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When men take arms to resist our rightful every people have a right to self-government; authority, we are compelled to use force, because and I would give all a chance to reflect, and all reason and argument cease when arms are re- when in error to recant. I know, slave-owners sorted to. When the provisions, forage, horses, finding themselves in possession of a species of mules, wagons, etc., are used by our enemy, it is property in opposition to the growing sentiment clearly our duty and right to take them, because of the whole civilized world, conceived their propotherwise they might be used against us. erty in danger, and foolishly appealed to war;

In like manner, all houses left vacant by an and by skilful political handling, involved with inimical people are clearly our right, or such as themselves the whole South on the doctrines of are needed as storehouses, hospitals, and quar- error and prejudice. I believe that some of the ters. But a question arises as to dwellings used rich and slaveholding are prejudiced to an exby women, children, and non-combatants. So tent that nothing but death and ruin will extinlong as non-combatants remain in their houses guish, but hope that as the poorer and industrial and keep to their accustomed business, their classes of the South realize their relative weakopinions and prejudices can in no wise influence ness, and their dependence upon the fruits of the the war, and, therefore, should not be noticed. earth and good-will of their fellow-men, they will But if any one comes out into the public streets not only discover the error of their ways, and reand creates disorder, he or she should be pun- pent of their hasty action, but bless those who ished, restrained, or banished either to the rear persistently maintained a constitutional governor front, as the officer in command adjudges. If ment, strong enough to sustain itself, protect its the people, or any of them, keep up a correspond- citizens, and promise peaceful homes to millions ence with parties in hostility they are spies, and yet unborn. can be punished with death or minor punish- In this belief, whilst I assert for our Government.

ment the highest military prerogatives, I am willThese are well-established principles of war, ing to bear in patience that political nonsense of and the people of the South, having appealed slave rights, State rights, freedom of conscience, to war, are barred from appealing to our Con- freedom of press, and such other trash, as have stitution, which they have practically and pub- deluded the Southern people into war, anarchy, licly defied. They have appealed to war, and bloodshed, and the foulest crimes that have dismust abide its rules and laws. The United graced any time or any people. States, as a belligerent party claiming right in I would advise the commanding officers at the soil as the ultimate sovereign, have a right Huntsville, and such other towns as are occuto change the population, and it may be and is pied by our troops, to assemble the inhabitants both politic and just, we should do so in certain and explain to thein these plain, self-evident prodistricts. When the inhabitants persist too long positions, and tell them that it is for them now in hostility, it may be both politic and right we to say, whether they and their children shall inshould banish them and appropriate their landsherit the beautiful land which, by the accident to a more loyal and useful population. No man of nature, has fallen to their share. The Gorwill deny that the United States would be bene- ernment of the United States has in North-Alafited by dispossessing a single prejudiced, hard- bama any and all rights which they choose to headed, and disloyal planter, and substitute in enforce in war, to take their lives, their homes, his place a dozen or more patient, industrious, their lands, their every thing, because they cangood families, even if they be of foreign birth. I not deny that war does exist there, and war is think it does good to present this view of the simply power unrestrained by constitution or case to many Southern gentlemen, who grew compact. If they want eternal war, well and rich and wealthy, not by virtue alone of their in-good-we will accept the issue and dispossess dustry and skill, but by reason of the protection them, and put our friends in possession. I know and impetus to prosperity given by our hitherto thousands and millions of good people who, at moderate and magnanimous Government. It is simple notice, would come to North-Alabama all idle nonsense for these Southern planters to and accept the elegant houses and plantations say that they made the South, that they own it, now there. If the people of Huntsville think and that they can do as they please-even to differently, let them persist in war three years break up our Government, and to shut up the longer, and then they will not be consulted. natural avenues of trade, intercourse, and com- Three years ago, by a little reflection and pa

tience, they could have had a hundred


of We know, and they know, if they are intelli- peace and prosperity, but they preferred war; gent beings, that, as compared with the whole very well, last year they could have saved their world, they are but as five millions are to one slaves, but now it is too late—all the powers of thousand millions—that they did not create the earth cannot restore to them their slaves any land-that their only title to its use and usufruct more than their dead grandfathers. Next year is the deed of the United States, and if they ap- their lands will be taken ; for in war we can peal to war, they hold their all by a very inse- take them, and rightfully, too; and in another cure tenure.

