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If they desert their cause they degrade themselves ship to all now in rebellion against the Governin the eyes of God and of man. They can do ment who may lay down their arms and return your cause no good, nor can they injure ours. to their allegiance.

As a great nation, you can accept none but an Second, the prosecution of the war until every honorable peace; as a noble people, you can attempt at armed resistance to the Government have us accept nothing less. I submit, there shall have been overcome. fore, whether the mode that I suggest would not I avail myself of the opportunity to forward an be more likely to lead to an honorable end than order publishing proceedings, finding, and sensuch a circulation of a partial promise of freedom. tence in the case of private E. S. Dodd, Eighth

I am, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient Texas confederate cavalry, who was tried, conservant,

J. LONGSTREET, demned, and executed as a spy.
Lieutenant-General Commanding. I also inclose the copy of an order which I

have found it necessary to issue in regard to the
KNOXVILLE, E. T., January 7, 1861.

wearing of the United States uniforms by conLieutenant-General Commanding Forces in East

federate soldiers. Tennessee :

I have the honor to be, General, very respectSır: I have the honor to acknowledge the re- fully, your most obedient servant,

J. G. FOSTER, ceipt of your letter dated January third, 1864;

Major-General Commanding. you are correct in the supposition that the great object in view in the circulation of the Presi

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE OHIO, dent's proclamation is to induce those now in re

KNOXVILLE, TENN., January 8, 1561.5 bellion against the Government to lay aside their GENERAL ORDERS, No. 7. arms and return to their allegiance as citizens of Our outposts and pickets posted in isolated the United States, thus securing the reünion of places having in many instances been surprised States now arrayed in hostility against one an- and captured by the enemy's troops disguised as other and restoration of peace.

The immediate Union soldiers, the Commanding General is effect of the circulation may be to cause many obliged to issue the following order for the promen to leave your ranks, to return home or come tection of his command and to prevent a continuwithin our lines, and, in view of this latter course, ance of the violation of the rules of civilized warit has been thought proper to issue an order an

fare : nouncing the favorable terms on which deserters Corps commanders are hereby directed to will be received.

cause to be shot dead all rebel officers and sol. I accept, however, your suggestion that it diers wearing the uniform of the United States would have been more courteous to have sent arıny captured in future within our lines. these documents to you for circulation, and I

By command of Major-General Foster. embrace with pleasure the opportunity thus af


Assistant Adjutant-General. forded to inclose to you twenty (20) copies of

Official: Ed. N. STRONG, each of these documents, and rely upon your

Major and A.

D. C. generosity and desire for peace to give publicity to the same among your oflicers and men. I have the honor to be General, very respect

Doc. 33. fully,

Major-General Commanding. GENERAL WILD'S EXPEDITION.

January 17, 1864.

NORFOLK, VA., Monday, January 4. Lieutenant-General Longstreet, Commanding The success which crowned the late expedition Confederate Forces East- Tennessee :

of Colonel Draper, of the Second North-Carolina General: I have the honor to acknowledge (colored) regiment, to Princess Anne County, rethe reception of your letter of the eleventh inst. sulting in the enlistment of a large number of The admonition which you gave me against recruits, the release from bondage of hundreds trifling over the events of this great war does not of slaves, the discomfiture of the guerrillas and carry with it the weight of authority with which the capture of their chiel, induced General Wild, you seek to impress me.

the commander of the colored troops in this deI am, nevertheless, rearly to respond, in plain partment, with the approbation of Major-General ternus, to the suggestions conveyed in your first Butler, to plan a raid of a similar character, but letter, and which you quote in your second des on a much more extensive scale, beyond our lines patch, that I communicate through you any into North-Carolina. This plan was in one reviews which the United States Government may spect entirely original. The success of a raid is entertain, having for their object the speedy res usually made to depend upon the secrecy with toration of peace throughout the land.

