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operation of this universal rule. Every enlight-dition of residence in this State, to acquiesce, withened community has enforced it upon all classes out reservation, in the demands presented by Gov. of people by the severest penalties. It is espe- ernment, as a basis of permanent peace. cially necessary in agricultural pursuits. That The non-cultivation of the soil, without just portion of the people identified with the cultiva- reason, will be followed by temporary forfeiture tion of the soil, however changed in the condi- to those who will secure its improvement. Those tion of the revolution through which we are who have exercised or are entitled to the rights passing, is not relieved from the necessity of of citizens of the United States, will be required toil, which is the condition of existence with all to participate in the measures necessary for the the children of God. The revolution has altered reëstablishment of civil government. War can its tenure but not its law.
nerer cease, except as civil governments crush This universal law of labor will be enforced, out contest and secure the supremacy of moral upon just terms, by the Government, under whose over physical power. The yellow harvest must protection the laborer rests secure in his rights. wave over the crimson field of blood, and the reIndolence, disorder, and crime will be suppressed. presentatives of the people displace the agents of Having exercised the highest right in the choice purely military power
. and place of employment, he must be held to the XXIV. It is therefore a solemn duty resting fulfilment of his engagements until released upon all persons to assist in the earliest possible therefrom by the Government. The several pro- restoration of civil government.
Let them parvost-marshals are hereby invested with plenary ticipate in the measures suggested for this purpowers upon all matters connected with labor, pose. Opinion is free and candidates are numersubject to the approval of the Provost-Marshalous. Open hostilities cannot be permitted. InGeneral, and the Commanding Officer of the De- difference will be treated as crime, and faction as partment. The most faithful and discreet offi- treason. Men who refuse to defend their councers will be selected for this duty, and the largest try with the ballot-box or cartridge-box, have no force consistent with the public service detailed just claim to the benefits of liberty regulated by for their assistance.
law. All people not exempt by the law of naXXI. Employers, and especially overseers, are tions, who seek the protection of the Government, notified, that undue influence used to move the are called upon to take the oath of allegiance in Marshal from his just balance between the par- such form as may be prescribed, sacrificing to ties representing labor and capital, will result in the public good, and the restoration of public immediate change of officers, and thus defeat that peace, whatever scruples may be suggested by regular and stable system upon which the inter- incidental considerations. The oath of allegiance, ests of all parties depend.
administered and received in good faith, is the XXII. Successful industry is especially neces- test of unconditional fealty to the Government sary at the present time, when large public debts and all its measures, and cannot be materially and onerous taxes are imposed to maintain and strengthened or impaired by the language in protect the liberties of the people and the integ- which it is clothed. rity of the Union. All officers, civil or military, XXV. The amnesty offered for the past, is conand all classes of citizens who assist in extend- ditioned upon an unreserved loyalty for the fuing the profits of labor, and increasing the pro-ture, and this condition will be enforced with an duct of the soil, upon which, in the end, all na- iron hand. Whoever is indifferent or hostile, tional prosperity and power depend, will render must choose between the liberty which foreign to the Government a service as great as that de- lands afford, the poverty of the rebel States, and rived from the terrible sacrifices of battle. the innumerable and inappreciable blessings
It is upon such consideration only that the which our Government confers upon its people. planter is entitled to favor. The Government has
May God preserve the union of the States! accorded to him, in a period of anarchy, a release
By order of
Major-General Banks. from the disorders resulting mainly from insens- GEORGE B. DRAKE, ate and mad resistance to sensible reforms, which can never be rejected without revolution and the criminal surrender of his interests and power to
Doc. 74. crazy politicians, who thought by metaphysical abstractions to circumvent the laws of God. It
THE ESCAPE FROM LIBBY PRISON. bas restored to him in improved rather than impaired condition his due privileges, at a mo
WASHINGTON, D. C., Feb. 18, 1864. ment when, by his own acts, the very soil was A LARGE number of officers, who escaped from washed from beneath his feet.
Libby Prison a few days ago, arrived in this city XXIII. A more majestic and wise clemency last night, and from them we gather very interhuman history does not exhibit. The liberal and esting statements relative to their manner of esjust conditions that attend it, cannot be disre- cape. garded. It protects labor by enforcing the per- Over two months ago, the officers confined in formance of its duty, and it will assist capital by Libby Prison conceived the idea of effecting their compelling just contributions to the demands of own exchange, and after the matter had been sethe Government. Those who profess allegiance riously discussed by some seven or eight of them, to other governments will be required, as the con- they undertook to dig for a distance toward a
A, A. General.
sewer running into the basin. This they propos- that he had a box in the carriage-house over the
On the sixth or seventh of February, the work-
make the attempt to get away.
