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bama infantry, wounded at Fort Pillow after ferred with General Brayman and General Veatch. surrender, gunshot wounds in hip and thigh ; A regiment was sent by General Veatch up to Jacob Thompson, waiter, company B, Eleventh Paducah. An armed despatch boat was also Illinois cavalry, wounded at Fort Pillow after sent up, with Captain Shirk on board, and Capsurrender, pistol-shots through thumb and head, tain Odlin, Assistant Adjutant-General on Genand several blows with blunt instrument (says eral Brayman's staff
, to ascertain the facts, and with a gun) on head and neck, dividing skin in render such assistance as might be needed. I several places; Henry Parker, company D, First was informed by both Captain Shirk and Captain Alabama, wounded at Fort Pillow after surren- Odlin that the gunboats there, and the fort, had der, gunshot wound in hip; Ransoin Anderson, expended a great deal of ammunition, and were company B, First Alabama artillery, wounded at getting short of it. Ammunition both for the Fort Pillow after surrender, sabre cuts on head army and navy was immediately sent up; a and hand, and gunshot wounds in shoulder and division of gunboats from the Cumberland River, chest; Mary Jane Robinson, wife of a soldier at Captain Fitch commanding, came down after Fort Pillow, wounded by a rebel after the sur-the fight, and reënforced Captain Shirk at Parender of the Fort, at a distance of ten yards, ducah. gunshot wound through both knees.
Information having reached me that the rebM. BLACK, els were crossing over into Illinois in small
Acting Assistant Surgeon U.S.A. squads, four gunboats were stationed by the two Surgeon Horace Wardner, recalled and exam-above-named naval officers between Paducah ined.
and Mound City, to prevent their crossing, and By the Chairman :
orders were given them to destroy all ferries and Question. Have you heard our examination skiffs--in fact, all means of communication across of the wounded in this hospital from Fort Pil- the Ohio River. low?
A gunboat had been stationed at Columbus, Answer. I have.
Kentucky. Hearing that the surrender of that Question. Did you have any conversation with place had been demanded, I despatched Captain them when they were first brought to the hos-Fitch with two of the Cumberland River boats, pital?
and another gunboat which was here for repairs, Answer. Yes, sir.
to Columbus, with orders if all was quiet there Question. Did the statements they made to to go down the river as far as Hickman. I inyou then correspond with their statements to structed him that the Mississippi River must be
kept clear at all hazards. After having given Answer. They did.
this order, which was in writing, the captain of a Question. Do the nature and character of their steamboat came to me and informed me that Fort injuries sustain their statements in regard to Pillow had been attacked, and that the captain their injuries ?
of the gunboat stationed there sent word that Answer. The character of the injuries of these he had expended nearly all his ammunition. I men corroborates their statements in regard to directed Captain Fitch, if he could be spared the treatment they received from the rebels.
from Columbus, to go down to Fort Pillow with
his three boats, and I immediately had placed on MOUND City, Illinois, April 23, 1864. board a despatch-boat the ammunition required Captain Alexander M. Pennock, United States for the gunboat then at Fort Pillow. And boats Navy, sworn and examined.
have since been cruising up and down the Ohio By Mr. Gooch :
River and the Mississippi River as far as Fort Question. What is your rank and position in Pillow, for the purpose of giving convoy and the navy?
keeping the river open. On the arrival of CapAnswer. I am a Captain in the United States tain Fitch near Fort Pillow, he found the enemy navy; Fleet Captain of the Mississippi squadron, in force on this side of the Fort, behind woodand commandant of the station of Cairo and piles on the bank of the river ; they were burnMound City.
ing wood and barges there. They were shelled Question. How long have you been in the na- and driven off. Captain Fitch also prevented a val service ?
