Page images

rays; I feel energy anew arising up in my heart, been destroyed and trampled under foot. Do and a new inspiration appealing to the manhood you love your dwellings? They have been reof every citizen of our Confederacy, stimulating duced to ashes. Do you love your wives and him to renewed efforts in the great cause in daughters? They have been dishonored and which we are engaged. When I look to your outraged wherever this infamous invader has army, I find that its ranks are being filled up planted his foul footsteps upon Southern soil. day by day, and the roll of honor increasing with If there be the hearts of men beating in your every morning and evening's sun. The spirit of bosoms, I appeal to you, by the discharge of these brave men is unbroken. Would that our your duty in this hour of your trial, see to it people throughout the land could gather the in- that this desolation-this dishonor-comes not spiration as it rises around the camp-fires of our upon you and your household. army. Despair would cease among them, and Is there a man within the hearing of my voice, despondency give way before a bright and prom- whether Georgian or not, who does not feel that ising sun.

it is his duty, the duty of his neighbor, and the My friends, I come to-night to address myself duty of every man within the limits of the Conto Georgians. Deeply as every portion of our federacy, to go forward as his country calls for people are interested in the present condition of and demands his services in the field ? You ask the country, to none does it come with more and me, shall the other great interests of the country deeper interest than to the people of Georgia. I be abandoned ? I say, No. Your agricultural, am a Georgian, proud of my native State. I was mechanical, and other interests should be attend. born upon her soil, nurtured in her bosom, edu-ed to and preserved, and neither your President, cated in her faith. All that I am, all that I hope your Congress or your generals, nor any portion ever to be, I owe to her. Beneath her soil sleep of your country, demand any such sacrifice at the bones of my fathers and those of my own off your hands. When men talk about calling spring, and, sooner or later, I must lie down by every body into the field, and abandoning all their side. I love this old commonwealth. The other interests of the country, they talk wildly, affections of my heart gather around this old and raise a phantom that they may fight it. State. I love her mountains and her valleys; I You ask me what number of men our country love her history in the past and in the present, needs at this time? I cannot tell you.

I am and I hope I shall love it in the future; but, not possessed of the information to give you an thank God. I have a heart big enough to love answer upon which you may act. every inch of soil over which floats the proud I have told you who cannot answer this quesbanner of our Southern Confederacy.

tion. There is one other class-high, honorable, To you, then, my brethren of Georgia, I come worthy of your respect and confidence-equally to-night to make an appeal. Your soil is invad- unable to answer this question. They are the ed, your homes are threatened. Do you wish to men who are called upon to sit in habeas corpus know what it is to have a Yankee army encamp- courts. The man whose patriotism has sunk so ed in the heart of your State? Do you wish to low as to want a habeas corpus court to decide realize the desolation which would follow the whether he is to go into the army or not, does track of a merciless and cruel enemy? If so, go not deserve the liberty which is won by the to Virginia, Tennessee, Kentucky, and let their strong arms of others. burned villages, their desolate homes, their pro- My friends, do you remember about two years perty of every kind destroyed, teach you the and a half ago, when the summons came pealing lesson. Do you hope to fare better than your in your ears that your country was invaded, and brethren of those States? Is there burning in calling upon her sons to go in her defence ? your hearts a whining spirit of Unionism, by What was the response ? You saw, then, your which you hope to commend yourselves to the noble brethren gathering around the flag of their tender mercies of this heartless foe? I tell you country-brave and true men-old and youngto-night that the few poor, miserable persons- beardless boys and gray-headed fathers. In dishonored in name and reputation-who have those days briefless lawyers sat quietly in their sought in this way to save themselves from the offices, and honest judges were never summoned effects of Yankee rapacity, have been everywhere to try cases before habeas corpus courts. There treated with the same cruelty and outrage that was no hunting down judges of superior courts have been visited upon the true and loyal men. to get them to decide whether brave men should I do thank God that they have been treated in go in defence of their country, or let the infamous this

