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1 consideration of the commanding officer of the watch, nor in the desperate assault, have you rendistrict, in order that he may receive the pro- dered a service so decisive in results as in the last motion due him for his gallant services during display of the highest qualities of devotion and this action.
self-sacrifice which can adorn the character of the I am, Captain, very respectfully, your obe- warrior-patriot. Already the pulse of the whole dient servant,
Joux W. STEPHENS, people beats in unison with yours; already they Lieut.-Colonel Eleventh Cavalry, Commanding Detachment.
compare your spontaneous and unanimous offer Captain H. C. FILLEBROWN,
of your lives for the defence of your country with Assistant Adjutant-General, Batesville, Arkansas.
the halting and reluctant service of the mercenaries who are purchased by the enemy at the price of higher bounties than have hitherto been
known in war. Doc. 80.
Animated by this contrast, they exhibit cheerPROCLAMATION OF JEFFERSON DAVIS the murmurs of the weak and timid, who shrink
ful confidence and more resolute bearing. Even TO THE REBEL ARMIES, FEB. 9, 1864.
from the trials which make stronger and firmer
your noble natures, are shamed into silence by Soldiers of the Armies of the Confederate States : the spectacle which you present. Your brave
In the long and bloody war in which your battle-cry will ring loud and clear through the country is engaged, you have achieved many land of the enemy's as well as our own, will noble triumphs. You have won glorious victo- silence the vainglorious boastings of their corrupt ries over vastly more numerous hosts. You have partisans and pensioned press, and will do justcheerfully borne privations and toil to which you ice to the calumny by which they seek to perwere unused. You have readily submitted to suade a deluded people that you are ready to purrestraints upon your individual will, that the chase dishonorable safety by degrading submis-, citizen might better perforin his duty to the State sion. as a soldier. To all these you have lately added Soldiers : The coming spring campaign will another triumph-the noblest of human con- open under auspices well calculated to sustain quests—a victory over yourselves. As the time your hopes. Your resolution needed nothing to drew near, when you, who first entered the service, fortify it. With ranks replenished under the might well have been expected to claim relief influence of your example, and by the aid of refrom your arduous labors and restoration to the presentatives who give earnest of their purpose endearments of home, you have heeded only the to add by legislation largely to your strength, you call of your suffering country. Again you come may welcome the invader with a confidence justito tender your service for the public defence—a "fied by the memory of past victories. On the free offering, which only such patriotism as yours other hand, debt, taxation, repetition of heavy could make- -a triumph worthy of you and of the drafts, dissensions occasioned by the strise for cause to which you are devoted.
power, by the pursuit of the spoils of office, by I would in vain attempt adequately to express the thirst for the plunder of the public treasury, the emotions with which I received the testimo- and, above all, the consciousness of a bad cause, nials of confidence and regard which you have re- must tell with fearful force upon the overstrained cently addressed to me. To soine of those first energies of the enemy. His campaign of 1864 received separate acknowledgments were return must, from the exhaustion of his resources of ed; but it is now apparent that a like generous men and money, be far less formidable than those enthusiasm pervades the whole army, and that of the last two years, when unimpaired means the only exception to such magnanimous tender were used with boundless prodigality, and with will be of those, who, having originally entered results which are suggested by the inention of for the war, cannot display anew their zeal in the the names of Shiloh, Perryville, Murfreesboro, public service. It is therefore deemed appropriate, and the Chickahominy, Manassas, Fredericks. and it is hoped will be equally acceptable, to burgh, and Chancellorsville. make a general acknowledgment, instead of suc- Soldiers : Assured success awaits us in our cessive special responses.
Would that it were holy struggle for liberty and independence, and possible to render my thanks to you in person, for the preservation of all that renders life desirand, in the name of our common country, as well able to honorable men; when that success shall as in my own, while pressing the hand of each be reached, to you, your country's hope and pride, war-worn veteran, to recognize his title to our under Divine Providence, will it be due. The love, gratitude, and admiration.
fruits of that success will not be reaped by you Soldiers: By your will—for you and the peo- alone, but your children and your children's child ple are but one I have been placed in a position ren in long generations to come will enjoy the which debars me from sharing your dangers, your blessings derived from you, that will preserve sufferings, and your privations in the field. With your memory ever living in their hearts. pride and affection my heart has accompanied you Citizen-defenders of the homes, the liberties, in every march ; with solicitude it has sought to and altars of the Confederacy: That the God minister to your every want; with exultation it whom we all humbly worship, may shield you has marked your every heroic achievement; yet with his fatherly care, and preserve you for safe never, in the toilsome march, nor in the wearyl return to the peaceful enjoyment of your friends
and the associations of those you most love, is ditions as he should prescribe, from the penalty the earnest prayer of your Commander-in-Chief, of loss of their property by confiscation.
