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responsible for the same, and without whose per- ana, is the town of Vidalia, where a force of mission no person shall be permitted to go into men, under command of Colonel B. G. Far: the hold, and who shall also, at all times when rar, Second Mississippi artillery of A. D. is stathe liold is open, place an extra watch therein. tioned. On the evening of the fifth, the Colonel
3d. That every boat shall keep at least one received reliable information that a large force barrel of water on each fore and each after-guard, of the enemy from Harrisonburgh, distant thirtyand four barrels on the hurricane-deck; also five miles, was advancing to attack him. They three dozen buckets; and shall keep its hose con- were then reported at Crosse Bayou, seventeen stantly attached to its pump and ready for in- miles out. Sending notice to Captain Grier, of stant service.
the gunboat Benton, that the enemy was ap4th. No candles or open lights shall be allowed proaching, the Colonel brought over a twelvein the hold or state-rooms of any boats.
pounder howitzer attached to his regiment, and 5th. That from and after the issuing of this throwing up a breastwork of cotton-bales, made order, no skiffs or small row-boats shall be permit- ready for a sharp fight. Cavalry were sent out ted to ply in the harbors of Louisville, Cairo, or to watch the enemy, and hovering around his adMemphis; but every boat, except those belong-vance gradually fell back toward Vidalia. On ing to steamboats, shall be taken to such place as the morning of the seventh, messengers brought the post commander shall direct, and there be in word of their steady advance, and at two P. M. kept, except in cases where special permission to they were seen moving out of the woods two the contrary shall be given by the provost-mar- miles from our advance, in line of battle, a heavy
and that the small boats of all steamers force of skirmishers being within seven hundred shall be kept on deck, or properly drawn out of yards of us. From the wood to the river an unwater.
broken flat offered a magnificent field of battle. 6th. That the officers of steamboats shall, ac- Over a thousand strong, with three battle-flags in cording to their proper authority, be held strict- their advance, their flanks covered with cavalry, ly accountable for the enforcement of this order on they came in gallant style. But suddenly the on their several boats, and for extraordinary care howitzer opened on them, the gunboats obtained and watchfulness.
the range, and the bursting shell throwing their 7th. The quartermaster's department and post ranks into confusion, they withdrew to the shelcommanders are charged with the general execu- ter of the friendly timber. tion of this order, and will detail, if necessary, In the mean time, two battalions of the Second such men as secret police to accompany trans- Mississippi artillery, of African descent, Lieutenports navigating the rivers as may be deemed ne-ant-Colonel H. A. McCaleb commanding, had cessary, and will also at once arrest any person, been brought over from Natchez, (the other and seize any boat, failing to comply with this battalion having been left to serve the heavy order, and the boat to be turned over to the guns in the fort.) Taking post across the field, Quartermaster's Department for the public serv- in rear of a narrow ditch which crossed it, they ice, the offender to be tried and punished by awaited the attack. To prevent a tank movemilitary law.
ment, the Thirtieth Missouri
, company A, Second By order of Major-General U. S. Grant. Mississippi artillery A. D., and one company of T. S. Bowers,
the Seventh Louisiana A. D., were drawn up on Assistant Adjutant-General.
the left, near the river, and one battalion of the Second artillery was changed from the first posi
tion to prevent a similar movement on the right. Doc. 76.
Rendered more cautious by this check, the eneFIGHT AT VIDALIA, LA.
my came on more steadily, marching directly
against our centre, where one battalion of the NATCHEZ, Miss., February 16, 1864. Second artillery A. D., under Lieutenant-Colonel Since my last communication, nothing note McCaleb, held position. Ilaving lost the use of worthy has occurred here, except the capture of our howitzer from the breaking of its carriage, Captain Call and twenty-six of the Twenty-ninth the advance of the enemy was unchecked; their Illinois infantry, of which you have probably men, with arms at a support, seemed to expect heard before the present time.