way, and if there be any such traitors to our invader run wildly over it. Those brave boys cause within the borders of my native State, I were the first who left for the defence of their pray heaven that they may be treated in like country; and where are they now? My coun

trymen, many of them sleep in their graves, No, my friends, ours is a common fate and a many are in hospitals, many go about the councommon destiny, and I thank God that it is so. try on crutches, and many are gathered to-night We must all be free, or all be slaves. We must around the camp-fires-all true, generous, noble all live or all perish. If you read the history of souls—who have labored from that hour to the the outrages which the Yankees perpetrated in present, and are yet willing to labor in driving Virginia and Tennessee, you will see that it must back the invader. Why are judges now holding

Do you love your property ? It has their courts out of season? It is to try the ha


be so.

beas corpus case of a man the liberty of whose planters and the farmers of the country, and I country has been trampled upon-whose rights apprehend I have the pleasure, to-night, of adhave been disregardeda hale, healthy, hearty dressing many of them, must come up to the man, who is able to go to the field, but never work. Your country calls upon you to make has been, and asks the judge to sit at chambers sacrifices. I shall not attempt to mince words to to free him from the service which he owes his you; I say sacrifices; and your duty requires country. I believe my brethren of the bar have you to make them. You tell me that the govwhat they call a black letter book, and I tell you ernment should have your produce; all you ask all the authorities upon it are cited.

is just compensation. How much better are you Who, then, I say, shall decide the question ? than the enemy? If the enemy could furnish us You cannot. I cannot, but the Constitution of with corn and meat, they would do so for a just your country has declared who shall decide it - compensation. You demand, again, just comin whose hands such power and such discretion pensation for your produce. Have you ever shall be intrusted. I care not whether you are asked yourselves what would be a just compenthe friend or the enemy of your President. I sation to that soldier who has lost an arm or leg, care not whether you are in the list of his or who, a few months ago, was strong and hearty, devoted friends or among those who have raised but now with tottering steps goes through our up a standard of opposition to him. I come streets, soon to be a victim for the grave ? not here to-night to eulogize or praise, but to Tell me, my fellow-planter, what would be a speak of our duty. We have a President se- just compensation to him ? Where is the trealected by our own unanimous voice, chosen for sury to pay him for his loss? Who is to give the discharge of high and responsible duties. just compensation to his widowed wife and orInto his hands we have committed this power. phaned children ! Talk not, my friends, of just That he may have sometimes erred none will compensation. Let us hear no more of this from deny. His worst enemy will not say that he farmers going to county meetings and setting has been false to his trust. Upon him the Con- down the last dollar which they can put upon stitution and laws of your country have devolved the price of their produce. For whom does your the responsibility of saying who shall and who government demand this produce — for whom shall not be called into the field. No other tri. does it ask it? For your sons—those brave solbunal can decide that question. We must leave diers that cheerfully went forth at the first call this power to him, or all must be lost. I ask of your country. Do you love your corn, your you to-night as patriots, as men who love your bacon, and your wheat more than you love the country and are desirous of preserving your children of your own loins ? You sent them to liberties, when your President summons you to encounter dangers and death upon the battlethe field, will you respond to the call? Geor- field. They, with their comrades, stand as sengians, will you go? Will you falter ? Shall it tinels to-night to guard and defend you and your be written of you in the future history of your property, and they ask of you provisions to feed country, that when the enemy was upon one them. Do you pause to count up the cost and border of your country, and the other threatened ascertain how much profit you can make before by that enemy; when your soil was the theatre you will sell them ? If your government can of this war; your homes, your families and fire-pay you just compensation, have confidence to sides involved in the issue, you remained quiet believe that it will be done. Suppose it cannot at home, and trusted your defence in the hands pay but one half, or one fourth of what your of those brave men of other States, who are this provisions are worth in the market, I appeal to night in the faithful discharge of their duty ? you as men, as patriots, as men in whose hearts It cannot, it must not be. Better meet the ene- beat the warm instincts of humanity, will you my at the door-sill than wait for him at the hug your corn and your meat to your bosom, hearth-stone. Better stand by the side of those while your soldiers are hungering in the field? brave men in the front, than meet the desolation Had you rather sell your provisions a half-dolthat will come upon you after their shattered lar higher in the bushel or pound, or had you ranks shall have been driven back. I trust that not rather give it to them than that it should be you will, and that we shall have no more of that written in history that while your granaries and complaining spirit which has led some to shun your meat-houses were full, your brave defendthe service which they owed to their country. ers could not keep off the enemy because they