JEFFERSON DAVIS. Although the proceedings for confiscation under
the acts of August sixth, 1861, and July seven
teenth, 1862, are in rem, against the property Doc. 81.
seized, yet, under both acts, the ground of con
demnation is the personal guilt of the owner, in THE AMNESTY PROCLAMATION. aiding the rebellion. By the pardon and am
nesty, not only is the punishment of that perThe following is a circular letter of the Law sonal guilt remitted, but the offence itself is efDepartment of the Administration to the District faced, that being the special effect of an act of Attorneys of the United States, explaining the amnesty by the Government. Of course, it arprovisions of the President's proclamation of am- rests and puts an end to all penal proceedings nesty :
founded thereon, whether they touch the persons WASHINGTON, February 19, 1864.
There is, therefore, no case of judicial proceedSir: Many persons against whom criminal in- ings to enforce the penalties of acts of rebellion dictments, or against whose property proceedings which cannot be reached and cured by the conunder the confiscation laws are pending in the stitutional or statutory power of the President to courts of the United States, growing out of the grant pardon and amnesty, whether the proceedparticipation of such persons in the existing reings be against the person of the offender by bellion, have, in good faith, taken the oath pre- criminal indictment or against his property under scribed by the proclamation of the President of the confiscation act referred to. eighth December, 1863, and have therefore en- The President has accordingly directed me to titled themselves to full pardon and restoration instruct you that, in any case where proceedings of all rights of property, except as to slaves and have been commenced and are pending and unwhere rights of third parties have intervened, determined in the District or Circuit Court of the which that proclamation offers and secures. United States for your district, against a person
The President's pardon of a person guilty of charged with acts of rebellion, and not of the exacts of rebellion, will, of course, relieve that per- cepted class, whether they be by indictment or son from the penalties incurred by his crime, and, by seizure and libel of his property for confiscawhere an indictment is pending against him tion, (the rights of other parties not having intertherefor, the production of the pardon signed by vened.) you will discontinue and put an end to the President, or of satisfactory evidence that he those proceedings, whenever the person so charg. has complied with the conditions on which the ed shall produce evidence satisfactory to you that pardon is offered, (if he be not of the class ex- he has, in good faith, taken the oath and comcepted from the benefits of the proclamation)plied with the conditions prescribed by the Prewill be a sufficient reason for discontinuing such sident's proclamation of eighth December, 1863. criminal proceedings, and discharging him from Nor is it necessary that the evidence which he custody therein.
produces should be a deed of pardon, signed by Nor is it less doubtful that a bona fide accept- the President. It would be quite impossible for ance of the terms of the President's proclamation the President to furnish the multitudes who are by persons guilty of acts of rebellion, and not of now availing themselves of the benefits of the the excepted class, will secure to such persons a proclamation, and who are likely to do so hererestoration of all rights of property, except as to after, with this formal evidence of pardon. It slaves and where the rights of third parties shall will be sufficient to justify your action, if the bave intervened, notwithstanding such property party seeking to be relieved from further proceedmay, by reason of those acts of rebellion, have ings, shall prove to your full satisfaction that he been subject to confiscation under the provisions has, in good faith, taken the oath, and brought of the confiscation acts of sixth of August, 1861, himself within the conditions of pardon and amchapter 60, and seventeenth July, 1862, chapter nesty set forth in the proclamation. If, in any 195. For, without adverting to any other source case, you have good reason to believe that the of power in the President to restore or protect oath has been taken for the mere purpose of obtheir rights of property, the thirteenth section of taining the possession of personal property seized the act of seventeenth July, 1862, authorizes the under the confiscation acts, with intent to rePresident at any time thereafter, by proclamation, move it from the subsequent reach of the officers to extend to persons who may have participated of the law, you will make report of the facts and in the existing rebellion in any State or part reasons for your belief to this office before disthereof, pardon and amnesty, with such excep. continuing the proceedings or restoring such protions, and at such time and on such conditions, as perty to the possession of the owner. he
inay deem expedient for the public welfare. Forfeitures under the fisth section of the act of It will hardly be questioned, I suppose, that the thirteenth July, 1861, chapter 3, are not of the purpose of this section, inserted in a law mainly class reached by the President's proclamation; intended to reach the property of persons engag. for, under that act, the question whether the proed in rebellion, was to vest the President with perty seized is subject to forfeiture depends upon full power to relieve such persons, on such con-l the predicament of the property itself, and not