an easy victory: Allowing them to approach Captain Call was guarding a cotton-train; his within six hundred yards of our line, Colonel men, strung along the length of it, were attacked Farrar ordered the centre battalion of the Second by a large force of rebel cavalry, part of an escort Mississippi artillery A. D. to advance. This they to a supply-train on its way from above Mobile did in splendid style, and in unbroken line the to Jackson or Brandon, it is reported, and after a black soldiers, yelling as they advanced, took up sharp fight the Captain, the Quartermaster's Ser- their new position at the double-quick; when geant of the regiment, and twenty-six men were within three hundred yards of the enemy, they gobbled up. So much for guarding cotton for were halted, and pouring a tremendous volley Jews. Who ordered the Captain out ? is now among them, checked their advance. Halting, the question.
wavering, despite the efforts of their officers, who But on Sunday, the seventh instant, the mo- could be seen in front endeavoring to rally and notony of garrison-duty was very summarily encourage their men, as volley after volley was broken in upon. Opposite Natchez, in Louisi-l poured into them, the enemy turned, and taking with them the most of their wounded, commenced hands, and eight prisoners, and how many a rapid retreat. The Twenty-ninth Illinois, Col. wounded were taken off in their ambulances it onel L. Kent, now came up on the double-quick, is impossible to say. not being able to cross the river sooner. They A negro at whose house General Polignac were ordered forward in pursuit, trying, if possi- staid, represents him as saying, that he was ble, to cut off retreat by the Trinity road. Dark- very much disappointed at the failure of the reness and an intervening gully prevented this. bels on this side to cooperate with him; that the
Colonel Farrar having been peremptorily or- plan had been well laid, and all means taken to dered to act strictly on the defensive, called off insure an attack on both Natchez and Vidalia at his troops from the pursuit, and the Twenty-ninth once; that he considered himself fortunate in recrossed the river the same night.
coining off so easily, and that he fully expected Sending out a reconnoissance the next morn- to capture or drive into the river every Yankee ing, under Lieutenant-Colonel Schadt, of the at Vidalia. If the attack had been simultaneous, Thirtieth Missouri, it was found that the enemy they would have “caught a tartar," for Colonel had never halted in his flight until ten miles Johnson, commanding here, contemplating such from the field of battle, and that they were then a move, had made all arrangements to meet it. in full and rapid retreat toward Trinity or Har- Thus again has the black soldier of the Rerisonburgh.
public vindicated his manhood and added new The forces of the enemy were Texan troops, glory to our flag. He has proved his value as General (or Prince) Polignac's brigade, consist- one of our nation's defenders, and developed a ing of the Seventeenth consolidated Texas, Col- new element of strength. Will not his slanderers onel Taylor, three Texan regiments, Colonels Al- soon acknowledge that “a nigger will fight" ? exander, Stephens, and Hopp, and one battalion
AcЕ. Louisiana cavalry, Major Caldwell. The fight was plainly visible from the bluffs of Natchezevery movement of the enemy, every change of
Doc. 77. our men could be distinctly seen, and the male and female citizens of this loyal city, who had PROCLAMATION OF GOVERNOR WATTS. lined the banks to see “ their brave boys drive
EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT OF ALABAMA, the Yankees and niggers into the river," had the
MONTGOMERY, Feb. 6, 1861. satisfaction of seeing one thousand "Southrons," To the People of Alabama : with a reserve of five hundred more to fall back
The recent action of Congress has deprived the on, foiled, whipped, and driven by about one hun. State of much of the materials of the seconddred and fifty Yankees and four hundred and class militia. It is important to the defence of fifty negroes, for but five companies of the Se- the State that Alabama shall have more troops cond Mississippi artillery of A. D., one hundred subject to the call of her Commander-in-Chief. and fifty of the Thirtieth Missouri, and one com- We have within the State the materials for an pany of the Seventh Louisiana A. D. were en- efficient army. It needs nothing but the spirit, gaged, the other companies being held in reserve,
the prompt and willing spirit, to fight as men and the Twenty-ninth Illinois coming on the field ought to fight, to guard our firesides and drive after the enemy had started in retreat.