year they may beg in vain for their lives. A For my part, I believe that this war is the re- people who will persevere in war beyond a cersult of false political doctrine, for which we are tain limit, ought to know the consequences. all as a people responsible, namely, that any and Many, many people, with less pertinacity than


the South, have been wiped out of national ex-ed that both columns would meet in the cañon istence.

on the second day, as it was supposed to be My own belief is, that even now the non-slave- forty miles in length. holding classes of the South are alienating from Captain Pheiffer's party proceeded two days their associates in war. Already I hear crimina- through the cañon, fighting occasionally ; but tion. Those who have property left, should take although the Indians frequently fired on them warning in time.

froin the rocky walls above, the balls were spent Since I have come down here, I have seen long before they reached the bottom of the cañon, many Southern planters who now hire their ne- which, in many places, exceeded one thousand five groes, and acknowledge that they knew not the hundred feet in depth. It was a singular spectacle earthquake they were to make by appealing to to behold. A small detachment of troops, moving secession. They thought that the politicians cautiously along the bottom of one of the greathad prepared the way, and that they could part est canons on the globe, (the largest is in Asia, in peace. They now see that we are bound to. I believe,) and firing volleys upward at hundreds gether as one nation, by indissoluble ties, and of Navajoes, who looked, on the dizzy heights that any interest or any people that set them- above them, like so many pigmies. As they adselves up in antagonism to the nation, must vanced, the cañon widened in places, and various perish.

spots of cultivated lands were passed, where While I would not remit one jot or tittle of wheat, maize, beans, melons, etc., had been our nation's rights, in peace or war, I do make planted last year; while, more than a thousand allowances for past political errors and false pre- feet above their heads, they beheld neat-looking judices. Our national Congress and Supreme stone houses built on the receding ledges of Courts are the proper arenas in which to discuss rocks, which reminded the beholder of the swalconflicting opinions, and not the battle-field. lows' nests in the house-caves, or on the rocky

You may not hear from me again; and if you formation overhanging the '“ sea-beat caves. think it will do any good, call some of the people Further on, an orchard containing about six together, and explain these my views. You may hundred peach-trees was passed, and it was evieven read to them this letter, and let them usedent that the Indians had paid great attention it, so as to prepare them for my coming.

to their culture. To those who submit to the rightful law and On the second day, a party from Colonel Carauthority, all gentleness and forbearance; but to son's column met the Captain in the cañon, and the petulant and persistent secessionist, why, returned with him to Colonel Carson's camp. A death is mercy, and the quicker he or she is dis party from the Colonel's command had in the posed of, the better. Satan, and the rebellious mean time attacked a party of Indians, twenty. saints of heaven, were allowed a continuance of two of whom were killed. This had a dispirit existence in hell merely to swell their just pun- ing effect on many others, who sent in three of ishment. To such as would rebel against a gov- their number under a white flag. Colonel Carernment so mild and just as ours was in peace, son received them, and assured them that the a punishment equal would not be unjust. Government did not desire to exterminate them,

We are progressing well in this quarter. but that on the contrary the President wished Though I have not changed my opinion that we to save and civilize them; and to that end Genmay soon assume the existence of our national eral Carlton had given him instructions to send Government, yet years will pass before ruffian- all the Navajoes who desired peace to the new ism, murder, and robbery will cease to afflict this reservation on the Rio Pecos, where they would region of our country.

be supplied with food for the present, and be furTruly your friend, W. T. SHERMAN, nished with implements, seeds, etc., to cultivate Major-General Commanding. the soil. They departed well satisfied, and Colo

nel Carson immediately ordered Captain A. B. Doc. 64.