which it is undertaken, and the rapidity with These views, so far as they can be interpreted, which it is executed-á dash into the enemy's from the policy of the Government, and sus-country, rest nowhere, and a hasty return. But tained by the people at their elections, are as General Wild resolved to be absent a month, to follows:

occupy and evacuate towns at his leisure, relying First, the restoration of the rights of citizen- upon a novel species of strategy and the bayonets


of his sable braves to recross our lines in safety trial of the guerrilla chief, whom he had lately when his work should be accomplished.

captured, I was in the saddle and on my way Collecting his available forces about one thither-a dismal, lonely ride before me of nearly thousand eight hundred men-at two points, the fifty miles. We left the camp near Portsmouth intrenched camp four miles from Norfolk, and a about nine o'clock in the evening, and, dashing point conveniently distant from Portsmouth, the into the darkness, arrived in an hour at Deep columns marched at daylight on the fifth ult., Creek, where a regiment of General Getty's leaving so secretly that your correspondent was brigade is now stationed. A brief delay here, the only representative of the press aware of the caused by the countersign differing from the one movement, and a week later the public first in our possession, and we entered the tow-path learned, through the Times, that the main object of the Dismal Swamp Canal, which commences of the raid had been accomplished.

at this point. Passing several picket-fires, at The column, commanded by General Wild in each of which a cavalryman cried, “Dismount person, consisting of the Second North-Carolina one; advance, and give the countersign!” we and the Fifth United States, encamped the first came at length to the reserve. This consisted of night at Deep Creek, nine miles from Portsmouth. some twenty men, belonging to the Fifth PennFollowing the tow-path of the Dismal Swamp sylvania cavalry, who were seated around a blazCanal, which commences here, a march of h-ing fire of fence-rails, near a deserted house, with teen miles was accomplished the next day, the several prisoners that had been brought in. This men encamping at night on Ferrebee's farm. A we learned was the last of our picket-posts, that halt was made here until the middle of the fol- it was twenty-five miles to Elizabeth City, and lowing day, boats with rations and forage being that there were plenty of guerrillas ahead. It expected to arrive. These not appearing, General was about midnight when we bade our friends Wild determined to advance, trusting to Provi- good-by, and entered the enemy's country. We dence and the country for the subsistence of his were now in the dreariest and wildest part of the

Dismal Swamp; the darkness was dense, the air Encamping that night at South-Mills, the col- damp, and the ghastly silence was broken only umn was started the next morning in the direc- by the hooting of owls and the crying of wilition of Camden Court-House. The region abound- cats. For two hours we rode through the Stygian ed in agricultural wealth, was thickly settled, and blackness of the forest, when we arrived at Southcontained many slaves. All visible contrabands Mills--a collection of about twenty houseswere invited to “fall in,” and parties were de- where we stopped to rest our horses. IIere we tailed to search the houses of the planters. In left the canal and descended into another swamp many instances the slaves were found locked up, of Hades. The narrow, crooked road was flooded when the doors were broken open, the teams of with water, and crossed innumerable little rickety their masters impressed, and they were taken bridges, over which our horses picked their steps along with their household property. In this with great caution and reluctance. A mile of way the train was hourly extended, until by this road to Jordan, a suspicion I had expressed night it was half a mile in length. The inhabit- that we had missed the way, strengthened every ants being almost exclusively “secesh," the minute. Turning a bend, a picket-fire, with four colored boys were allowed to forage at will along men standing by it, appeared ahead, while further the road. Returning to South-Mills, General on a large camp-fire lighted up the forest. What Wild sent his train of contrabands, numbering could this mean? We knew General Wild to be seventy-five wagons, under guard to Portsmouth. in Elizabeth City. Were our friends the guerA battery of artillery and two companies of cav. rillas on the war-path? or had a rebel force come alry, from General Getty's division, reinforced down from the Blackwater ? Turning our horses him here.

aside, after a brief consultation, we decided to Arriving at River Bridge the next day, it was advance, come what might. In a moment we found to have been destroyed by the guerrillas, were challenged. Colonel Draper dismounted, nothing of it remaining visible but the charred and led his horse toward the picket