Others refused, But here an unexpected obstacle met their fur- fearing the consequences if they were recaptured; ther progress. The stench from the sewers and and others yet, (among whom was General Neal the flow of filthy water was so great that one of Dow,) declined to make the attempt, as (they said) the party fainted, and was dragged out more they did not desire to bave their Government dead than alive, and the project in that direction back down from its enunciated policy of exchange. had to be abandoned. The failure was commu- Colonel Rose, of New-York; Colonel Kendrick, nicated to a few others besides those who had first of Tennessee; Captain Jones, Lieutenant Bradthought of escape, and then a party of seventeen, ford, and others, informed General Dow that they after viewing the premises and surroundings, con- could not see how making their escape would alcluded to tunnel under Carey street. On the op- fect the policy of exchange. Their principle was posite side of this street, from the prison, was a that it was their personal right to escape if they sort of carriage-house or out-house, and the pro- could, and their duty to their Government to ject was to dig under the street and emerge from make the attempt. under or near the house. There was a high fence About half-past eight o'clock on the evening of around it, and the guard was outside of this fence. the ninth, the prisoners started out, Colonel Rose, The prisoners then commenced to dig at the other of New York, leading the van. Before starting, side of the chimney, and, after a few handfuls of the prisoners had divided themselves into squads dirt had been removed, they found themselves of two, three, and four, and each squad was to stopped by a stone wall, which proved afterward take a different route, and after they were out, to be three feet thick. The party were by no were to push for the Union lines as fast as posmeans daunted, and, with pen-knives and pocket-sible. It was the understanding that the workknives, they commenced operations upon the ing party was to have an hour's start of the other stone and mortar.
prisoners, and consequently the rope-ladder in After nineteen days' and nights' hard work, they the cellar was drawn out. Before the expiration again struck the earth beyond the wall, and push- of the hour, however, the other prisoners became ed their work forward. Here, too, (after they impatient, and were let down through the chimhad got some distance under ground,) the friend- ney successfully into the cellar. ly spittoon was brought into requisition, and the Colonel W. P. Kendrick, of West-Tennessee; dirt was hauled out in small quantities. After Captain D. J. Jones, of the First Kentucky cave digging some days, the question arose whether alry, and Lieutenant R. Y. Bradford, of the Se. they had not reached the point aimed at; and in cond West-Tennessee, were detailed as a rearorder, if possible, to test the matter, Captain Gal- guard, or rather to go out last; and from a win. lagher, of the Second Ohio regiment, pretended dow Colonel Kendrick and his companions could
see the fugitives walk out of a gate at the other dim outline they could perceive that parties with end of the inclosure of the carriage-house, and muskets were passing over the bridge. They, fearlessly more off. The aperture was so narrow therefore, moved some distance to the south, and that but one man could get through at a time, after passing through more of the swamp, reachand each squad carried with them provisions in ed the Chickahominy about four miles below a haversack. At midnight, a false alarm was Bottom Bridge. Here now was a difficulty. The ci eated, and the prisoners made considerable river was only twenty feet wide, but it was very noise in getting to their respective quarters. deep, and the refugees were worn out and faProvidentially, however, the guard suspected tigued. Chancing, however, to look up, Lieunothing wrong, and in a few moments the exodus tenant Bradford saw that two trees had fallen on was again commenced. Colonel Kendrick and either side of the river, and that their branches his companions looked with trepidation upon the were interlocked. By crawling up one tree and movements of the fugitives, as some of them, ex- down the other, the fugitives reached the east ercising but little discretion, moved boldly out of bank of the Chickahominy, and Colonel Kendrick the inclosure into the glare of the gaslight. Many could not help remarking that he believed Proviof them were, however, dressed in citizen's dress, dence was on their side, else they would not have and as all the rebel guards wear the United States met that natural bridge. uniform, but little suspicion could be excited, They subsequently learned from a friendly even if the fugitives had been accosted by the negro that had they crossed the bridge they had guard.
