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and wicked rebellion that the world has seen,itures, to seduce, or by its legions of “Hessian" and believing, as we do, that the only hope of mercenaries, tu over we the masses, to control saving this country and preserving this Govern- the elections, and to establish an arbitrary desment is by the power of the sword, we are for potism. It cannot be possible that this state of the most vigorous prosecution of the war until things can continue. the Constitution and the laws shall be enforced The people of the United States, accustomed and obeyed in all parts of the United States; and to freedom, cannot consent to be ruined and ento that end we oppose any armistice, or interven- slaved, in order to ruin and enslave us. Moral, tion, or mediation, or proposition for peace, from like physical, epidemics, have their allotted peany quarter, so long as there shall be found a riods, and must sooner or later be exhausted and rebel in arms against the Government; and we disappear. When reason returns, our enemies ignore all party names, lines, and issues, and re- will probably reflect, that a people like ours, who cognize but two parties in this war-patriots and have exhibited such capabilities, and extemporized traitors.”
such resources, can never be subdued; that a The motive of such strange conduct is obvious. vast expanse of territory, with such a population, The Republican party was founded to destroy cannot be governed as an obedient colony. Vicslavery and the equality of the States, and Lin- tory would not be conquest. The inextinguishcoln was selected as the instrument to accom- able quarrel would be transmitted “from bleedplish this object. The Union was a barrier to ing sire to son," and the struggle would be rethe consummation of this policy, because the newed between generations yet unborn. Το Constitution, which was its bond, recognized impoverish us would only be to dry up some of and protected slavery and the sovereignty of the the springs of Northern prosperity—to destroy States. The Union must, therefore, be sacrificed, Southern wealth is to reduce Northern profits, and to insure its destruction, war was deter- while the restoration of peace would necessarily mined on.
reëstablish some commercial intercourse. The mass of the Northern people were not It may not be amiss, in this connection, to say privy to, and sympathized in no such design. that at one time it was the wish and expectation They loved the Union and wished to preserve of many at the South to form a treaty of amity it. To rally the people to the support of the war, and friendship with the Northern States, by its object was proclaimed to be “a restoration of which both peoples might derive the benefits of the Union,” as if that which implied voluntary commercial intercourse and move on side by side assent, of which agreement was an indispens in the arts of peace and civilization. History able element and condition, could be preserved has confirmed the lesson taught by divine by coercion.
authority, that each nation, as well as each inIt is absurd to pretend that a government, dividual, should seek their happiness in the pros. really desirous of restoring the Union, would perity of others, and not in the injury or ruin adopt such measures as the confiscation of pri- of a neighbor. The general welfare of all is the vate property, the emancipation of slaves, sys- highest dictate of moral duty and economic politematic efforts to invite them to insurrection, cy, while a heritage of triumphant wrong is the forcible abduction from their homes and com- greatest curse that can befall a nation. pulsory enlistment in the army, the division of a Until some evidence is given of a change of sovereign State without its consent, and a pro- policy on the part of the Government, and some clamation that one tenth of the population of a assurance is received, that efforts at negotiation State, and that tenth under military rule, should will not be spurned, the Congress are of opinion control the will of the remaining nine tenths. that any direct overtures for peace would comThe only relation possible between the two sections promise our self-respect, be fruitless of good, and under such a policy is that of conqueror and con- intepreted by the enemy as an indication of weakquered, superior and dependent. Rest assured, ness. We can only repeat the desire of the peofellow-citizens, that although restoration may ple for peace, and our readiness to accept terms, still be used as a war cry by the Government, it consistent with the honor and integrity and indeis only to delude and betray.
pendence of the States, and compatible with the Fanaticism has summoned to its aid cupidity safety of our domestic institutions. and vengeance; and nothing short of your utter Not content with rejecting all proposals for a subjugation, the destruction of your State gov- peaceful settlement of the controversy, a crue! ernments, the destruction of your social and war of invasion was commenced, which, in its political fabric, your personal and public degra- progress, has been marked by a brutality and dation and ruin, will satisfy the deinands of the disregard of the rules of civilized warfare, as North. Can there be a man so vile, so debased, stand out in unexampled barbarity in the history so unworthy of liberty as to accept peace on of modern wars. Accompanied by every act of such humiliating terins ?
cruelty and rapine, the conduct of the enemy It would hardly be fair to assert that all the has been destitute of that forbearance and magNorthern people participate in these designs. nanimity which civilization and Christianity On the contrary, there exists a powerful political have introduced to mitigate the asperities of party, which openly condemns them.