the hireling Yankee from our borders. Too much praise cannot be given to Colonel threatened with raids into the heart of the Farrar, who contended so successfully against State. overwhelming numbers, personally directing his As your Executive Chief, I call upon the midgun and leading the men in every advance. Lieu-dle-aged, the young men and boys, to organize tenant-Colonel McCaleb, mounted on a large into companies at once, and report, without degray horse, was a mark for all the enemy's sharp; lay, that they are organized and ready. I cannot shooters, but as cool as on parade, he directed suppose that Alabamians will wait to be drafted the movements of his men. This is the first ac- into the service. The enthusiastic reënlistment tion the Second Mississippi artillery has been in, of our veteran troops in the Virginia and Tenthe regiment only being mustered on the twen- nessee armies has caused a thrill of joyful hope tieth of January; but veterans could not have to animate the hearts of even the croaking and acted better, and the only trouble the officers had despondent. If these battle-scarred heroes, who was to keep the men back. It is useless to speak for three years have carried their lives in their of the Thirtieth Missouri; the bloody fields of hands, ready to be sacrificed in defence of their Chickasaw, Arkansas Post, and Vicksburgh are homes and liberty, are willing to battle on while their guarantees. If the Twenty-ninth Illinois the feet of a hated foe press on our soil, shall we was not in the fight, it certainly was not their at home be laggards in the race of glory? I trust fault, for men never showed more eagerness to no such damning stigma shall rest upon the be engaged.
honored name of Alabama. Strange as it may seem, incredible as it ap
I confidently expect a hearty, prompt, and no. pears to those who witnessed the rapid and ble response to this call. incessant firing, not a man on our side was The rolls of companies will be reported to the touched.
T. H. WATTS, The enemy lost six killed, ten wounded in our
Governor of Alabama
plexioned, blue-eyed child, an orphan, enlisted in
Beaufort by the writer of these lines, out of pure REBEL BARBARITIES.
compassion for his destitute state; another, a ro
bust man, Amos Amyett, was tortured for fifteen EXECUTIONS IN NORTH-CAROLINA,
minutes before the ill-adjusted rope could stranBEAUFORT, North-CAROLINA, March 9, 1864. gle him to death. The unknown martyrs of this war are many. Those twenty-four corpses, swinging between The madness of rebel leaders and the ferocity of heaven and carth, all that remains of as many the numerous guerrilla bands who hover about brave and loyal North-Carolinians, are not to be the advancing armies of freedom, are not more forgotten, nor the lessons they teach to be lightnoteworthy than the sublime but silent devotion ly passed over by the rich and prosperous peowith which hundreds of Southern men are con- ple of the North. The rank and file of the Setinually yielding their lives, after passing through cond regiment, North-Carolina Union volunteers, the ordeal of every form of torture the most dev- is composed of native North-Carolinians, every ilish ingenuity can invent, as evidence to the ex- one of whom is threatened with the fate of these istence, in the Southern States, of a wide-spread twenty-four, if captured; and that that is no imloyalty to the Constitution and the Union, which probable contingency, may be gathered from neither scourgings, starvation, bloodhounds, nor the fact that although the regiment has only the gallows can ever eradicate.
been a few months in existence, and up to this An illustration of this, recently furnished in time has not been fully organized, detachments Yorth-Carolina, upon a scale which, in times less from it have, on several occasions, rendered servtragic than our own, would have caused every ices of sufficient importance to be recognized in heart on the continent to thrill with painful sym- General Orders. The men of the regiment fight pathy, but which, amidst the glare of great events, with a halter around their necks, not because may be unnoted, or, at best, only recorded in a many of them are refugees from the rebel conbrief paragraph.