. Presently tops of the piles. Learning that a house and we heard exclamations of welcome, and then a barn near by belonged to one of the guerrilla call of "All right-come on!” Riding up, we band, General Wild adopted a novel means to found that the picket was from Colonel Draper's restore the bridge and punish the bushwhacker own regiment, and learned that General Wild at the same time. In ten minutes, a thousand had left a considerable force behind to guard the men were engaged in demolishing the house and bridge he had built. I need not say that this barn; suitable portions of the timber were se- was an agreeable surprise. In a few moments lected and drawn to the creek, and in six hours we reached the camp, which presented a scene of the whole force was across and pushing on to singular picturesqueness. All about were strewn Elizabeth City.

timbers, boards, joists, shingles, and the miscelIntelligence having reached me that Elizabeth laneous debris of the buildings torn down, among City had been occupied by General Wild, with which, under shelter of every imaginable device, out opposition, a few hours after forwarding my the sable soldiers were stretched upon beds of despatch to that effect to the Times, in company corn-stalks, while a hundred blazing fires threw with Colonel Draper, of the Second North-Caro- their glare upon the sleeping figures, and lighted lina, who had been detained in Norfolk by the up the green cedar swamp around.

We were delayed an hour here, while the men Three Brothers-a little stern-wheel canal-boat, were relaying the planks of the bridge, when we used by General Wild to procure wood, and as a mounted our horses and posted on. We had now transport. Quartermaster Birdsall, of the First ten miles to Elizabeth City, and the road ran in United States, who had been installed commanddangerous proximity to a guerrilla camp. A hall er of this formidable craft, elated by his good foran hour of swamp and black darkness and we tune in capturing that day two stranded sloops, emerged from the forest at Ilintonsville, which which he maintained were blockade-runners, and consists of a church and a single dwelling-house. thinking to obtain a still nobler prize, put after Welcome dawn at length appeared, revealing a me at full speed, (two miles an hour,) and it was pleasant, open country, with spacious corn-fields for a time uncertain, in the darkness of the evenon every side. Smoke began to curl from the ing, whether I would not be towed back in trichimneys of the farm-houses; here and there an umph, lashed to the stern of his victorious early riser was drawing water from the well, or “wheelbarrow.” I afterward almost regretted opening the doors of the barn, while hundreds of that this had not happened, for the wind being larks were singing in the groves and orchards. dead ahead, we were the whole night beating to

As we rode into Elizabeth City, a little after the mouth of the river. The Sound reached, sunrise, I was surprised to see how its appear- with day break a furious wind arose, threatening ance had been changed by the war. Three years my frail craft with destruction. In fact, the pilot ago it was a busy and beautiful little city, noted pronounced the voyage impracticable, and we for the number of its stores and manufactories, were crossing to the rebel shore, where I had dethe extent and variety of its trade, for its enter termined to land and attempt to reach Plymouth prise and the rapid increase of its population. on foot, when a steamer was descried through Now most of the dwellings were deserted; the the fog. Tacking and steering for her, she proved stores all closed; the streets overgrown with to be the Whitehead, and I learned that Captain grass, its elegant edifices reduced to heaps of Flusser was on board the Miami, at the mouth ruins by vandal Georgian troops; the doors of of North River, whither the Whitehead was also the bank standing wide open, and a sepulchral bound. My boat was taken in tow, and in an silence brooded over the place. We found Gen- hour we were alongside the Miami. Captain eral Wild at his headquarters-the fine residence Flusser at once acceded to the General's reof Dr. Pool-standing on the piazza with a por- quest, and we were soon under way for Elization of his staff, and received a cordial welcome. beth City, before which we came to anchor about