detachment of rebels from crossing over to an Answer. Since the first of April, 1828. island, where a number of transports and other
Question. Will you please state what services boats had been detained, which the rebels desired have been rendered by the naval forces here in to capture or destroy. He convoyed that fleet checking and preventing the recent movements as far as Fort Pillow, clear of danger. Afterof the rebel Forrest and his command in this ward three boats were sent down to Ilickman, vicinity ?
for the purpose of giving protection to such Union Answer. Two gunboats were at Paducah at men as desired to leave and bring away their the time the attack was made upon that place; goods, and, if possible, to capture any rebels they rendered efficient service there. On receiv- that might be in the place. A detachment of ing information that Paducah had been attacked, marines accompanied this expedition. The town or that there was a probability of its being at- was surrounded twice, once by day and once by tacked, I immediately went to Cairo from Mound night; the guerrillas had been in there, and esCity, with Captain Shirk, of the navý, and con- | caped. The people of Hickman were warned
that if even a musket-shot was again fired at a Captain James W. Shirk, United States nary, transport or other boat, the place would be at sworn and examined. once destroyed. These boats have been moving By the Chairman : constantly day and night, and despatch-boats Question. What is your rank and position in have been furnished by the navy to convey de- the navy, and where are you stationed at this spatches for General Sherman and General Bray- time? man, up the Tennessee River, or wherever they Answer. I am a Lieutenant Commander, and might require. I would add that when Captain commandant of the United States gunboat TusFitch returned from Fort Pillow he brought away cumbia, and the Seventh district of the Missiswith him refugees, women, and children, who sippi squadron, which extends from the headhad been left there, and ten wounded soldiers waters of the Tennessee River to Cairo. who had been there for two days.
Question. How long have you been in service Question. What, in your opinion, would be in the West ? the competent military and naval force to protect Answer. I have been attached to this squadron the public property at Cairo and Mound City ? since the sixth of September, 1862. Answer. Two gunboats and two thousand Question. You are acquainted with the im
mense amount of public property at Mound City Question. State briefly your reason for be- and Cairo ? lieving so large a force is required for that pur- Answer. Yes, sir.
Question. Do you consider that there is perAnswer. For the reason that we have public manent force here, both naval and military, property extending along the river for seven large enough for its protection ? miles, and we should be ready for any emerg- Answer. I do not consider that there has been ency.
force enough here heretofore. Question. What amount of property would be Question. What, in your judgment, would be destroyed here, should the enemy get possession a force sufficient to render that protection and long enough to destroy it ?
security which the place ought to have? Answer. It is difficult to estimate its value Answer. I should think it would take a couple accurately. We have here a large number of of gunboats, and at least two full regiments. guns, and all the ammunition and other supplies The great danger to be apprehended here is from for the Mississippi fleet, consisting of at least fire. one hundred vessels.
Question. Will you now state what services Question. What effect would the destruction the navy has rendered in the late raids in this or capture of this property have upon operations region of country? here in the West ?
Answer. I will state in regard to my own diAnswer. It would paralyze the fleet.
vision. I returned to Paducah, from a trip up Question. For how long a time?
the Tennessee River, on the twenty-fifth of March, Answer. For the entire season, beside giving at noon. I immediately called upon Colonel the enemy means to act more on the offensive- Hicks, the commandant of that post, as was my means enough to last them for a campaign. custom, to hear what news he had. He informed
Question. Is it also true that all the army me that the rebels had taken Union City the day supplies for the Western department pass through before, and that he expected an attack there that here?
night. As I had just come down from the southAnswer. To the best of my knowledge it is. ern part of Tennessee, and had heard nothing of
Question. What force have you here at Mound Forrest there, and as I had been told so many City now?
times before without cause that the rebels were Answer. I have two gunboats, eighty-five ma- threatening to attack Paducah, I did not put rines, one hundred mechanics, who have been much contidence in the report; at the same time, armed and drilled, one company of the invalid I did not wish to leave the place unprotected by corps, and a detachment of convalescents from gunboats, and I accordingly left the Peosta and the hospital. Any other forces that may be here the Pawpaw at that place, while I came down to are merely temporary.