The Ad- war. The atrocities are too incredible for narraministration has, however, been able thus far, by tion. Instead of a regular war our resistance of its enormous patronage and its lavish expend the unholy efforts to crush out our national ex
istence is treated as a rebellion, and the settled On the twenty-fourth June, 1776, one of the reainternational rules between belligerents are ig- sons assigned by Pennsylvania for her sepanored.
ration from the mother country was that, in her Instead of conducting the war as betwixt two sister colonies, the " King had excited the nemilitary and political organizations, it is a war groes to revolt” and to imbue their hands in the against the whole population. Houses are pil. blood of their masters, in a manner unpractised laged and burned; churches are defaced; towns by civilized nations. This, probably bad referare ransacked; clothing of women and infants is ence to the proclamation of Dunmore, the last stripped from their persons; jewelry and me- royal Governor of Virginia, in 1775, declaring mentoes of the dead are stolen ; mills and imple- freedom to all servants or negroes, if they would ments of agriculture are destroyed; private salt- join “for the reducing the colony to a proper works are broken up; the introduction of medi- sense of its duty." cines is forbidden; means of subsistence are The invitation to the slaves to rise against their wantonly wasted to produce beggary ; prisoners masters, the suggested insurrection, caused, says are returned with contagious diseases; the last Bancroft, "a thrill of indignation to run through morsel of food has been taken from families, Virginia, effacing all differences of party, and who are not allowed to carry on a trade or branch rousing one strong, impassioned purpose to drive of industry; a rigid and offensive espionage has away the insolent power by which it had been been introduced to ferret out “disloyalty ;” per- put forth.” A contemporary annalist, adverting sons have been forced to choose between starva- to the same proclamation, said: “ It was received tion of helpless children and taking the oath of with the greatest horror in all the colonies." allegiance to a hated government.
“The policy adopted by Dunmore," says LawThe cartel for the exchange of prisoners has rence in his notes on Wheaton, "of arming the been suspended, and our unfortunate soldiers slaves against their masters, was not pursued subjected to the grossest indignities. The during the war of the Revolution ; and when ne
| ; wounded at Gettysburgh were deprived of their goes were taken by the English, they were not nurses and inhumanly left to perish on the field. considered otherwise than as property and plunHelpless women have been exposed to the most der.” Einancipation of slaves as a war measure cruel outrages and to that dishonor which is in- has been severely condemned and denounced by finitely worse than death. Citizens have been the most eminent publicists in Europe and the murdered by the Butlers and McNeils and Mil- United States. roys, who are favorite generals of our enemies. The United States, “in their diplomatic relaRefined and delicate ladies have been seized, tions, have ever maintained,” says the Northern bound with cords, imprisoned, guarded by ne- authority just quoted, “ that slaves were private groes, and held as hostages for the return of re- property, and for them, as such, they have recaptured slaves. Unoffending non-combatants peatedly received compensation from England." have been banished or dragged froin their homes Napoleon I. was never induced to issue a proclato be immured in filthy jails. Preaching the mation for the emancipation of the serfs in his Gospel has been refused, except on condition of war with Russia. He said: “I could have armed taking the oath of allegiance. Parents have against her a part of her population, by proclaimbeen forbidden to name their children in honoring the liberty of the serfs. A great number of of “rebel” chiefs. Property has been confis- villages asked it of me, but I refused to avail my. cated. Military governors have been appointed self of a measure which would have devoted to for States, satraps for provinces, and Haynaus death thousands of families.” In the discussions for cities.