Carey, Thirteenth United States infantry, with a

battalion, to enter the cañon and make a thoOPERATIONS IN NEW MEXICO.

rough exploration of its various branches, and at Camp FLORILLA, NENAS DE RETOCANDY,} body of hostile Navajoes he might encounter, and

the same time to be in readiness to chastise any NM., January 26, 1864. The cuiminating point in this expedition has to receive all who were friendly and who wished been reached at last by the very successful oper- to emigrate to the new reservation. Captain ations of our troops at Cañon de Chelly. Colo-Carey, during a passage of twenty-four hours nel Kit Carson left Fort Canby on the sixth in- through a branch of the cañon hitherto unexstant, with a command of four hundred men, plored, made an exact geographical map of this twenty of whom were mounted. He had a sec- terrible chasm, and discovered many side canons tion of mountain artillery with him, and taking hitherto unknown. About one hundred Indians the road via Puebla, Colorado, he started for came in to him and declared that “the Navajoo Cañon de Chelly. He gave orders to Captain nation was no more ;" that they were tired of Pheiffer, with his command of one hundred men, fighting and nearly starved, and that they wishto enter the cañon at the east opening, while he ed to be permitted to advise their friends and himself intended to enter it at the mouth," or faroilies in the mountains; many of whom were West opening, and by this movement he expect- willing to leave the land for ever and go to a

Vol. VIII.-Doc. 23



country where they would be cared for and pro- a shelter among the cliffs, groves, and cañons of tected. They said they understood agriculture, their country; in pursuing them to their haunts and were certain they would make comfortable they have encountered appalling difficulties, homes on the Pecos. This was, of course, only namely, want of water, grass, and fuel ; often the opinion of some; others would prefer to re-exposed to the merciless fury of the elements main and culture the soil on which they were and to the bullets and arrows of a hidden foe. born, and live at peace with the territory. How- In the face of these difficulties they have discovever, the latter were positively informed that un-ered new rivers, springs, and mountains in a reless they were willing to remove they had better gion hitherto unexplored, and penetrated by not come in, and moreover, that the troops would companies into the very strongholds of the enodestroy every blade of corn in the country next my, who fled farther west as our columns ad

vanced, and on various occasions the dismounted On the twentieth of January, Colonel Carson cavalry have, by rapid and unparalleled night came to Fort Canby, and about six hundred In- marches, surprised that enemy, capturing his dians had collected there; but when the wagons camp and securing his flocks and herds, at a arrived to remove them only one hundred wished time when he imagined himself far beyond our to go, and the remainder desired to return to reach, and really when he occupied a country their villages and caves in the mountains, on pre- never before trodden by the foot of a white man. tence of bringing in some absent member of their Much of the credit is due to the perseverance families. Colonel Carson very nobly and gene- and courage of Colonel Kit Carson, commanding rously permitted them to choose for themselves; the expedition, whose example excited all to great but told them, if ever they came in again they energy and inspired great resolution; but it may should be sent to Borgue Redondo, whether will not be out of place to remark that it is now deing or not. Colonel Carson himself took the In- monstrated beyond a doubt that, while the troops dians to Santa Fé, and will remain absent about of New Mexico have long borne the reputation a month. Since his departure many Indians of being the best cavalry, they have proved themcame in and agreed to go to the reservation. selves on the present campaign to be the best in

I think the Colonel foresaw this, as no person fantry in the world. understands Indian character better than he General James H. Carlton, who knows, perdoes. Captain A. B. Carey, Thirteenth infantry, haps, and understands the material for an army commanding in his absence, will see that all In- as well as any general in our army, has directed dians coming in will be removed, and I think, the formation of a New-Mexican brigade; and before April next, if the present good feeling ex- when the savage foe is removed, that brigade, ists, we shall have accomplished the removal of commanded by Brigadier-General Kit Carson, the entire tribe. Captain A. B. Carey, after suc- would surely reflect credit on the Territory and cessfully marching through the cañon and noting on the Department Commander, who, in every its topography, reached Fort Canby on the sense, deserves the stars of a Major-General. eighteenth instant, and relieved Captain Francis