My friends, not only must we go forward to could not be fed ? You must come up to your the field in the discharge of this duty, but there duty. I appeal to you as men loving your counare other duties to be performed by those who try and your kindred. Complain not if the strong will not be called to the field. Our planters and arm of the law shall put its clutches upon your our farmers have their duty to perform, and this property, if you refuse to do at this hour what is one of deep responsibility. These brave men duty demands at your hands. I know not what must be fed. I apprehend there is not a man, others may do; I speak only for myself; but, as woman, or child within the hearing of my voice God is my judge, so long as my country intrusts who does not respond with all his heart when I me with the command of any portion of these declare, again, this army must be fed. These brave men, they shall not starve, if there be probrave men have enough to endure, enough to visions in the country and I can get them, law suffer, without the sufferings of hunger. The or no law. I tell you, my friends, you may denounce me as revolutionary ; I may outrage the will tell you he has to pay so large a price that sensibilities of some who love their property he cannot afford to sell for less. Go to the man dearly ; but liberty is dearer to me than property, he bought it from, and the same story is told, and the brave men who defend that liberty are and so on. It is not for me to decide who is to dearer to me than the men who withhold the blame. I know not at whose door the fault lies, provisions from them. They may denounce me but it must rest somewhere; the responsibility for this sentiment, as I denounce them for their must rest upon the conscience of some man that conduct; the result is, that we will entertain for can be reached. I confess frankly to you, that each other mutual disgust.

with all my confidence in our cause, with all my I do not pretend to deny that many officers of devotion to it, my heart sinks within me when the government have done wrong, and committed these scenes are passing before my view. I ask outrages. I do not justify them ; but it is better myself the question : Can a kind Providence, a to endure some of these wrongs and bear these God of mercy and justice, bless a people among outrages than to lose liberty and all. What is whom these wrongs are perpetrated ; these outthat property of yours worth if the enemy gets rages practised ? possession of your country? What are your I know, my friends, that our people have done rights in the hands and under the control of the well by the soldiers' families; I know that in minions of Lincoln ? You must choose between many counties ample provisions have been made our own people and our own government, and for their support, but in others only a small the people and the government of your enemy. yearly pittance has been provided, which will There is no middle ground. One or the other scarcely pay the expense of going to market and must have your provisions. One or the other obtaining a week's supply for the family. See to must be supplied from your granaries. These it that no soldier's wife or child shall suffer and brave soldier boys of our own kith and kindred you be responsible for it. To those who have must either feed upon your meat and bread, or much or have accumulated much, to them I apthe Yankees must feed upon them, and I tell you peal—to their liberality, their generosity-to frankly if you refuse to let the government have their sense of justice. Let it be written of us as your provisions, and you could be separated in it was written of others in the olden time: “ He one portion of the land by yourselves, I would that had gathered much had nothing over, and not care how soon the Yankees got possession of he that had gathered little had no lack.” Let both then and you.