Cairo to communicate with Captain Pennock and Question. What force have you at Cairo ? the authorities here, in order to find out whether
Answer. Seventy-odd marines. But those we or not there was any truth in the report. I left have only to protect the wharf-boat and the in- Paducah about one o'clock and arrived here about spection-boat, which have on board provisions, dark. Shortly after I arrived here the telegraphic ship chandlery, etc. Admiral Porter has ordered operator at Metropolis telegraphed down that Pame to move them up to this point whenever I ducah was in flames. Captain Pennock and I can do so without detriment to the public service. went down to Cairo to see Generals Brayman I understand that there is a permanent garrison and Veatch. General Veatch ordered a regiment at Cairo of between three hundred and four hun- of his troops up to Paducah to reënforce Colonel dred men. When General Brayman was com-Hicks, and I immediately started up in the des. pelled to reënforce Columbus, he was compelled patch boat Volunteer with Captain Odlin, Generto take away from there all except about one al Brayman's Assistant Adjutant-General. On hundred and fifty men.
our way up we destroyed several ferry-boats and skiffs, in order to prevent the rebels crossing the ing in a flag of truce to Colonel Hicks, giving him river. We arrived at Paducah about daylight one hour to remove the women and children from on the twenty-sixth of March. The enemy was the town. I immediately ordered all the transports in force about two miles and a half from town. I to the Illinois shore, and took the women and childIt was reported to me by my subordinate officers ren over there. When the hour was up I was inthat the enemy had attacked the place about formed that the rebels were in Jersey, a suburb of three o'clock in the evening of the day before; the town, and Colonel Hicks wished me to go up that the Fort had been bravely defended and pre- there and shell them. I did so, with two gunboats, served by the gallantry of Colonel Hicks and his carrying long-range rifled guns, firing about one small garrison, assisted very materially by the hundred and twenty rounds of shell, which fell two gunboats which I had left there; that For- in among them. The rebels retired, and encamprest had occupied the town; that about ten ed from three to six miles out of town that night. o'clock that night he had been driven out by the When the flag of truce was sent in to the Fort, fire of the Peosta, she having gone up and shelled squads of rebel cavalry came into town and stole the town for that purpose. I placed myself in all the Government horses there, and also a great communication with Colonel Hicks on the morn- many belonging to private citizens. ing of the twenty-sixth, and found that he was Question. Under the flag of truce ? short of ammunition, as were also the gunboats. Answer. Yes, sir; as the flag of truce came in I immediately telegraphed to Captain Pennock to and went to the Fort they came into the town. send up a full supply of ammunition for the two Question. Is not that a direct and utter violagunboats, and thirty thousand rounds of Enfield tion of the rules of warfare ? cartridges for Colonel Hicks. The supplies were Answer. It is a direct violation of the flag of sent up by him immediately, and reached us that truce. I have had three or four boats up the evening. In the afternoon, about three o'clock, Tennessee River all the time. There are three up Colonel Hicks sent me a message that the enemy there now, one having come out the day before were forming in line of battle at the head of Jer- yesterday. There were two to have started this sey street, and requested me to open upon them morning at daylight, and I received a despatch with shell. I fired shell in that direction, and this forenoon, saying that the enemy were reabout four o'clock the enemy left in the direction ported to be crossing the Tennessee River at Birof Mayfield. The captains of the Peosta and the mingham and above, in force, from the west to Pawpaw both informed me that the day before the east side. I immediately telegraphed to Pathe rebels took advantage of the presence of wo-ducah and had two heavy gunboats go up to asmen there, behind whom they covered themselves certain the truth of the report. I do not credit and fired at the officers and men on the gunboats, the story, but I have done all I possibly could The women came running down toward the Fort. do, with the limited number of boats at my comand the rebels got behind them and fired at our mand. people on the boats.