J. M. C. McCabe, First New Mexico cavalry, who commanded in the absence of Colonel Kit Carson. A military execution took place at Fort Canby

Doc. 65. on the eighteenth instant. Private John Caulfield was shot to death by a detachment of his DESTRUCTION OF THE STEAMER DARE. regiment, in presence of all the troops at the

ADMIRAL LEE'S REPORT. post, who were paraded under arms on the occa


OFF WILMINGTON, N. C., January 5.

} Caulfield had been tried and sentenced for

Sir: The new and swift steamer Dare attempt shooting a Mexican soldier of his own regiment, ed yesterday morning to get into Wilmington by and the Department Commander ordered his ex- this entrance ; was chased off by the Montecution in three days from the date of reception of the general order at Fort Canby. He died gomery and Aries; ran herself ashore, above

Georgetown, bilged, filled, and became a comwithout a struggle

, his heart having been pierced plete wreck. This was her first trip. Inclosed with six bullets.

is her charter to run cotton. As the Navajo expedition is now entirely suc

The annexed list shows that the Dare is the eessful, it is but justice to the officers and men twentieth steamer destroyed or captured by the of the First cavalry of New-Mexico, and to Wilmington blockaders since the middle of July Colonel Christopher Carson and his staff, to say last, making an average loss of one steamer för that they have all acted with zeal and devotion

every nine days to the blockade-runners, under for the accomplishment of that great desidera- whose discouraging losses illegal trade with Wiltum—the removal of the Navajoes. Cut off

. from the enjoyments of civilized life, deprived mington is rapidly diminishing

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, of its luxuries, comforts, and even many of its


S. P. LEE, necessaries, and restricted to the exploration of

Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding N. A. B. G a wilderness and the castigation of an army of Hon. GIDEON WELLES, savages, who defied them and endeavored to find

Secretary of the Navy.



rebel cavalry, as several hundred were seen on WILMINGTON, N. C., January 9, 1864. the coast in the morning. It is my purpose to narrate in this letter the At daybreak the United States schooner George facts concerning the chase and destruction of the Manghan, blockading an inlet near by, came up blockade-runner steamer Dare by the United to the scene of action, and, owing to her light States steamers Montgomery and Aries, result- draught of water, was enabled to go close in ing in the capture of the executive officer, one shore and shell the rebel cavalry and coastengineer, and seventeen men from the Mont- guard. gomery, and one ensign, the captain's clerk, and The destroyed vessel proved to be the English seven men from the Aries, by rebel cavalry on steamer Dare, a splendid side-wheel vessel of the coast.

seven hundred tons, and was from Nassau, bound It seems that at early dawn on the morning of for Wilmington. the eighth, the Montgomery discovered a steamer Her cargo apparently was not large, and from apparently attempting to get away from the the facts gathered it is highly probable that blockading fleet, after an unsuccessful attempt to some important and distinguished rebel persons get into Wilmington during the night. Chase were on board, and the only object of the vessel was immediately given, when the steamer hoisted was to get them safe into rebeldom. the rebel flag, and soon after the Aries hove in The Dare was chased a distance of sixty miles. sight and joined in the chase. Notwithstanding It is possible that some of the unfortunate boat's the well-known speed of the two vessels, it was crew may have been lost, but it is to be hoped evident that the rebel was getting the best of it. that all are alive. The bravery and nobleness of Several shots were fired at her, and it was after-conduct on the part of Acting Master George H. ward proved that one took effect in one of her Pendleton is commendable in the very highest paddle-boxes. Later in the chase a strong and degree. Third Assistant Engineer George M. favorable breeze for the Union steamers came up, Smith, of the Montgomery, and Mr. Parkand with full sail and steam it was certain that man, Captain's Clerk, of the Aries, and one enthe blockade-runner could not get away. She sign of the same vessel, whose name I have not was determined not to be captured, however; learned, are among the captured. and, after all hope of escape was gone, she headed I have also to state the circumstances attend. in for the land and was run ashore thirteen miles ing the destruction of the blockade-runner Bennorth-east of Georgetown Light, S. C. The digo but a few days since. It seems that this Montgomery and Aries immediately lowered vessel got ashore some miles down the coast their boats, and with armed crews boarded her, from the blockading fleet, and was discovered by not, however, until all hands on board had the flag-ship Fa-Kee, with Admiral Lee on board, gained the land.