this be the rule of your conduct. There is but one class of men in our commu- You ask me, then, what of the condition of my nity meaner than the speculator and extortioner, country? My friends, I say it all depends upon and that is the man who is unwilling to let his yourselves. I have never, in so short a space of produce go for the support of our brave soldiers time, thought so much of the condition of the in the field. What better are you than specula- country in reference to the dangers by which we tors and extortioners, who cling to your provi- are surrounded and the duties we are called upon sions with a starving army upon your border? to perform. You ask me now in reference to the What is the speculator and extortioner but the dangers. Tell me first, are you doing any thing man who loves gold and property more than life in reference to the discharge of your duty ? Has and liberty? Is not that your case? And do your spirit been aroused and excited by those you think that you satisfy the demands of your dangers ? Are you prepared to give your life, if country and of your own conscience, because you need be, to your country, and go to the field, if agree with others in this denunciation of Yan- required ? Are you prepared to furnish from kees? If there is any man in this wide world your granaries the provisions necessary to feed who hates the Yankee race worse than I do, I our armies ? Answer me these questions and am sorry for him, because he must have devoted then I can tell you what of the night. If you his whole heart to the work; but I tell you, and answer me that you are ready to discharge these the history of this war will bear me out in the duties, then I can answer that all is well. assertion, that many true-hearted Southern men It is the answer of our brave soldiers in the were born at the North, and some of the vilest field. There is with them no spirit of despondYankees that ever disgraced this earth were born ency. They are unbroken in spirits; firm, true, at the South.

and steadfast to the cause in which they are enThere is another duty which we are called upon gaged. They stand there as a band of brothers, to perform. Not only must these brave men be fearless and defiant of danger. Tell me of the clothed and fed and supported in the field, but thousands and thousands that the enemy have their families must be provided for and taken concentrated for the spring campaign. I tell you care of at home. When I see a soldier's wife, that all Yankeedom, assisted by abolition sympawhose little ones are dependent upon her labor thizers throughout the civilized world, cannot for support, go into one of the stores of Atlanta, conquer and subjugate the South if you are true and she is asked to pay from ten to twenty dol- to yourselves and your country. lars per bushel for meal, and corresponding prices Therefore, choose you this night! Your fate for other articles necessary for the support and is in your own hands. Are you looking forward comfort of that family, I am compelled in my with a hope which has no residing place in your heart to say there is some great wrong some conviction, and is only fitting through your where. I know if you go to the merchant he i mind, that, perhaps, after all, soine foreign interference will come to our rescue to save and 'pre-except skirting along the bay for the distance of serve us from the enemy? Banish it from your fifteen miles, to make sure that the work of deminds; it is a wild and visionary dream; it is a struction had been well performed by them. false delusion. The sympathy of the world is Deserters from Captains Anderson and Robagainst you. If you are cowards, you will falter inson's companies reported subsequently that and faint when the fact is announced to you ; if both officers and men had broken up and gone you are brave men, it will arouse in your hearts home, as the destruction of the salt works which the spirit of true manhood, which you have in they were ordered to guard had been so complete, herited from your revolutionary fathers and moth- and six of them have enlisted in the navy, after ers, and inake you truer than ever to your coun- taking the oath of allegiance. try and her cause.

Acting Master Brown again speaks in terms Do you look forward with some hope to what of commendation of the officers and men enhas been termed the conservative element of the gaged in this service, including Acting Ensign North, and expect to be preserved and protected Cressy and the five men composing the crew of by it from Lincoln's power and dominion ? Ban- the steamer Bloomer. Respectfully, ish the fatal delusion. Conservatism at the North

THEODORUS BAILEY, lies prostrate in the dust. In their mad efforts Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding E. G. Blockading Squadron. to take away our liberties, they have lost their own. They are as powerless to aid you as they

Doc. 61. are to protect themselves. You must either submit to Lincoln and abolitionism, or, by your own BATTLE OF GETTYSBURGH. unaided arm, with the blessing of a kind Providence, win your liberty and your independence.

NEW-YORK, March 1, 1864. Think not that there is a power at the North to The battle of Gettysburgh is the decisive batrestore to you the Constitution and the Union as tle of this war. It not only saved the North they were, even if you were prepared to accept from invasion, but turned the tide of victory in it. You must either be freemen or you must our favor. The opinion of Europe on the failure submit to Lincoln, and he has given you his of the rebellion dates from this great conflict. terms.