growing out of the treaty of peace of 1814, and These cruelties and atrocities of the enemy the proffered mediation of Russia, the principle have been exceeded by their malicious and blood was maintained by the United States that “the thirsty purpose and machinations in reference to emancipation of enemy's slaves is not among the the slaves. Early in this war, President Lincoln acts of legitimate warfare." averred his constitutional inability and personal In the instructions from John Quincy Adams, unwillingness to interfere with the domestic in- as Secretary of State, to Mr. Middleton, at Saint stitutions of the States and the relation between Petersburgh, October eighteenth, 1820, it is said: m: er and servant. Prudential considera ons “The British have broadly asserted the right of may have been veiled under conscientious scru- emancipating slaves (private property) as a legiples. Mr. Seward, in a confidential instruction to timate right of war. No such right is acknow. Mr. Adams, the Minister to Great Britain, on tenth ledged as a law of war by writers who admit any March, 1862, said: “If the Government of the limitation. The right of putting to death all priUnited States should precipitately decree the im- soners in cold blood, and without special cause, mediate abolition of slavery, it would reïnvigor- might as well be pretended to be a law of war. ate the declining insurrection in every part of or the right to use poisoned weapons, or to assasthe South."
sinate.” Subsequent reverses and the refractory rebel- Disregarding the teachings of the approved liousness of the seceded States caused a change writers on international law and the practice and of policy, and Mr. Lincoln issued his celebrated claims of his own Government in its purer days, proclamation, a mere brutem fulmen, liberating President Lincoln has sought to convert the the slaves in the "insurrectionary districts.” South into a St. Domingo, by appealing to the
cupidity, lusts, ambition, and ferocity of the the ignominy and poverty of Yankee dominaslave. Abraham Lincoln is but the lineal de- tion. scendant of Dunmore, and the impotent malice The sad story of the wrongs and indignities of each was foiled by the fidelity of those who, endured by those States which have been in the by the meanness of the conspii.tors, would only, complete or partial possession of the enemy, will if successful, have been seduced into idleness, give the best evidence of the consequences of subfilth, vice, beggary, and death.
jugation. Missouri, a magnificent empire of agriBut we tire of these indignities and enormities. cultural and mineral wealth, is to-day a smoking They are too sickening for recital. History will ruin and the theatre of the most revolting crue!hereafter pillory those who committed and en- ties and barbarisms. The minions of tyranny couraged such crimes and immortal infamy. consume her substance, plunder her citizens, and
General Robert E. Lee, in a recent battle order, destroy her peace. The sacred rights of freemen stated to his invincible legions, that seeks the are struck down, and the blood of her children, "cruel foe to reduce our fathers and mothers, her maidens, and her old men is made to flow, our wives and children, to abject slavery.” He out of mere wantonness and recklessness. No does not paint too strongly the purposes of the whispers of freedom go unpunished, and the very enemy or the consequences of subjugation. What instincts of self-preservation are outlawed. The has been done in certain districts is but the pro- worship of God and the rites of sepulture have logue of the bloody drama that will be enacted. been shamefully interrupted, and, in many inIt is well that every man and woman should have stances, the cultivation of the soil is prohibited some just conception of the horrors of conquest. to her own citizens. These facts are attested by The fate of Ireland at the period of its conquest, many witnesses, and it is but a just tribute to and of Poland, distinctly foreshadows what would that noble and chivalrous people, that, amid barawait us.
The guillotine, in its ceaseless work barities almost unparalleled, they still maintain a of blood, would be revived for the execution of proud and defiant spirit toward their enemies. the “rebel leaders."
In Maryland, the judiciary, made subservient The heroes of our contest would be required to to executive absolutism, furnishes no security for lay down their proud ensigns, on which are re-individual rights or personal freedom; members corded the battle-fields of their glory, to stack of the Legislature are arrested and imprisoned their arms, lower their heads in humiliation and without process of law or assignment of cause, dishonor, and pass under the yoke of abolition and the whole laul groaneth under the oppresmisrule and tyranny.