I found that the attention of the General, af- noon. ter occupying the city, had been first turned to Meanwhile, detachments were sent in all directhe guerrillas who infested the neighborhood, and tions through the neighborhood to canvass that he had just sent out a force of one thousand the plantations for contrabands. One of three two hundred men, under command of Colonel Hol- hundred men, under command of Major Wright, man, of the First United States, in the direction was landed by the Frazier on Wade's Point, at of Hertford, where there was reported to be a the mouth of the Pasquotank, with orders to large camp of these villains. The expedition re- scour the Peninsula between the Pasquotank turned the next day, without accomplishing its and Little Rivers up to Elizabeth City, bringing object, all the bridges having been found de- in all the slaves that could be found. Major stroyed, and the guerrillas keeping themselves Wright returned with a train of thirty-eight öx, concealed. They were not far away, however, mule, and horse carts, containing the personal for a man who straggled from the column was property of two hundred and tifty slaves that foltaken prisoner by them.

lowed him into town. Almost hourly oflicers On Sunday morning the steamer Frazier ar- sent out on this service would report to the Genrived, with the intelligence that the gunboat eral the return of their commands, with the numNorth State, which had been sent from Old ber of teams taken and slaves liberated. In adPoint with orders to report to General Wild, had dition to this, slaves belonging to isolated planburst her steam-pipe, and was lying disabled in tations were constantly coming to headquarters Currituck Sound. This disaster promised to and asking the General to protect them in the prove a serious blow to the success of the expe- removal of their families. Seldom did such a redition, which contemplated coöperation by water. quest fail to insure the necessary detail of men. Besides, it was not improbable that a formidable The lately deserted streets of the city were rebel force might be sent hither from the Black-thronged with liberated slaves that came pouring water, in which case it would be impossible to in from the country in every direction with their retreat or to hold the city for any length of time household furniture. As rapidly as possible the without the aid of a gunboat. As no other ves- women and children, and such men sel could be procured from Fortress Monroe in physically unfit to serve as soldiers, were shipped less than a week, General Wild determined to to Roanoke Island, where a large negro colony send to Captain Flusser, commanding the naval has been founded under the care of Horace force at Plymouth, for assistance.

James, Accordingly, a sail-boat and a loyal pilot having Although the suppression of the guerrillas was been found, near sunset I set sail for Plymouth, considered by General Wild subordinate to the seventy-five miles from Elizabeth City. A few great object of his raid, which was to clear the miles down the river I encountered the privateer country of slaves and procure recruits for his




brigade, still as those highwaymen, calling them- home as souvenirs of rebeldom. The price paid selves the Sixty sixth North-Carolina volun- in United States postage currency was ten cents teers, and the “State Defenders," were constant for a dollar. Corn, of which the country is full, ly lurking in the neighborhood and nightly firing costs in rebel shinplasters, four dollars a bushel; on our pickets, and as they had not returned the in State currency, two dollars; in United States colored soldier they had taken, a "gorilla" hunt money it could probably be bought for twentywas determined upon. Accordingly, a force of five cents. Ordinary women's shoes cost in the five hundred men, under Colonel Holman, was money of the Southern Confederacy, one hundred sent against Captain Elliott's band of robbers, dollars a pair. As I have before remarked, there whose camp was known to be located near the is not a store open in the city, and the inhabittown. Following the Ilertford road six miles, ants depend exclusively for the few necessary to what is called the "Sandy Cross-Road,” and articles they obtain upon smuggling through our following this three miles, the men were deployed lines from Norfolk. Coffee and tea are unknown and ordered to advance through the swamp. In luxuries. half an hour the discharge of musketry and A grand expedition to Husford, in conjunction shouts from the colored boys proclaimed that with Captain Flusser's gunboats, having been the camp of the Sixty-sixth had been discovered. abandoned through a misunderstanding, the surThe valiant “State Defenders ” fled in confusion rounding region having been cleared of slaves, at the first fire, leaving their arms and several the guerrillas effectually chastised, General fine horses behind. The camp was burned, with Wild's mission in Elizabeth City had been fultwo large buildings, containing their winter store filled, and preparations were made to evacuate of forage and provisions. In the neighborhood, the place, the steamer Coleman and three schoonthe dwelling-house and barns of William T. ers were loader with contrabands and their efWright, their Commissary, were also burned, as fects, and a final contribution sent to the flourishwere subsequently the house and barn of Lieu- ing colony on Roanoke Island. Two hundred tenant Munden. Having carried out his orders, men, under command of Captain Frye, were sent Colonel Holman then returned to Elizabeth City to a point near the mouth of the Pasquotank, with his trophies and one guerrilla as prisoner. with orders to scour the country to Currituck The next morning General Wild received a letter Sound. The long train of wagons to accompany froin the guerrilla chief, stating that the colored the main column was ordered to be in readiness soldier had been sent to Raleigh, but that he by daylight the next morning, and lastly a courtwould set out at once for that city, see Governor martial was convened to try the prisoners in our Vance, and have him returned. At the com-possession, now numbering about twenty. Of mencement of the war General Wild was prac- these, eight were found guilty of various offences, tising medicine in Brookline, Massachusetts. and ordered to be taken to Norfolk; two were That he understands the guerrilla pathology, retained as hostages; the guerrilla was sentenced and can give a prescription that will cure every to death, and the rest were ordered to be distime, I think the Pasquotank bushwhackers will charged. The following morning the pickets were acknowledge.