seen, they would assuredly have been recaptured, Between one and two o'clock the lamps were for Captain Turner, the keeper of Libby Prison, extinguished in the streets, and then the exit had been out and posted guards there, and, in was more safely accomplished. There were many fact, had alarmed the whole country, and got officers who desired to leave, who were so weak the people up as a vigilance committee to capture and feeble that they were dragged through the the escaped prisoners. tunnel by main force and carried to places of After crossing over this natural bridge, they safety until such time as they would be able to lay down on the ground and slept until sunrise, move on their journey. At half-past two o'clock, on the morning of the eleventh, when they conCaptain Jones, Colonel Kendrick, and Lieuten- tinued on their way, keeping eastwardly as near ant Bradford passed out in the order in which as they could. Up to this time they had had they are named, and as Colonel Kendrick emerged nothing to eat, and were almost famished. About from the hole, he heard the guard within a few noon on the eleventh, they met several negroes, feet of him sing out: "Post No. 7, half-past two who gave them information as to the wherein the morning, and all's well.” Colonel Ken- abouts of the rebel pickets, and furnished them urick says he could hardly resist the temptation with food. of saying: “Not so well as you think, except for Acting under the advice of these friendly nethe Yanks.” Lieutenant Bradford was intrusted groes, they remained quietly in the woods until with the provisions for this squad, and in getting darkness set in, when they were furnished with through he was obliged to leave his haversack a comfortable supper by the negroes, and, after behind him, as he could not get through with it dark, proceeded on their way, the negroes (who,
everywhere, showed their friendship to the fugiOnce out, they proceeded up the street, keep- tives) having first directed them how to avoid ing in the shade of the buildings, and passed east- the rebel pickets. That night they passed a camp wardly through the city.
of rebels, and could plainly see the smoke and A description of the route pursued by this camp-fire. But their wearied feet gave out, and party, and of the tribulations through which they they were compelled to stop and rest, having only passed, will give some idea of the rough time marched five miles that day. they all had of it. Colonel Kendrick had, before They started again at daylight on the thirleaving the prison, mapped out his course, and teenth, and, after moving awhile through the concluded that the best route to take was the woods, they saw a negro woman working in a one toward Norfolk or Fortress Monroe, as there field, and called her to them, and from her rewere fewer rebel pickets in that direction. They, ceived directions, and were told that the rebel therefore, kept the York River Railroad to the pickets had been about there, looking for the fuleft, and moved toward the Chickahominy River. gitives from Libby. Here they lay low again, They passed through Boar Swamp,and crossed the and resumed their journey when darkness set road leading to Bottom Bridge. Sometimes they in, and marched five miles, but halted until the waded through mud and water almost up to their morning of the fourteenth, when the journey was necks, and kept the Bottom Bridge road to their resumed. Jeft, although at times they could see and hear At one point they met a negro in the field, and the cars travelling over the York River road. she told them that her mistress was a secesh wo
While passing through the swamp near the man, and that she had a son in the rebel army. Chickahominy, Colonel Kendrick sprained his The party, however, was exceedingly hungry, ankle and fell. Fortunate, too, was that fall for and they determined to secure some food. This him and his party, for while he was lying there they did by boldly approaching the house and one of them chanced to look up, and saw in a di- informing the mistress that they were prisoners rect line with them a swamp-bridge, and in the from Norfolk, who had been driven out by But
ler, and the secesh sympathies of the woman upon a certain Union lieutenant-colonel, who was were at once aroused, and she gave them of her in favor with the rebel authorities, had the freesubstance, and started them on their way with dom of the city, and moved about at will in directions how to avoid the Yankee soldiers, who the hospitals and elsewhere. He had been susoccasionally scouted in that vicinity. This in- pected for some time, and one day was accused formation was exceedingly valuable to the refu- of exposing the affair. gees, for by it they discovered the whereabouts The indignation of the officers whose plans had of the Federal forces.
been thwarted through the perfidy of (as they When about fifteen miles from Williamsburgh, believed) one of their number, cannot be describthe party came upon the main road, and found ed. Some cried out : “ Hang him! hang him !" the tracks of a large body of cavalry. A piece One ran to his blanket, and, tearing it into strips, of paper found by Captain Jones satisfied himn said he had a rope ready; and others were in that they were Union cavalry; but his compan- favor of pitching the fellow out of the window, ions were suspicious, and avoided the road, and and letting his brains bespatter the pavement bemoved forward, and at the “Burnt Ordinary” | low. Wiser counsels, however, prevailed, and it (about ten miles from Williamsburgh) waited the was concluded it was better to let the traitor return of the cavalry that had moved up the road, live, and report him to his Government, if ever and from behind a fence-corner, where they were opportunity offered. The lieutenant-colonel, we secreted, the fugitives saw the flag of the Union understand, will be reported to the War Oflice. supported by a squadron of cavalry, which proved His excuse is that he informed a Federal officer to be a detachment of Colonel Spears's Eleventh in a hospital of the attempted escape, and that a Pennsylvania regiment, sent out for the purpose rebel surgeon overheard the conversation. of picking up escaped prisoners. Colonel Ken- These prisoners confirm in every particular the drick says his feelings at seeing the old flag are statements heretofore made of the treatment of indescribable.