A hateful inquisition, sions of a merciless tyranny. made atrocious by spies and informers; star- In Kentucky, the ballot-box has been overchamber courts, enforcing their decisions by thrown, free speech is suppressed, the most vexaconfiscations, imprisonments, banishments, and tious annoyances harass and embitter, and all death ; a band of detectives, ferreting out se- the arts and appliances of an unscrupulous descrets, lurking in every family, existing in every potism are freely used to prevent the uprising of conveyance; the suppression of free speech; the the noble patriots of "the dark and bloody deprivation of arms and franchises; and the ever- ground.” Notes of gladness, assurances of a present sense of inferiority would make our con- brighter and better day, reach us, and the exiles dition abject and miserable beyond what freemen may take courage and hope for the future. can imagine. Subjugation involves every thing In Virginia, the model of all that illustrates that the torturing malice ard devilish ingenuity human heroism and self-denying patriotism, alof our foes can suggest.
though the tempest of desolation has swept over The destruction of our nationality, the equali- her fuir domains, no sign of repentance for her zation of whites and blacks, the obliteration of separation from the North can be found. Her State lines, degradation to colonial vassalage, and old homesteads dismantled, her ancestral relics the reduction of many of our citizens to dreary, destroyed, her people impoverished, her territory hopeless, remediless bondage. A hostile police made the battle-ground for the rude shocks of would keep "order" in every town and city. contending hosts, and then divided, with hireling Judges, like Busteed, would hold our courts, parasites mockingly claiming jurisdiction and auprotected by Yankee soldiers. Churches would thority, the Old Dominion still stands with proud be filled by Yankee or tory preachers. Every crest and defiant mien, ready to tramp beneath office would be bestowed on aliens. Absentee- her heel every usurper and tyrant, and to illusism would curse us with all its vices. Superadd- trate afresh her sic semper tyrannis, the “prouded to these, sinking us into a lower abyss of de- est motto that ever blazed on a nation's shield or gradation, we would be made the slaves of our a warrior's arms." slaves, hewers of wood and drawers of water for To prevent such effects, our people are now those upon whom God has stamped indelibly the prosecuting this struggle. It is no mere war of marks of physical and intellectual inferiority calculation, no contest for a particular kind of The past of foreign countries need not be sought property, no barter of precious blood for filthy unto to furnish illustrations of the heritage of lucre. Every thing involved in manhood, civili' shame that subjugation would entail. Baltimore, zation, religion, law, property, country, home, is St. Louis, Nashville, Knoxville, New Orleans, at stake. We fight not for plunder, spoils, pil
' Vicksburgh, Huntsville, Norfolk, Newbern, Lou- lage, territorial conquest
. The government isville, and Fredericksburgh are the first fruits of tempts by no prizes of "beauty or booty,” to be
drawn in the lottery of this war. We seek to cisms on the Government and our generals; inpreserve civil freedom, honor, equality, firesides; stead of bewailing the failure to accomplish imand blood is well shed when “shed for our fami- possibilities, we should rather be grateful, humly, for our friends, for our kind, for our country, bly and profoundly, to a benignant Providence, for our God." Burke said: “A state, resolved for the results that have rewarded our labors. to hazard its existence rather than abandon its Remembering the disproportion in population, in object, must have an infinite advantage over that military and naval resources, and the deficiency which is resolved to yield, rather than carry its of skilled labor in the South, our accomplish. resistance beyond a certain point.” It is better ments have surpassed those of any people in the to be conquered by any other nation than by the annals of the world. There is no just reason for United States. It is better to be a dependency hopelessness or fear. Since the outbreak of the of any other power than of that.
war, the South has lost the nominal possession By the condition of its existence and essential of the Mississippi River and fragments of her constitution, as now governed, it must be in per- territory, but Federal occupancy is not conquest. petual hostility to us. As the Spanish invader The fires of patriotism still burn unquenchably burned his ships to make retreat impossible, so in the breasts of those who are subject to foreign we cannot afford to take steps backward. Re. domination. We yet have in our uninterrupted treat is more dangerous than advance. Behind control a territory which, according to past progus are inferiority and degradation; before us is ress, will require the enemy ten years to overevery thing enticing to a patriot.
Our bitter and implacable foes are preparing The enemy is not free from difficulties. With vigorously for the coming campaign. Corre- an enormous debt, the financial convulsion, long sponding efforts should be made on our part. postponed, is surely coming. The short crops Without murmuring, our people should respond in the United States and abundant harvest in to the laws which the exigency demands. Every Europe will hasten what was otherwise inevitaone capable of bearing arms should be connected ble. Many sagacious persons at the North diswith some effective military organization. The cover in the usurpations of their Government utmost energies of the whole population should the certain overthrow of their liberties.