How essential, then, that its real history should I put the picture before you. Do you stagger be known! Up to this moment no clear narrabefore it, or does it arouse within you anew the tive has appeared. The sketches of the press, spirit of resistance, the spirit of freemen, worthy the reports of Generals Halleck and Meade, and of the ancestry from which we sprung? Look the oration of Mr. Everett give only phases of at these things; consider well of them, and let this terrible struggle, and that not very correctus, with hearts purged and purified with afflic- ly. To supply this hiatus, I send you a con. tions, appeal to Him who alone can give victory nected and, I hope, lucid review of its main feaand success to our arms.

tures. I have not ventured to touch on the thrilling incidents and affecting details of such a

strife, but have confined myself to a succinct reDoc. 60.

lation of its principal events and the actors thereAFFAIR IN ST. ANDREW'S BAY, FLA. honor to the fallen and justice to the survivors

in. My only motive is to vindicate history--do

when unfairly impeached. UNITED STATES FLAG-SHIP SAN JACINTO,

General Meade took command of the army of KEY WEST, Jan. 27, 1864.5 the Potomac on Sunday, the twenty-eighth of Hon. Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy: June, at Frederick, Maryland. On Monday, as

Sir: It affords me pleasure to report to the he states, the army was put in motion, and by department that the promise made by Acting Tuesday night the right tank had reached ManMaster William R. Brown, commanding the bark chester and the left occupied Emmettsburgh. Restless, at the conclusion of his last report con- General Buford's cavalry had advanced as far as cerning the destruction of the extensive salt Gettysburgh, and reported that the confederate works in the vicinity of St. Andrew's Bay - army was debouching from the mountains on namely, that he would complete the work so the Cashtown road. Upon this intelligence Genhandsomely begun—appears to have been kept. eral Reynolds was ordered to advance on Gettys

He reports that he went on board the burgh with the First and Eleventh corps, which stern-wheel steamer Bloomer, with two officers he reached early on the first of July, and found and forty-seven men belonging to the Restless, Buford's cavalry already engaged with the eneand proceeded up the bay, against very unfavor- my—the corps of General Hill. Rapidly making able circumstances of darkness, wind, and tide, his dispositions, General Reynolds joined in the some ten miles above St. Andrew's, where his conflict, and soon fell mortally wounded. The force was, and destroyed some ninety additional command of the field then devolved on General salt works, together with all the boilers, kettles, Iloward, of the Eleventh corps, who maintained and buildings attached to them; whereupon the his position till about two o'clock p.1., when the enemy commenced the destruction of some two enemy was heavily reënforced by the arrival of hundred more which were in advance of our Ewell's corps. The battle now raged fearfully party, and thus saved us from all further trouble between Hill's and Ewell's corps on one side, and


the First and Eleventh corps on the other, till whole army to retire and take up the defensive about four P.M., when General Howard was com

on Pipe Creek almost at the moment that his pelled to yield to the superior numbers of the left flank was fiercely struggling with the right enemy and fall back, losing many prisoners, wing of the enemy. This proves how often the nearly four thousand — to the south side of plans of a general are frustrated by unlooked-for Gettysburgh. His position was eminently criti- contingencies. cal, when, to the great relief of both the General

General Meade broke up his quarters at Taneyand our valiant troops, a division of the Third town, as he states, at eleven P.M. on Wednesday, corps, under the immediate command of General and reached Gettysburgh at one a.m. Thursday, Sickles, arrived, and the fighting for that day July second. Early in the morning he set to was at an end. It should be mentioned that the work examining the position of the various army Third corps was stationed at Emmettsburgh, by corps. It is hardly true to say that he imitated order of General Meade, with a view to protect the example of all prudent commanders on the that important point; but information continuing eve of a battle, and made a complete survey of to reach General Sickles that the First and Elev- the ground he occupied. enth corps were in great danger,* he decided to