upon the personal guilt or innocence of its owner. works being abandoned on the appearance of our In this respect, forfeitures under that act have men. Messrs. Russell's and Edson's parties joined more resemblance to cases of prize of war cap- at the appointed time, and immediately proceedtured at sca as enemy's property, than to proceed. ed in the destruction of every thing connected ings under the acts of August
, 1861, and July, with the manufactories, consisting of twenty-six 1862. Such forfeitures are enforced, not so much sheet-iron boilers, averaging eight hundred and to punish the owner for disloyal acts, as to pro- eighty-one gallons; nineteen kettles, averaging hibit commercial intercourse, and to weaken the two hundred gallons, making an aggregate of public enemy, which are always efficient instru- twenty thousand seven hundred and six gallons, ments and legitimate effects of public war. But which cost in Montgomery five dollars and fifty although the remissions of forfeitures under the cents per gallon. These boilers and kettles were act of July, 1861, are thus not within the scope cut up or broken to pieces. Some six hundred of the proclamation of pardon, still ample power bushels of salt were thrown into the bay, all the is conferred on the Secretary of the Treasury by chimneys and furnaces hauled down, and every the eighth section of that act to mitigate or remit thing rendered completely useless for any further all forfeitures and penalties incurred under the operations. act. And it is not to be doubted that in all pro
Seven slaves Aed to us for protection, and asper cases under that act, where the owner of the sisted in the destruction of this establishment, property, residing in the territory in rebellion, which had only been in operation ten days. complies with the conditions of the proclamation, This work covered a space of half a square mile, that the Secretary of the Treasury will exercise the boilers and kettles alone costing one hunthe power of remission of such forfeitures in the dred and forty-six thousand eight hundred and same spirit of generous forbearance and liberality cighty-three dollars. Our party returned to the which inspires and characterizes the proclamation. ship next day, bringing seven contrabands and Very respectfully, etc.,
six shot-guns. You will please find inclosed a TITIAN J. Coffey, drawing of the boilers and kettles. Acting Attorney-General. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. R. BROWNE,
Acting Master Commanding. Doc. 82.
To Acting Rear-Admiral THEODORUS Bailey,
Commanding E. G. B. Squadron.
UNITED STATES BARK RESTLESS, ST. ANDREW'S
BAY, February 29, 1564.
Sır: I have the honor to make the following }
report: Hon. Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy: Having gained information that a large barge
Sir: I have the honor to inclose herewith the would leave the Welappo River on or about the reports of acting volunteer Lieutenant W. R. eighteenth instant, for East-Bay, with all the Browne, giving the details of two expeditions materials on board necessary for erecting a large lately sent out from the United States bark salt-work, and, on her return, intended to bring Restless, to destroy certain newly-erected salt- back a cargo of salt, (her capacity one thousand works, the property, as he states, of the rebel five hundred bushels,) I fitted out the second government. The object of the expedition was, cutter, with eleven men, under charge of Actingin each instance, successfully accomplished. Ensign Henry Edson, and gig, with seven men,
I am, very respectfully, your obedient serv- under charge of Master's Mate F. Grant, to effect ant,
T. BAILEY, her capture on her passage down, and with orA. R. Admiral, Commanding E. G. B. Squadron. ders, if after waiting five days and not seeing the UNITED STATES BARK RESTLESS, ST. ANDREW'S barge, to land and destroy all the salt-works in BAY, FLORIDA, February 17, 1864,
the vicinity. Sir: I have the honor to make the following According to my instructions, the boats lest report:
the ship at eight P. M. on the seventeenth instant, Learning that the rebels had erected new gov- and proceeded to a bayou on the south-west side ernment salt-works, on West-Bay, on the site of of East-Bay, selected as a place of ambush, and the old salt-works destroyed by us in December, which the barge must necessarily pass. After and that they had a force of fifty men armed and lying in wait the appointed time, and seeing no stationed there for protection, I fitted out the appearance of the barge, the men were landed, first cutter, manned with thirteen men, under and destroyed all the works at hand, sixteen in charge of Acting Ensign James J. Russell, with number, among which were some of the largest orders to proceed up the Gulf coast twenty miles, government salt-works ever erected in Florida, and march inland seven miles, to attack them in the whole of which were succe
ccessfully destroyed, the rear, while Acting Ensign Henry Edson, with consisting of five large steamboat-boilers and ten men, in command of the second cutter, would twenty-eight kettles, together with sixteen log proceed by the inside passage and attack them in houses, one flatboat, a large quantity of salt, vats, the front at the same tiine.
tanks, and other materials connected with the The expedition was entirely successful, the manufacture of this article. After destroying
TO THE PEOPLE OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES.