and immediately opened fire upon her, and was The surf at the time was running very high, soon after joined by the Mongomery. Both vesand the sea was striking the grounded vessel sels now tired at the Bendigo, and by evening heavily, thus making the matter of boarding ex- several shots had taken effect

. Early the next tremely dangerous and difficult. Had it not morning the Bendigo was boarded by a boat exbeen for this, the steamer could have been taken pedition from the Montgomery, Iron Age, and off and made useful to our Government. After Daylight, in charge of Acting Master George H. setting her on fire, the officers and crew made to Pendleton, and was destroyed. Four valuable the boats.

A very trying time for the boats' blockade-runners-the steamers Ceres, Antonica, crew now ensued. The surf was so high that it Bendigo, and Dare-have in this way been dewas almost impossible to push from the burning stroyed off Western Bar, Wilmington, since the vessel. Six boats had escaped the danger when sixth day of December. The question may natuit was discovered that a boat from the Aries had rally be asked, how it is that so many blockadebeen swamped, and all hands were foundering runners are now so suddenly and rapidly being in the water. George H. Pendleton, Acting Mas- destroyed while running into port. ter and Executive Officer of the Montgomery, in In my mind the question is easily answered. charge of a launch, at once returned to the rescue It is well known that the lightship which has of the unfortunate men, and succeeded in taking been stationed off Fryingpan Shoal, which is the five from the surf. Having accomplished this dangerous approach to Wilmington, was blown noble and daring act, he was again nearing his off in a gale of wind; and while these four steamer, when others were seen in the waves. steamers have been destroyed, no lightship has

once more to the good work, his boat been at this place. soon became unmanageable, and was thrown on That the blockade-runners have made this light

a most important point from which to take bearIt was impossible to render them any help. ings, etc., and have been governed by it altoWe could only feel thankful when we saw that gether while running in or out, is most evident. they were safe on land.

Without it, they are obliged to take the land as a Night coming on, the Montgomery and Aries guide, and in so doing at night get in shoal lay by at anchor until morning, with the hope of water and aground, and are then discovered by recovering the unfortunate officer and men. It our gunboats and destroyed. Was then, however, discovered that they had un- The Montgomery has just arrived here from fortunately been captured during the night by destroying the Dare. The Aries remained be


the beach.


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hind, and it is hoped that when she returns would skedaddle. The crew represent the cargo something will be known of the captured officers to consist of thirty-eight bales of upland cotton, and men.

forty-five boxes tobacco, and twenty-five barrels I will only add that the Montgomery partici- spirits of turpentine. The vessel is about forty pated in the destruction of three of the steamers tons, and is built of Georgia pine, and, with mentioned in this letter.

cargo, will probably realize something like thirty thousand dollars. This vessel is rather a queer

specimen of shipbuilding, and by looking at this Doc. 66.

novelty one can easily see what men will underCAPTURE OF THE ANNIE THOMPSON. rannical rule of the Southern Confederacy.

take (meaning the passengers) to escape the ty. St. CATHERINE'S SOUND, GA., Feb. 6, 1864. On Saturday, January fifteenth, we were startled by the cry of “Sail ho!" and what could be