scription, and Union men who have taken the When the attack was made on Newhern, on first opportunity to leave the rebel army, but the second of February last, company F, of the because every citizen of North-Carolina, taken in Second regiment North-Carolina Union volun- arms against the Confederacy, is declared by a teers, was stationed at Beach Grove, the extreme statute of that State to be a traitor, and death is outpost from Newbern. When it became evident the decreed penalty of his offence. Hiding for that the position could not be held against the months in swamps and thickets, and enduring overwhelming force of rebels, which was rapidly perils and hardships that are almost incredible, approaching, the men of this company, having these men, (or such of them as are not murdered the certainty of an ignominious death before by the guerrillas,) gaunt with hunger and clad them if they should be captured, proposed to the in rags, at last reach our lines. Here they can officer in command to pilot the force at the out- find abundant and profitable employment as mepost in safety to Newbern, by paths through the chanics and laborers; but they are burning for woods known only to themselves. But unfortu- the emancipation of their State and the rescue of nately, they were temporarily in charge of offi- their families from the horrors of the rebel descers not belonging to their own regiment, who potism; and they enlist, without the lure of were either ignorant of the blood-thirsty charac- large bounties, in the service of the United States, ter of the enemy, or too timid to fight to the which, on its part, guarantees them, or should do death, if fight were deemed impracticable. Had so, the same protection afforded to soldiers of these men been commanded by officers of their the loyal States. Many of them have now own regiment, they all would have escaped, or, been four months in the service, and have never as preferable to their inevitable doom if taken received one cent of pay or bounty. This was prisoners, would have found a more honorable the case with the twenty-four hung at Kinston ; death on the field. As it was, they were sternly not a man of them had ever received a dollar forbidden to leave the ranks, and, without a shot from the United States. being fired, or the stipulation secured that they But the saddest fact of all is, that a much should be treated as prisoners of war, they were larger proportion of them than is usual in Northsurrendered; nineteen out of seventy only escap- ern regiments, have large and helpless families ing. Of the fifty-one prisoners, twenty-four were dependent upon them, and these, when the father immediately hung by order of the rebel General is killed in action, or murdered after being capPickett. On the scaffold at Kinston, these tured, are left to suffer. In North-Carolina, twenty-four heroes met their fate with true cour- there is no “Freedmen's Aid Society" to foster age. In the presence of the rebel forces, and the destitute families of the poor white man,' surrounded by the people of their own State, who not only escapes from a worse than African they avowed their entire devotion to the Union. bondage, but, despite the threat of the gallows, After receiving the consolation of religion, one of takes up arms for the Union. their number stepped forward, and, in a firm and Here, there is no beneficent State Government, clear voice, declared that he and his companions as in New-York and Massachusetts, to provide died, as they had lived, “Union men." One of “State aid" for the families, and to furnish adthe victims was a little drummer-boy, named ditional bounties for recruits. When the NorthJoey Neal, only fourteen years of age, a fair com- Carolina refugee and his family arrive within the
Union lines, without a crust of bread or a change ing not only the protection of our flag, but a of garments, the father enlists, and receives the place among its vindicators, would fill a volume. Government ration for himself and family. Be- To those who share the perils of these men, longing to one company of eighty men, there are (for the rebels have declared their intention to thirty families; of these, two are still outside our hang officers as well as privates if captured,) and lines, with sniall prospects of ever rejoining their whose hearts are stung to madness by the cruel kindred; and twenty families, comprising eighty- fate of comrades, brutally murdered, and again seven persons, forty-seren of them under the agonized by the woe-begone countenances of age of fourteen, are with the company in Beau- widows and orphans, there are two questions, fort.
which day and night, with haunting solicitude, Before the war these were, of their class, well- press themselves upon the attention. Any disto-do people, owning a little land, a few cattle, paragements of the thorough loyalty of the regiand some household stuff, but now having ment, or its bravery, deserve only scorn for rescarcely any thing beyond the Government ply. Rough in appearance, without banners or ration. They are generally, almost univer- regimental music, partly drilled, and not thorsally, illiterate, to a degree inconceivable to a oughly disciplined, as it is, the Kinston gallows Northern mind; on an average, not more than testifies that it is still a regiment fearfully in one out of eight can read or write. They have
A LINE OFFICER suffered more than the negro from the blighting
in Second Regiment X. C. C. V. influence of slavery, and they know it; hence they are willing to take up arins, and if any one doubts their thorough loyalty, let him be refer
Doc. 79. red to the heroism with which the twenty-four stood undaunted beneath the Kinston gallows. ATTACK ON “FREEMAN'S BAND."