Question. How long have you been in the Question. And the boats could not fire upon navy ? the rebels without killing the women ?
Answer. Fifteen years. Answer. No, sir. And the rebels also took Question. You are acquainted with the adminadvantage of a flag of truce, while it was flying, istration of Captain Pennock, of the navy, here? to enter the town and plant their batteries there, Answer. Yes, sir. and to get into brick houses on the levee, from Question. What do you say of it? which to fire on the gunboats, while the flag of Answer. I do not think any one could have truce was flying at the Fort. I returned that done more than Captain Pennock has done, with night at midnight to Cairo, and assisted Captain the means at his command. Pennock as much as I could in making prepara- Question. Why is it that we do not hear more tions to take care of the public property, as I of the transactions of the gunboats out here, knew that some few stragglers had crossed the while we hear so much of what the army does ? Ohio above, and we were fearful they would Answer. One reason is that there is a general come down and burn the public property here. order by Admiral Porter, prohibiting any newsAgain, on the twelfth of this month, I was at paper reporter from going on board any vessel in Paducah. The rebels were reported in force all the Mississippi squadron. around the town. I telegraphed to Captain Pen- Question. Is there a cordial understanding and nock, giving him that information, and also that coöperation between the navy here and the miliin my opinion Colonel Hicks ought to be reën- tary forces under General Brayman ? forced. Another regiment was immediately sent Answer, I think there is to a very great deup by General Brayman, and Lieutenant Com- gree. I never saw more cordiality existing bemander Fitch, commanding the Eighth district of tween officers of the different services. I would the Mississippi squadron, by direction of Captain like to say further, that during this late raid I Pennock, sent four of his gunboats to report to convoyed General Veatch's division up the Tenme for duty. I made disposition of four gun- nessee River. It was ordered up there by Genboats, each with ten marines on board, to patrol eral Sherman to land at or near Savannah, and between Paducah and Mound City. The enemy go out to Purdy and the Hatchie, in that way inhovered around us until about noon of the four- tending to catch Forrest. I afterward sent up teenth, when they made a dash upon the town, send-1 another despatch of the same purport, from Gen
eral Sherman to General Veatch, which reached what) retreated and fell back to Memphis. The him at the landing near Purdy. I sent up a third effect of a retreat, at the rate at which they redespatch to him, which was brought here by treated, and the loss they met with, and the reGeneral Corse from General Sherman. That treating before an inferior force, demoralized the despatch never reached General Veatch for the cavalry very seriously. I returned to Memphis reason that he had come back from Purdy, gone about the Three Points, marched, and found that on up the Tennessee and disembarked his troops Forrest was organizing a very considerable force, at Waterloo, Alabama, and was out of reach of so far as I could find out, with the intention of my gunboats.
moving up to West-Tennessee. I had orders Captain Smith, commanding the Peosta, broke from the War Department to send home all the up a rebel recruiting office at Brooklyn, Illinois, veteran regiments (cavalry especially) as rapidly a week ago last Sunday. The recruiting office as possible. I took an inventory of my force, was on board a trading vessel. He destroyed and found that I had about six thousand cavalry the boat, but saved seven new rebel uniforms to two thousand two hundred horses, which limthat were on it. He could not discover the re-ited the efficiency of the cavalry. I furloughed and cruiting agent there, there being so many secesh sent home the Third Michigan, Second Iowa, Third, sympathizers around there.
Sixth, Seventh, and Ninth Illinois, and distributed Question. In your opinion, has General Bray- their horses among the men that were left, so man acted with vigilance and activity, and done as to keep men enough always, and more, to mount all he could with the forces instrusted to him, with horses. Forrest moved up, and crossed the during these raids ?
line of the Charleston and Memphis Railroad, toAnswer. So far as I know, he has done all he ward Jackson, Tennessee, and occupied it. could do.