It was on these occasions that the genius of assume the grave responsibility of moving to the First Napoleon revealed itself; for at a glance their relief without orders. Leaving two bri- he saw the advantages of his own position and the gades at Emmettsburgh, he made a forced march assailable point of the enemy. “It seems that of ten miles, in spite of the heat and dust, in General Lee was somewhat more astute than three hours, and had the satisfaction to be hailed Meade in this; for in his report he states what by General Howard on his reaching the field he deemed “the most favorable point” for his with the flattering phrase, “ Here you are, Gen- attack. “In front of General Longstreet," (operal-always reliable, always first !"- -a generous posite our left wing,) Lee remarks," the enemy tribute from one soldier to another. General held a position from which, if he could be driven, Slocum, of the Twelfth corps, had arrived a it was thought our army could be used to advan short time before ; but his corps was then some tage in assailing the more elevated ground befour miles distant. In the wirly part of the yond, and thus enable us to reach the crest of evening (Wednesday) a conference of the lead- the ridge. That officer, then, was directed to ing generals took place, when some insisted on carry this position.” It is plain enough that Lee falling back toward Taneytown, while others regarded the point where our left was posted as urged the expediency of maintaining their pres

the key to our position, and if that could be ent position as offering rare advantages for the taken from us our defeat was inevitable. It is inevitable and decisive contest that must occur not to be supposed that General Meade refused on the following day. It appears that General to see this; but as he makes no mention of it Meade had issued a circular (of which I saw sev- in his report, I propose, for the sake of the fual copies) on the morning of Wednesday, July ture historian of the battle, to tell what I know first, to all his corps commanders, stating that about it. his advance had accomplished all the objects

Near this important ground was posted the contemplated-namely, the relief of Harrisburgh valiant Third corps, and its commander, General and Philadelphia—and that he would now desist Sickles, saw at once how necessary it was to ocaltogether from the offensive. He proposed to cupy the elevated ground in his front toward the post the whole army in line of battle on Pipe Emmettsburgh road, and to extend his lines to Creek, the right flank resting on Manchester and the commanding eminence known as the Roundthe left on Middleburgh, involving an entire top, or Sugarloaf Hill. Unless this were done, change of front, and there await the movements the left and rear of our army would be in the of the enemy:

The position which General greatest danger. Sickles concluded that no time Meade had selected for the final struggle be- was to be lost, as he observed the enemy masstween the two armies was some fifteen miles ing large bodies of troops on their right, (our distant from Gettysburgh, where fate willed that left.), Receiving no orders, and filled with anxit should occur. Whether this important circu- iety, he reported in person to General Meade and lar ordering him to fall back reached the lamented urged the advance he deemed so essential. “Oh!" Reynolds before he became engaged at Gettys- said Meade, “ generals are all apt to look for the burgh it is difficult to say. It could not have attack to be made where they are.” Whether failed to reach General Sickles ; but he happily this was a jest or a sneer Sickles did not stop to determined to push on to the rescue of the First consider, but begged Meade to go over the ground and Eleventh corps, already engaged. It is with him instantly; but the Commander-instrange that General Meade should make no Chief declined this on account of other duties. mention in his report of this singular and most Yielding, however, to the prolonged solicitations important fact: that he issued å plan of cam- of Sickles, General Meade desired General Hunt, paign on Wednesday, July first, directing his Chief of Artillery, to accompany Sickles and re

port the result of their reconnoissance. Hunt cation reached him, which accidentally fell into my hands : pied—the advance line from the left of the Second

* Besides numerous reports, the following brief communi- concurred with Sickles as to the line to be occu"July 1, Gettysburgh. General SICKIES : General Doubleday (First corps) says : For God's sake, come up with all speed. corps to the Roundtop Hill – but he declined to They are pressing us hard. H. T. LEE, Lieut., A. D. C." give any orders until he had reported to General

« PreviousContinue »