Two specimens, out of many, may serve to LIEUTENANT-COLONEL STEPHENS'S REPORT, show something of the hardships to which their
HEADQTARTERS DETACHMENT ELEVENTH CAVALRY, patriotism exposes these people. A man who,
Missouri VOLUNTEERS, BATESVILLE, ARKANSAS, in times of peace, was a prosperous mechanic,
February 10, 1864. (a machinist,) having been pressed into the rebel CAPTAIN: I have the honor to report that, in service, managed to make his escape from Wil. obedience to a special order issued from the mington, and at Newbern enlisted in the Second Headquarters District of East-Arkansas, dated regiment. After a few weeks, he contrived to February seventh, 1864, I moved the same day convey the information to his wife, who resided with a detachment of the Eleventh Missouri some twenty-six miles beyond the lines, and she, cavalry and First Nebraska cavalry, consisting leaving every thing but a little extra clothing, of four officers and sixty-four men, of the Elevand some provisions, took her child, only eight enth Missouri cavalry, and Captain T. J. Majors months old, in her arms, and, fleeing for her life, and forty men, of the First Nebraska cavalry, pursued her way through forests and swamps together with eight men of the Fourth Arkansas for forty-eight hours. It was in the month of infantry, to attack the camp of Colonel Freeman, December last, and during the most severe storm then supposed to be encamped on the Smithville of the winter, that this poor woman waded road, about twenty-five miles from this point. through partly frozen creeks, eating little, gath. On my arrival at the point designated, I found ering all her available clothing about her infant, that the camp had broken up, and that Colonel and at night afraid to kindle a fire, lest its light Freeman had moved with his command northmight betray her, sinking down exhausted on wardly. I then, upon consultation with Captain the wet earth to rest. At last she was almost Majors, determined to follow him, and attack him in sight of our outposts, when, crossing an open wherever I might find him. In accordance with field, she was discovered by a party of Fox's this determination, I moved the command through guerrillas, and made a prisoner. She was kept, Smithville to a point on Spring River, known as during two days, in an old log house; every ar- the Widow Marshall's, where I received the first ticle of her own and her child's clothing, except | definite information of the whereabouts of the what they wore, were destroyed; threats were enemy's forces, he having left that point the made, food was sparingly given ; but this brave same day, and moved up Spring River, westwoman again, and successfully, attempted her wardly, to a point known as Morgan's Mill, near escape, and is now with her husband. On an- the mouth of Martin's Creek. other occasion, one of the men, since enlisted, was Finding that the men were fatigued, and that seized by the guerrillas of Hyde County, and my horses were not in a condition to attack his when his wife remonstrated with them, they dis- camp that night, I halted the command and encharged a musket, loaded with buckshot, at her, camped. Early the next morning, the command wounding her so seriously, that she is crippled took up its line of march up both sides of Spring for life; and, not content with this atrocity, they River, the detachnent of the First Nebraska cardeliberately fired at one of the children, a young alry, under Captain Majors, moving up the south girl, wounding her in the neck. Both mother side of the river to a point known as the farm of and daughter are now in Beaufort. Almost the Widow Crawford's; with the remaining porevery private in the regiment has some similar tion of the command, consisting of the Fourth experience to narrate, and their perils, in seek- | Arkansas infantry and Eleventh Missouri cav.
