This Battalion, went forward and examined for themwas the only casualty that occurred on either selves. It was ascertained that the inen at the side that night. An aged woman with three camp numbered about one hundred and fifty. young children was sitting at the fire. Neither They could be seen sitting near the fires in the she nor the children were molested. She thought act of preparing something to eat. The horses it very hard that we should take from her a colt and mules were standing ready harnessed, and which she seemed greatly to prize. But I think the wagons were partly laden with officers' bag. the woman must have regained possession of her gage. We were afterward told by prisoners colt, from the fact that it kicked the horses some that they could have got the guns and some of of our men were riding so violently, that the the wagons away had they received fifteen min. cannoncer, who led it, was glad to let it loose. utes' notice of our approach. Colonel Henry, The horses used by the pickets were taken to having satisfied himself of the state of affairs, the rear of the column. After making a short returned to his command and ordered the Indestop, the column went forward, and within a few pendent Battalion to advance cautiously to with.