Federal prisoners there. The rations of the offiThe party rode into Williamsburgh with the cers were about the same as those of the rebel cavalry, where they were quartered for the night, privates; but our privates on Belle Island did and where they found eleven others who had es- not fare so well. As long as the boxes sent from caped safely. Colonel Spears and his command friends at the North were delivered, they lived furnished the officers with clothing and other ne- as well as could be expected under the circumcessaries.
stances. Those who had money were allowed to At all points along the route, the fugitives de send out and get what they wanted, by paying scribe their reception by the negroes as most en- three times more than Richmond prices, the thusiastic, and there was no lack of white people profits going into the pockets of the officers of who sympathized with them and helped them on the prison. In other respects the treatment was
quite harsh. From the officers we learn that there is a wide- When a prisoner entered the prison, any arspread Union feeling in Richmond. Jeff Davis ticles found upon him that were fancied by rebel is held in detestation, but all who do not heart- officers or guards were taken possession of; they ily indorse the rebel government are spotted and pretended the money and articles were deposited watched. There are at this time eighteen per- with the Quartermaster. sons confined in Castle Thunder on charges of The sleeping accommodations were very poor, attempts to assassinate the rebel President. These and the only place they had to exercise their prisoners also confirm the report that an attempt limbs in was the dining-room. For a while the was made to burn Jeff's mansion, and that one officers were not furnished with meat at all, morning his servants found a coffin upon his and at one time they received flesh which was porch.
pronounced by those among the officers who knew In their escape the officers were aided by citi- something about butchering, as mule-meat, as zens of Richmond-not foreigners of the poorer they knew of no cattle used for food which had classes only, but by natives and persons of wealth. bones like those found in the meat. They know their friends, but very properly with- The privates on Belle Island, it is unquestionhold the mention of their names. of those who ed, have eaten dogs; in fact, were obliged to do got out of Libby, there were a number of sick it in order to sustain life. ones, who were cared for by Union people, and On the boat coming up from Fortress Monroe will 'eventually reach the Union lines through yesterday, the officers had a meeting, which was their aid.
presided over by Colonel W. P. Kendrick, of the The officers also report the fact that some time Third West-Tennessee cavalry, and at which Colago, through the aid of citizens, they obtained onel West, of the Fourth Wisconsin, acted as communication with the soldiers on Belle Island, Secretary, and the following card was unaniand there was to be a concerted movement to es- mously adopted : cape. The soldiers had been furnished with arms, “The undersigned, officers of the United States which they had secreted. The officers at Libby army, and recently prisoners of war, desire to were to secure the guards there, and act in con- express their deep gratitude to Major-General cert with the Belle Island men; but just as the Butler, Brigadier-General Wistar, Colonel West, affair was ready to be carried into execution, the of the First Pennsylvania artillery, and the galproject was exposed. Suspicion at once rested / lant officers and men of the Eleventh Pennsylva
nia cavalry, and the First New-York Mounted officers shall give every opportunity and facility Rifles, for their effective assistance in completing for learning the business of piloting. our escape from the rebel Libby Prison at Rich- 2d. In order to prevent extortion, now pracmond and the lines of pickets and bloodhounds tised upon the Government by parties whose of the rebel army; and also for the many acts licenses are derived from, and who are protected of kindness so gracefully tendered us in our pres- by it, pilots shall be divi under the directions ent need.