alry, I moved cautiously up the north side of take possession of the ridge. I did so immethe river, crossing at Marshall's Ford, Captain diately, closely pursued by the enemy. ForinMajors being ordered, in case of an attack either ing my men on the ridge, I made a stand and by me upon the enemy, or any attack by them opened fire. This held them in check; but I upon me, to cross the river at the nearest point, was again flanked, and forced to retreat along and effect a junction as rapidly as possible. the ridge to another point, which gave me a About seven miles from the point at which I favorable position with which to retard their started, I encountered the enemy's pickets, and pursuit. In this manner, for nearly eight miles, immediately drove them in. My information, I kept up a running fight, until the enemy ceased previous to this time, had led me to believe that pursuing us, and gave my now exhausted men the enemy did not number over two hundred and horses a chance to recover their energies. effective men ; but, as it was afterward ascer- Still retreating, I crossed the river at Walker's tained, he had been reënforced during the night Ford, twelve miles west of the scene of action, by about three hundred men, under Lieutenant- unmolested by the enemy, and hearing nothing Colonel Coleman and Colonel Lovell, making his of Captain Majors, took up my line of march for entire effective force in the neighborhood of four Batesville, where I arrived without further loss. hundred and fifty men. As soon as I ascertained For an account of the part taken by Captain this fact, I halted my command, consisting in Majors in this action, I beg leave to respectfully all of seventy-two officers and men, and deter- refer to his report, but must state that but for mined to attack the enemy previous to his form- the gallant charge made by him on the enemy in ing his line-of-battle. To accomplish this object, their rear, and whilst I was fighting them on the I ordered the command to take position on a hills, I must have inevitably been surrounded, hill which fronted the creek, from which I ex- and my entire command captured. By the truly pected the enemy to debouch; he, however, had gallant and efficient manner in which the task anticipated my movements, and had already assigned him was performed, fearlessly charging taken a position on a hill still higher up, and im- a largely superior force of the enemy, who posmediately in my rear, his front occupying a nar- sessed every advantage of position, he demonrow ridge on both sides of the Salem road, with strated what has already been shown, that his flanks extending down the sloping ravines on courage and determination will overcome my ght and left. Observing this disposition of greatly superior numbers.” Captain Rouch, the enemy, and during my temporary absence in of the Eleventh cavalry, who was, toward the another part of the field, Lieutenant Warrington, last of the engagement, unfortunately taken my acting adjutant, acting under previously ex- prisoner by the enemy, by reason of his horse pressed instructions from me, formed the battal-being shot from under him, displayed great ion into column of fours by the right, and charg- coolness, decision, and promptness in obeying ed the front of the enemy. Under a heavy fire, all orders given by me. the column moved to a position in front of the To Lieutenants Warrington and Ilarris great line formed by the enemy, and opened fire with praise is due for the gallantry and determination considerable effect. Part of the men were still displayed by them during the entire fight, alin the rear, and efforts were made to bring them ways in the front, encouraging the men under up. At this juncture, I reached the scene of their command, and by their personal efforts in action, and assumed command. For the space retarding the pursuit, and in rallying and formof ten minutes, under a terrific fire from the ing the men in line on each successive stand enemy's works, this little band of about twenty- made by us, contributed largely to the safety five men, forming my advance, stood their ground, of the remaining portion of my command. keeping the enemy at bay, and at one time break- My loss, I regret to state, is severe; nearly ing the centre of their front line of battle. This one half of the portion of the command engaged advantage I was unable to improve for want of in the action being killed, wounded, or missing. a force with which to charge the enemy, the men The following is the recapitulation, as near as still in the rear not coming up as promptly as I could be ascertained, from the sources of inforhad expected and ordered. In the mean time mation left open to me after the fight : my flanks were turned, and in order to prevent Killed, Private Dean, company F, Eleventh my being entirely surrounded, I gave the order cavalry, Missouri volunteers; wounded, four; to retreat to a new position in a dense thicket, missing, twenty-three. on the opposite side of Martin's Creek. Over- Of these, twenty are from the Eleventh Miswhelmed by numbers, I was forced to abandon souri cavalry, and three from the Fourth Arkanthis position; and as rapidly as possible, and the sas infantry. nature of the ground would permit, I again re- My thanks are due to the men under my comtreated in the direction of Captain Majors's com- mand, with a few cowardly exceptions, for the mand, which I supposed by this time had reach- courage displayed on this occasion. I am uned the mill. In this I was prevented by the able to state the exact loss of the enemy, but am enemy, who appeared in force on the hill com- fully satisfied that it will amount to an aggregate manding the mill road. But one chance re- of sixty-five killed, wounded, and missing, inmained for me to escape from the overwhelming cluding the prisoners taken by Captain Majors. force with which I was contending, and that was In conclusion, I would respectfully recommend to follow an old road which led up the hills, and I Lieutenant John A. Warrington to the favorable