called in, and the column moved, and in the On the fifteenth instant, Brigadier-General midst of a drenching rain the place was evacuWessel arrived from Plymouth on the steamer ated, having been held six days. Massasoit. The two Generals remained an hour About noon, the sun coming out, a halt was in consultation, when the Massasoit left for Roa- ordered. The General and his staff rolle forward noke Island. General Wessel's district com- to a small, unfinished building, designed for a prises the territory adjacent to the Albemarle post-oflice, standing upon a knoll at a cross-ronds. Sound, and his command consists of the One Sufficient boards and laths were knocked off to Hundred and First and One Hundred and Third afford an unobstructed view of the proceedings Pennsylvania, and the Eighty-fifth and .Ninety- from two sides; when one of the officers, producsixth New-York. His headquarters are at Ply- ing a cord, tied a hangman's knot at one end of mouth.

it, and, standing upon the head of an empty The General's headquarters are besieged from cider-barrel, maile the other fast to one of the daylight until dark by persons desiring passes joists overhead. After considerable experimenting, to and from the country, to reclaim horses and the barrel was made to serve for both the scaffold carts taken for the removal of the effects of the and the drop, being ingeniously balanced upon one slaves; to have guards stationed at their houses; of the floor-timbers, and held in place by a wedge to take the oath of allegiance, etc., etc. The which could be instantly removed. From this to General imposes very little office work on the one of the windows a board was laid, and thence members of his staff, doing nearly all the writing another to the ground outside, forming an inhimself. Having but one arm, this is especially clined plane. Meanwhile, most of the officers laborious, but it is his way. Nothing, however had riden forward, and tied their horses to the trivial, escapes his notice, and he personally su- fence of an adjacent farm-house, whose inmates perintends every thing.

had closed all the window-blinds, and a crowd The money in circulation here is confederate of colored soldiers encircled the building, watchtreasury notes and State currency. The day ing in silence these ominous proceedings. Lieu. after my arrival, I saw some of our officers pur- tenant-Colonel Shurtliff, of the Fifth United chasing confederate notes of the citizens to send States, was appointed spiritual adviser to tho