of the United States Supervising Inspectors, into “We desiré, also, in common with every loyal classes termed first and second, and the rates of heart in the Union, to tender to Major-General piloting on the Mississippi and its tributaries Butler our high appreciation of his prompt and above Memphis, shall be for pilots of the first extensive efforts to aid our comrades, who are class, not exceeding two hundred and fifty dolyet in the rebel lines, attempting to elude their lars per month and subsistence, and in the trade vigilance, and make good their escape from that below Memphis, three hundred dollars per month, prison of refined cruelty and slow death." and for single trips less than ten days, not ex
This is signed by the following officers, who ceeding fifteen dollars per day while actually in are all at this time in this city: William B. Mc- service. And the rates for pilots of the second Creery, Colonel Twenty-first Michigan infantry; class, not exceeding two hundred dollars per W. P. Kendrick, Colonel West-Tennessee cav- month and subsistence above Memphis, and two alry; Alexander Theobald Von Wizel, Lieuten- hundred and fifty dollars per month below Memant-Colonel Seventy-fourth regiment Pennsylva- phis; and for single trips less than ten days, not nia volunteer infantry; J. F. Boyd, Lieutenant- exceeding twelve dollars and a half per day while Colonel and Quartermaster of volunteers ; T. S. actually in service. West, Lieutenant-Colonel Twenty-fourth Wiscon- 3d. When it is inconvenient to procure two sin volunteer infantry; H. C. Hobert, Lieuten- good pilots on each boat, such boats may take ant-Colonel Twenty-first Wisconsin volunteer in one good pilot and one steersman; and in cases fantry; J. P. Collins, Major Twentieth Indiana where boats are proceeding together and cannot infantry; G. R. Fitzsimmons, Major Thirtieth conveniently secure pilots for all, they may proIndiana volunteers; J. F. Gallaher, Captain com- ceed with good steersmen, providing the leading pany B, Second Ohio volunteer infantry ; Matt. boat or boats have good and safe pilots, in which Boyd, Captain, Seventy-third Indiana; A. G. case they will file with the post commander at Hamilton, Captain company A, Twelfth Ken- the place of departure satisfactory evidence that tucky cavalry; I. N. Johnston, Captain company they could not conveniently procure two good H, Sixth Kentucky volunteer infantry; W. S. B. pilots. Randall, Captain company C, Second Ohio infan- 4th. The masters or owners of boats are protry; Michael Gallagher, Captain, Third New-Jer. hibited from directly or indirectly paying or seeksey cavalry ; Morton Tower, Captain, Thirteenth ing to induce pilots to change boats by offering Massachusetts volunteers ; T. J. Jones, Captain, rates above those fixed herein. First Kentucky infantry; S. C. Bose, Captain, 5th. Any violation or evasion of this order, or Fourth Missouri cavalry ; T. Clark, Captain, Sev- any refusal to perform service when called upon, enty-eighth Illinois infantry; Albert Wallber, or any neglect of pilots or other officers to furFirst Lieutenant, Twenty-sixth Wisconsin ; John nish all the opportunities and facilities to steersC. Fislar, First Lieutenant, Seventh Indiana bat- men for learning the business of piloting, shall tery ; William Reynolds, First Lieutenant, Sev-be regarded as a military offence, and punished, enty-third Indiana volunteers ; James M. Wells, on conviction by a military commission, by conLieutenant company F, Eighth Michigan volun- finement in a military prison not exceeding (60) teer cavalry; L. P. Williams, Lieutenant, Seven- sixty days, or a fine not exceeding one thousand ty-second Indiana volunteers; N. J. McKeen, dollars, or both. Lieutenant company H, Twenty-first Illinois. II. For the greater protection of transports
from danger of loss by fire, it is ordered :
1st. That every steamboat navigating the waDoc. 75.
ters of this military division, (except ferry-boats
and boats lying up for repairs,) shall at all times ORDER OF GENERAL GRANT. keep a watch of at least four men on every boat, HEADQUARTERS MILITARY DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI,
two of whom shall be at all times on duty-one NASUVILLE, TENN., February 6, 1864.
on the boiler, one on the main decks, and conGENERAL ORDERS, No. 4.
tinually passing over their respective decks until I. The great demand for pilots having rendered relieved ; and all boats lying up for repairs shall this branch of business an unreasonable monopo- keep a like watch of at least three inen. Said ly, whereby great extortion is practised, to the watchmen to be carefully selected and registered detriment of the service, it is therefore ordered : as such on the portage book.
1st. That on and after the twentieth day of 2d. That every steamboat shall, at all times, February, every boat doing business on the Mis- except when actually storing freight in, or dis. sissippi and its tributaries shall at all times carry charging it from the hold, or in other cases of at least one steersman, who shall have a certifi- actual necessity, keep the hatches and scuttles cate of the local board under the direction of the securely closed and locked, the key to be kept Supervising Inspector, to whom pilots and other I by the captain or first mate, who shall be held