the above, they returned to the ship, bringing tion. Its early life was attended by no anarchy, with them a contraband found at this place. no rebellion, no suspension of authority, no soVery respectfully, your obedient servant, cial disorders, no lawless disturbances. Sove
W. R. BROWNE, reignty was not for one moment in abeyance.
Acting Master Commanding. The utmost conservatism marked every proceed. To Acting Rear-Admiral THEODORUS BAILEY, ing and public act. The object was “to do what Commanding E. G. B. Squadron, Key West, Fla.
was necessary, and no more; and to do that with the utmost temperance and prudence.” St. Just,
in his report to the Convention of France, 1793, Doc. 83.
said: “A people has but one dangerous cnemy,
and that is government.” We adopted no such ADDRESS OF THE REBEL CONGRESS
In nearly every instance, the first steps were
taken legally, in accordance with the will and
February 26, 1864. prescribed direction of the constituted authorities In closing the labors of the first permanent of the seceding States. We were not remitted to Congress, your representatives deem it a fit occa- brute force or natural law, or the instincts of sion to give some account of their stewardship; reason. The charters of freedom were scruputo review briefly what, under such embarrass-lously preserved. As in the English Revolution ments and adverse circumstances, has been ac- of 1688, and ours of 1776, there was no material complished; to invite attention to the prospect alteration in the laws beyond what was necesbefore us, and the duties incumbent on every citi- sary to redress the abuses that provoked the zen in this crisis; and to address such words of struggle. No attempt was made to build on counsel and encouragement as the times demand, speculative principles. The effort was confined
Compelled by a long series of oppressive and within the narrowest limits of historical and contyrannical acts, culminating at last in the selec- stitutional right. The controversy turned on the tion of a President and Vice-President by a party records and muniments of the past. We merely confessedly sectional and hostile to the South resisted innovation and tyranny, and contended and her institutions, these States withdrew from for our birth-rights and the covenanted princithe former Union, and formed a new confederate ples of our race. We have had our Governors, alliance, as an independent government, based General Assemblies, and Courts; the same eleeton the proper relations of labor and capital. ors, the same corporations, “the same rules for
This step was taken reluctantly, by constraint, property, the same subordinations, the same and after the exhaustion of every measure that order in the law and the magistracy.' When was likely to secure us from interference with the sovereign States met in council, they, in our property, equality in the Union, or exemp- truth and substance, and in a constitutional tion from submission to an alien government. light, did not make but prevented a revolution. The Southern States claimed only the unrestrict- Commencing our new national life under such ed enjoyment of the rights guaranteed by the circuinstances, we had a right to expect that we Constitution. Finding, by painful and protracted would be permitted, without molestation, to culexperien that this was persistently denied, we tivate the arts of peace and vindicate o determined to separate from those enemies, who chosen arena and with the selected type of social had manifested the inclination and ability to im- characteristics, our claims to civilization. It was poverish and destroy us—we fell back upon the thought, too, by many, that war would not be rights for which the colonies maintained the war resorted to by an enlightened country, except on of the Revolution, and which our heroic fore the direst necessity. That a people, professing fathers asserted to be clear and inalienable. The to be animated by Christian sentiment, and unanimity and zeal with which the separation who had regarded our peculiar institution as a was undertaken and perfected, finds no parallel blot and blur upon the fair escutcheon of their in history. The people rose en masse to assert common Christianity, should make war upon the their liberties and to protect their menaced South for doing what they had a perfect right to rigbts. There never was before such universality do, and for relieving them of the incubus which, of conviction, among any people, on any question they professed, rested upon them by the associainvolving so serious and so thorough a change of tion, was deemed almost beyond belief by many political and international relations.