A large be taxed to produce food and clothing, and a number revolt from the unjust war waged upon spirit of cheerfulness and trust in an all-wise and the South, and would gladly bring it to an end. overruling Providence should be cultivated. Others look with alarm upon the complete sub
The history of the past three years has much version of constitutional freedom by Abraham to animate us to renewed effort and a firmer and Lincoln, and feel in their own persons the bittermore assured hope. A whole people have given ness of the slavery which three years of war have their hearts and bodies to repel the invader, and failed to inflict on the South. Brave and earnest costly sacrifices have been made on the altar of men at the North have spoken out against the our country. No similar instance is to be found usurpation and cruelties daily practised. The of such spontaneous uprising and volunteering success of these men over the radical and desInspired by a holy patriotism, again and again potic faction which now rules the North, may have our brave soldiers, with the aid of Heaven, opon the way to peaceful negotiation and a ces. baffled the efforts of our foes. It is in no arro-sation of this bloody and unnecessary war. gant spirit that we refer to successes that have In conclusion, we exhort our fellow-citizens to cost u so much blood and brought sorrow to so be of good cheer, and spare no labor, nor sacrimany hearts. We may find in all this an earnest ces, that may be necessary to enable us to win of what, with determined and resolute exertion, the campaign upon which we have just entered. we can do to avert subjugation and slavery; and We have passed through great trials of affliction, we cannot fail to discern in our deliverance from but suffering and humiliation are the schoolso many and so great perils the interposition of masters that lead nations to self-reliance and inthat Being who will not forsake us in the trials dependence. These disciplinary providences but that are to come.
mature, and develop, and solidify our people. Let us, then, looking upon the bodies of our We beg that the supplies and resources of the loved and honored dead, catch inspiration from country, which are ample, may be sold to the their example, and gather renewed confidence Government to support and equip its armies. and a firmer resolve to tread, with unfaltering Let all spirit of faction and past party differences trust, the path that leads to honor and peace, be forgotten in the presence of our cruel foe. although it lead through tears, and suffering, and we should not despond. We should be selfblood.
denying We should labor to extend to the utWe have no alternative but to do our duty. most the productive resources of the country. We combat for property, homes, the honor of , We should economize. The families of soldiers our wives, the future of our children, the preser- should be cared for and liberally supplied. vation of our fair land from pollution, and to We entreat from all a generous and hearty coavert a doom which we can read both in the operation with the Government in all branches threats of our enemies and the acts of oppres- of its administration, and with the agents, civil sion we have alluded to in this address.
or military, in the performance of their duties. The situation is grave, but furnishes no just Moral aid has the "power of the incommunicaexcuse for despondence. Instead of harsh criti- i ble," and by united efforts, by an all-comprehending and self-sacrificing patriotism, we can, given to slip the chain, beat to quarters, and call with the blessing of God, avert the perils which the Captain. Just after issuing these orders, the environ us, and achieve for ourselves and child Master's Mate from the forcastle reported the ren peace and freedom. Hitherto the Lord has suspicious appearance to the officer in charge. interposed graciously to bring us victory, and in The officers and men were promptly on deck, his hand there is present power to prevent this but by this time the submarine machine was so great multitude which come against us from near us that its form and the phosphorescent casting us out of the possession which he has light produced by its motion through the water given us to inherit.