General Grierson was directed by me to go out CAIRO, ILLINOIS, April 24, 1861. with his cavalry, feel him, attack him, and cripMajor-General Steven A. Hurlbut, sworn and ple him as much as possible. He went out, and examined.
reported that he was a little too strong for him, By the Chairman:
and he could not touch him.” My effective force Question. What is your rank and position in at Memphis consisted of two thousand two hunthe army?
dred cavalry, two thousand one hundred white Answer. I am a Major-General of volunteers, infantry, and two thousand four hundred colored commanding the Sixteenth army corps.
infantry. I had the choice to move out a force Question. Where have you been stationed ? sufliciently strong to attack Forrest and leave
Answer. I have been stationed at Memphis for Memphis open, with its immense amount of govthe last sixteen months.
ernment stores, ordnance, hospitals, and every Question. How long have you been stationed thing of that nature. I became satisfied that if along the river ?
I moved out four thousand men, (which was the Answer. Ever since the battle of Shiloh. I lowest I considered safe to send out,) and they have commanded at Bolivar and Jackson, Ten- should move out fifty or sixty miles into the nessee, until about the twentieth of November, country, the enemy, being all mounted, would 1862, when I was ordered to Memphis.
turn that force and come in and occupy Memphis, Question. Now, with regard to this raid of which I considered would be a greater disaster Forrest, was that raid made in your department ? than to allow Forrest to range in West-Tennessee. Answer. Yes, sir.
I therefore did not send them out, but I kept the Question. Please give us, in your own way, a cavalry out as far we could go, or dared go. It was brief account of that raid ?
not possible to divine precisely what Forrest's inAnswer. Forrest first crossed the Memphis and tentions were. My own opinion was, that it was Charleston Railroad last December. I organized his intention to organize a force, cross the Tena force in Columbus, and moved it down and nessee River, and operate upon General Sherdrove him out. General Sherman then ordered man's line of communication. I was at Cairo at all the available troops in my command to be got the time Union City was attacked. Four regitogether-leaving very small garrisons at the im- ments and a battery of one of my divisions, portant points—for the Meridian expedition. I which were ordered up the Tennessee River, were marched and crossed there, and marched back here also. I directed General Brayman to take again. Two divisions of my command were then them and throw them up to Columbus in rear of detailed to go up Red River, under General Banks. Forrest when he was at Paducah, but they were As an auxiliary to the infantry movement to peremptorily ordered up the Tennessee River. Meridian, General W. S. Smith came to Memphis Question. Ordered up by General Sherman ? and took command of all my cavalry and another Answer. Yes, sir. The result was, that there brigade which he brought over, all amounting to was not force enough, in my opinion, in the comabout seven thousand effective men, to move mand on the Mississippi River, from Paducah to across the country, drive the enemy's force out, Memphis, to operate upon Forrest with any proscut his way across to Columbus and Aberdeen, pect of success. and to go down to the Mobile and Ohio Railroad, Question. What was the estimated strength of and join us at Meridian. lle failed to make that Forrest's forces ? unction; was met by Forrest about West-Point, Answer. Forrest's entire force, according to and for some reason or other (I do not know the best of my information, was between cight thousand and nine thousand men altogether. any navy officer or river man will tell you that That includes this division of Buford's that oper- the situation of the channel there requires it. ated up here. I have somewhere among my Question. I am not questioning that at all. I papers a list of all his brigades. I know nearly merely inquired as to the fact. all of them. I have run against nearly all of Answer. I sent Major Booth there because ] them. He had five of the oldest regiments in ad great confidence in him as a soldier. Ile was the confederate service detailed expressly for this an old soldier who had served in the regular arpurpose as a nucleus of his organization. These my, and I considered him the best man I had for were troops that had seen a great deal of service that purpose. I received a report from him “that along the line below Memphis-Chalmers's bri- he could hold that post against any force for gade, Ely's brigade, Bell's brigade, and McCul- forty-eight hours," which was all I expected him lough's. I cannot estimate Forrest's force at less to do, and if he had not been killed i think he than between eight thousand and nine thousand would have held it. I have no doubt that his men. The cause of this raid, unquestionably, death was the immediate cause of the capture of was the fact that so large an amount of troops the place. which had been holding this region of country Question. Just in this connection, please to had been removed a portion of them up the state why you deemed it important to keep up a Tennessee River to Decatur, and a portion up the garrison at that place? Red River-also the fact that he knew perfectly Answer. The steamboat channel at Fort Pillow well, from his spies at Memphis, the condition of runs right under the bluff, and brings every boat our cavalry. Memphis, from the nature of the as it passes within musket-shot of the shore, and ground there, is a place that requires not less a couple of guns mounted up above there would than five thousand men to garrison the outer line. stop most effectually the navigation of the river, It is the worst place to cover that I ever saw. and drive away any of the tin-clad gunboats we We have a fort there that was built that would have, for a plunging fire would go right through take seven thousand men as a reasonable amount them, and they could not get elevation enough to to line the parapets.