Doc. 67. more welcome to a blockader that is short of

EXPEDITION INTO ALABAMA. provisions; but, to our astonishment, it came from the direction of the Medway River; and when this was known, the excitement was be

NASHVILLE, Tenx., Feb. 12, 1864. yond description. There, not over nine miles, On the twenty-fifth of last month, the ponin what is known as Milliken's Creek, lay the toons which had been in Mud Creck were ferried identical craft we had been watching for about six down the Tennessee, to Larkins Ferry, by the weeks, and we were to lose her after all. No! Eighth Missouri. The construction of a ponsays our Executive, we will try and see what toon-bridge was at once commenced under the can be done. Volunteers were in abundance, all superintendence of Captain Jenny, Engineer of hands wishing to say they had done something General Sherman's staff. By nine o'clock of the for their country's cause; the boat was ready for twenty-sixth the bridge was completed, the work the start, and the order was countermanded, as having been done during the night by the pioneer the vessel went out of sight behind Milliken's corps of the First and Second divisions. General Point. “

Now, boys, our prize has slipped.” “No, Logan had intended to take the personal comshe has not,” says Executive, "for you will see mand of the expedition, but on the eve of its deher again.” “Yes, and that will be all the bene- parture was taken suddenly ill, and the comfit we'll derive from her," says one of the boys. mand devolved upon Brigadier-General Morgan

There she is again, in full sight; call away the L. Smith. first cutter !” and off started our Irish smack, Twelve miles south of the Tennessee, at this with twelve men and an officer for the expected point, is a ridge of mountains running nearly prize.

parallel to the river, and known as Sand MounAfter a hard pull of about an hour, we came tain. Between it and the Tennessee is a low up to within a mile of the stranger; at this point, quicksand bottom, that in rainy weather becomes we set our colors, which were greeted with as very muddy. This valley was heretofore pretty loud a cheer as ever resounded over the waters thickly settled, and at the time I speak of had a of St. Catherine's. When within musket-shot, considerable population. Since the commencethe two bow-oarsmen take in their oars, and ment of the rebel conscription, a number of rebel pick up their muskets, ready for the first suspi- officers with small squads of troops have been in cious movement on board of the would-be block- the valley for the purpose of conscripting the inade-runner. We ran alongside, and jumped on habitants liable to military duty. Considerable board, with pistol in hand. Four men being on numbers have been hurried away froin their board, our officer inquires : What vessel is homes to the army, and others have been comthis ?" "The sloop Annie Thompson.' “Where pelled to hide in the mountains to avoid a comfrom ?"

Sunbury." "Where are you bound ?" pulsory service in a cause they disliked. “Nassau.” " Where is she owned ?

Since the occupation of the line between Stevannah."

venson and Huntsville, these squads have been "You are a prize to the United States bark doing picket-duty in our front. Fernandina. Boys, set our colors."

General Smith, as soon as the bridge was conThere, not over one thousand yards, was the structed, crossed with six regiments of his divivillage of Sunbury, guarded by a rebel picket of sion, and made dispositions to capture these offiten men, who witnessed the capture of one of cers and their squads. Two regiments, under their craft at their very door-sills.

the command of Colonel A. D. Parry, of the Of the four men found on board, two claimed Forty-seventh Ohio, were despatched to the juncto be passengers and two claimed to be crew; tion of Santa Rosa and Town Creeks. A second and they state that they were trying to run the force of two regiments, under Colonel Theodore blockade on the previous night, but had ground-Jones, of the Thirtieth Ohio, were sent to Gourd ed and were unable to get her off. The captain, Neck; while two regiments, under Major Frofearing a capture, left at daylight, taking with man, of the One Hundred and Sixteenth Illinois, him all of the nautical instruments belonging to made a forced march of twelve miles to Smith's the vessel. The pilot has run the gauntlet seve- Gap, in Sand Mountain. General Smith accomral times; but he, like the captain, thought he' panied the force under Major Froman. The dif

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