were plainly visible. At the call to quarters it T. J. Semmes, J. L. Orr, A. E. Maxwell, Com- had stopped, or nearly so, and then moved tomittee on the part of the Senate; J. W. Clapp, ward the stern of the vessel, probably to avoid Julian Hartridge, J. L. W. Curry, John Goode, our broadside guns. When the Captain reached Jr., W. N. H. Smith, Committee of House of Re- our deck, it was on the starboard quarter, and presentatives ; Thomas S. Bocock, Speaker of so near us that all attempts to train a gun on it House of Representatives; Walter Preston, John were futile. Several shots were fired into it McQueen, Charles W. Russell, W. Lander, A. H. from revolvers and rifles; it also received two Conrow, C. J. Munnerlyn, Thomas S. Ashe, 0. charges of buckshot from the Captain's gun. R. Singleton, J. L. Pugh, A. H. Arrington, Wal- The chain had been slipped and the engines had ter R. Staples, A. R. Boteler, Thomas J. Foster, just begun to move, when the crash came, throw. W. R. Smith, Robert J. Breckinridge, John M. ing timbers and splinters into the air, and apparMartin, Porter Ingram, A. A. Garland, E. S. ently blowing off the entire stern of the vessel. Dargan, D. Funsten, Thomas D. McDowell, J. This was immediately followed by a fearful rushR. McLean, R. R. Bridgers, G. W. Jones, B. S. ing of water, the rolling out of a dense, black Gaither, George W. Ewing, W. D. Holder, Dan- smoke from the stack, and the settling of the iel W. Lewis, Henry E. Read, A. J. Davidson, vessel. M. H. Macwillie, James Lyons, Caspar W. Bell, Orders were at once given to clear away the R. B. Hilton, Charles J. Villers, J. W. Moore, Lu- boats, and the men sprang to the work with a cien J. Dupre, John C. Atkins, Israel Welsh, will. But we were filling too rapidly. The ship William G. Swan, F. B. Sexton, T. L. Burnett, gave a lurch to port and all the boats on that George G. Vest, William Porcher Miles, E. Barks- side were swamped. Many men and some offidale, Charles F. Collier, P. W. Gray, W. W. cers jumped overboard and clung to such porClarke, William W. Boyce, John R. Chambliss, tions of the wreck as came within reach, while John J. McRae, John Perkins, Jr., Robert John- others sought safety in the rigging and tops. ston, James Farrow, W. D. Simpson, Lucius J. Fortunately we were in but twenty-eight feet of Gartrell, M. D. Graham, John B. Baldwin, E. M. water, and two of the boats on the starboard Bruce, Thomas B. Hanly, W. P. Chilton, A. H. side were lowered. Most of those who had Kenan, C. M. Conrad, H. M. Bruce, David Clop- jumped overboard were either picked up or ton, W. B. Machen, D. C. De Jarnette, H. C. swam back to the wreck. The two boats then Chambers.
pulled for the Canardaigua, one and a half miles distant. Assistance was promptly rendered by
that vessel to those remaining on the wreck. Doc. 84.
At muster the next morning, five of our numTHE LOSS OF THE HOUSATONIC. ber were found missing. The Captain was
thrown several feet into the air by the force of A NAVAL OFFICER'S ACCOUNT.
the explosion, and was painfully but not dangerOn the evening of February seventeenth, the ously bruised and cut. Housatonic was anchored outside the bar, two It was the opinion of all who saw the strange and a half miles from Beach Inlet battery, and craft, that it was very nearly or entirely under five miles and three fifths from the ruins of water, that there was no smoke-stack, that it was Sumter – her usual station on the blockade. from twenty to thirty feet in length, and that it There was but little wind or sea, the sky was was noiseless in its motion through the water. cloudless, and the moon shining brightly. A It was not seen after the explosion. The ship slight mist rested on the water, not sufficient, was struck on the starboard side abast the however, to prevent our discerning other vessels mizzen-mast. The force of the explosion seems on the blockade two or three miles away. The to have been mainly upward. A piece ten feet usual lookouts were stationed on the forcastle, square was blown out of her quarter-deck, all in the gangway, and on the quarter-deck. the beams and carlines being broken transverse
At about forty-five minutes past eight of the ly across. The heavy spanker-boom was broken first watch, the officer of the deck discovered, while in its thickest part, and the water for some dislooking in the direction of Beach Inlet battery, a tance was white with splinters of oak and pine. slight disturbance of the water, like that produced Probably not more than one minute elapsed by a porpoise. At that time it appeared to be from the time the torpedo was first seen, until about one hundred yards distant and a-beam. The we were struck, and not over three or four minQuartermaster examined it with his glass, and utes could have passed between the explosion pronounced it a school of fish. As it was evi- and the sinking of the ship. Had we been struck dently nearing the ship, orders were at once in any other part, or before the alarm had been