We have immense stores strike. The whole life of the army below, espethere, for from Memphis not only the Sixteenth cially while these large movements were going on, and Seventeenth army corps are supplied, but depended upon an uninterrupted communication General Steele's army at Little Rock are supplied by the river, and the stopping that communicafrom there also. We have large hospitals there, tion for two or three days might deprive us of scattered all over the city. We have an unsteady necessary supplies just at the moment that they and unreliable population; and the daily interior were required. These were my reasons for holdguard duty, for the city proper, requires over ing the place. three hundred men. I considered then, and I Question. What information have you in regard consider now, that the removal of any force com- to the attack upon Fort Pillow ; its capture, and quetent to make any serious impression upon For- the barbarities practised there? rest would have imperilled Memphis; and I Answer. I am not positive about dates, but my believe that was what General Forrest wanted recollection is that Fort Pillow was attacked on done.
the twelfth of April. Just about dusk of the Question. How large a force did you retain twelfth a boat came down to Memphis from Fort there for the safety of that place ?
Pillow, bringing information that the place was Answer. I retained the infantry-four thousand attacked, but that Major Booth was perfectly con
I kept the cavalry out all the time as far fident of being able to hold out until he could be as they could go.
reënforced. I immediately ordered a regiment Question. How came you to rcöccupy Fort Pil- to be got ready, with four days' rations and an low? Tad it been abandoned ?
extra supply of ammunition; took the steamer Answer. No, sir. When I moved to Meridian, Glendale, dropped her down to Fort Pickering, the Fifty-second Indiana regiment, which had and the regiment was in the very act of going on been there, was withdrawn, and made a part board when another boat came down with the of the expedition, and the Thirteenth Ten- information that the Fort was captured. The nessee cavalry, which was recruiting, was moved order to move up the regiment was countermanddown there as a recruiting point. I afterward ed, for there was no use in sending it then. There reenforced it by sending up Major Booth with were at Fort Pillow two ten-pound Parrotts, two four companies of colored heavy artillery and six-pounder field guns, and two twelve-pounder six guns, and a section of light artillery, making howitzers, and about six hundred men. I canin all about six hundred men.
not tell precisely the number of the Thirteenth Question. Do I understand you to say that the Tennessee cavalry, for it was a recruiting regipost had never been entirely abandoned ? ment, and filling off and on. If the men had
Answer. No, sir. When the Fifty-second In- been left in the position in which they had been diana was taken away it was temporarily aban- placed by Major Booth, and from which position doned until the Thirteenth Tennessee came down he had already repelled an assault of the enemy, to hold it as a recruiting point. I considered I think they would have been able to have held Fort Pillow as a place which ought to be held the Fort until reënforced. I believe that the with a small garrison, and I think so yet, and ground there is so strong that six hundred men