of our wisest minds. It was hoped, too, that the This grew out of the clearness of the right so obvious interest of the two sections would reto act, and the certainty of the perils of farther strain the wild frenzy of excitement and tur! association with the North. The change was so into peaceful channels the thoughts of those who wonderful, so rapid, so contrary to universal his-had but recently been invested with power in tory, that many fail to see that all has been done the United States. in the logical sequence of principles, which are These reasonable anticipations were doomed to the highest testimony to the wisdom of our disappointment. The red glare of battle, kindled fathers, and the best illustration of the correct at Sumter, dissipated all hopes of peace, and the ness of those principles. This Government is a two governments were arrayed in hostility against child of law instead of sedition, of right instead each other. We charge the responsibility of this of violence, of deliberation instead of insurrec- war on the United States. They are accountable
VOL. VIII.-Doc. 25
for the blood and havoc and ruin it has caused. and classes contributed to the swelling numbers. For such a war we were not prepared. The dif- Abandoning luxuries and comforts to which they ference in military resources between our ene had been accustomed, they submitted cheerfully mies and ourselves; the immense advantages to the scanty fare and exactive service of the possessed in the organized machinery of an es- camps. Their services above price, the only retablished government; a powerful navy; the muneration they have sought is the protection of nucleus of an arıny ; credit abroad, and illimit their altars, firesides, and liberty. In the Vorable facilities in mechanical and manufacturing wegian wars, the actors were, every one of them, power, placed them on “the vantage-ground.” named and patronymically described as the king's
In our infancy we were without a seaman or friend and companion. The same wonderful insoldier, without revenue, without gold and sil- dividuality has been seen in this war. Our solver, without a recognized place in the family of diers are not a consolidated mass, an unthinking nations, without external commerce, without for- machine, but an army of intelligent units. eign credit, with the prejudices of the world To designate all who have distinguished themagainst us. While we were without manufac- selves by special valor, would be to enumerate turing facilities to supply our wants, our ports nearly all in the army. The generous rivalry bewere blockaded; we had to grapple with a giant tween the troops from different States has preadversary, defend two thousand miles of sea- vented any special preëminence, and, hereafter, coast and an inland frontier of equal extent. If for centuries to come, the gallant bearing and we had succeeded in preventing any successes on unconquerable devotion of confederate soldiers the part of our enemy, it would have been a mir- will inspire the hearts, and encourage the hopes, acle. What we have accomplished, with a popu- and strengthen the faith of all who labor to oblation so inferior in numbers, and means so vastly tain their freedom. disproportionate, has excited the astonishment For three years this cruel war has been waged and admiration of the world.
against us, and its continuance has been seized The war in which we are engaged was wick- upon as a pretext by some discontented persons edly, and against all our protests, and the most to excite hostility to the government. Recent earnest efforts to the contrary, forced upon us. and public as have been the occurrences, it is South-Carolina sent a commission to Washing- strange that a misapprehension exists as to the ton to adjust all questions of spute between her conduct of the two governments in reference to and the United States. One of the first acts of peace. the provisional government was to accredít agents Allusion has been made to the unsuccessful to visit Washington, and use all honorable means efforts, when separation took place, to procure to obtain a satisfactory settlement of all questions an amicable adjustment of all matters in dispute. of dispute with that Government. Both efforts These attempts at negotiation do not comprise all failed. Commissioners were deceived and reject that has been done. In every form in which exed, and clandestine but vigorous preparations pression could be given to the sentiment–in pubwere made for war. In proportion to our perse- lic meetings, through the press, by legislative verance and anxiety, have been the obstinacy and resolves—the desire of this people for peace, for arrogance in spurning offers of peace. It seems the uninterrupted enjoyment of their rights and we can be indebted for nothing to the virtues of prosperity, has been made known. The Presiour enemies. We are obliged to his vices, which dent, more authoritatively, in several of his mes. have inured to our strength. We owe as much sages, while protesting the utter absence of all to his insolence and blindness as to our precau- desire to interfere with the United States, or action.
quire any of their territory, has avowed that the The wager of battle having been tendered, it advent of peace will be hailed with joy. Our was accepted. The alacrity with which our peo- desire for it has never been concealed. Our efple flew to arms is worthy of all praise. Their forts to avoid the war, forced on us as it was by deeds of heroic daring, patient endurance, ready the lust of conquest and the insane passions of submission to discipline, and numerous victories, our foes, are known to mankind” are in keeping with the fervent patriotism that The course of the Federal Government has prompted their early volunteering. Quite recent- proved that it did not desire peace, and would Îy scores of regiments have reënlisted for the war, not consent to it on any terms that we could postestifying their determination to fight until their sibly concede. In proof of this, we refer to the liberties were achieved. Coupled with and con- repeated rejection of all terms of conciliation and tributing greatly to the enthusiastic ardor, was compromise, to their recent contemptuous refusal the lofty courage, the indomitable resolve, the to receive the Vice-President, who was sent to self-denying spirit of our noble women, who, by negotiate for softening the asperities of war, an! their labors of love, their patience of hope, their their scornful rejection of the offer of a neutral unflinching constancy, their uncomplaining sub power to mediate between the contending parties. mission to the privations of the war, have shed an | if cumulative evidence be needed, it can be found immortal lustre upon their sex and country. in the following resolution, recently adopted by
Our army is no hireling soldiery. It comes the House of Representatives in Washington: not from paupers, criminals, or emigrants. It "Resolved, That as our country and the very was originally raised by the free, unconstrained, existence of the best Government ever institutunpurchasable assent of the men. All vocations led by man are imperilled by the most causeless