criminal, and went back with a guard to bring half a mile from the road, and get his son. The him to the place of execution. When informed General sent a lieutenant and twenty men along that he had but a few minutes to live, and was with him. A number of horses were seen feedcounselled to improve this time in making his ing in a corn-field. A squad of men were sent peace with God, he dropped upon his knees in to take two or three of them. A horse and a the road and prayed: “O merciful Father! look inule stood looking over the fence by the road. down upon me! O merciful Father! look down side. The horse “ fell in,” when the mule leaped upon me!” These words alone he repeated a the rails and also came along. Wherever a team hundred times, until the acting chaplain stopped could be found, it was borrowed or taken for the him. He then rose to his feet, walked up the in- benefit of such slaves as should not be fortunate clined board with a firm step, at the point of the enough to have masters owning any. Sometimes, bayonets of the colored guard, advanced quickly to save their teams, the planters would volunteer to the head of the cider-harrel, and stood under to bring their slaves along, which proposition the the noose. This being placed around his neck, General invariably accepted. While this was Colonel Shurtliff invoked the throne of grace going on, the farms were foraged to some extent. in behalf of the guilty wretch. As the word Geese, chickens, and turkeys everywhere abound"Amen" dropped from his lips, the General, ed, and the inhabitants being all "secesh,” tho who had taken charge of the drop, pulled the men were permitted to help themselves. On arwedge--the barrel tipped, the guerrilla dropped. riving at a house, the front-windows and doors He was a inan of about thirty, a rough, stout would invariably be found closed, when the men fellow, was dressed in butternut homespun, and would rush at once to the rear, and overrun the looked the very ideal of a guerrilla. He died of premises like so many ants, bringing away canstrangulation, his heart not ceasing to beat for teens full of milk, bridles for the spare horses, anil twenty minutes. Then a slip of paper was pinned a few similar articles. Thus the march continued, to his back, on which the General had previously the train of contrabands growing in length conwritten: "This guerrilla hanged by order of tinually, when an incident occurred worthy of a Brigadier-General Wild. Daniel Bright, of Pas- special paragraph. quotank County.” And the body was left hang- Toward the middle of the afternoon, our road ing there, a warning to all passing bushwhackers. skirting a densely wooded siramp, two horsemen

Encamping that night near River Bridge, the suddenly appeared ahead in the distance, slowly next morning the prisoners and the long contra. approaching us. Some of the General's stail, band train, with the cavalry and artillery, were riding forward to overhaul them, they wheeled sent forward to Norfolk, when General Wild their horses and retreated at full speed. Upon started with the remainder of his brigade for In- this all the mounted men, including the General, diantown, fifteen miles distant, in Camden Coun- put spurs to their horses, and an exciting chase ty, at which point Colonel Draper had been or- commenced. Along the road fast and furious dered to join him. At first, the country was dashed the pursued and the pursuers, the mud poor, and the houses were mean and far apart. and water flying as if a hurricane were sweepBut about noon we struck another road, and en- ing along. At length the two men, still some tered a region of great beauty and fertility, re- distance ahead, turned into the forest and disanminding one of the scenery of Indiana. Vast peared, when the chase was abandoned. We fields of corn, often a mile in extent, stretched soon came upon the house of one of these bandits, away into tall, green forests—the fences were in which was given to the flames. gsod repair, and the houses large, with numer. A mile ahead we encountered a party of Colous out-buildings. In no portion of the South onel Draper's men, which had been sent out to had I seen more magnificent plantations. Here meet us. The Colonel had just reached Indianthe work of “canvassing” began in earnest, and town, after a severe skirmish with the guerrillas, the march of the colored troops was that of an in which he had lost several men. In a few minarmy of liberation. The first plantation to which utes we reached the stately mansion of Dr. Mcwe came belonged to a man named Ferrebee. Intosh, of which alone the village now consists, Fourteen slaves were found in the negro quar- the rest of the houses having been burned. For ters. · Would they go with us?” “Yes.'' A convenience as well as security, Colonel Draper squad of men, detailed for the purpose, found a had encampe l his men on the Doctor's premises, cart under the shed, to which a horse, caught in which, in ad lition to the large dwelling-house, the pasture, was harnessed; the furniture be- comprised a spacious farm-yard and twenty or longing to the slaves was piled into it, the wo thirty outbuildings, Into the grounds our colmen and children were placed on the top, and umns soon poured, and a scene at once novel the first team of the contraband train took its and picturesque presented itself. The garden place in the procession. Meanwhile, detach- fences were speedily demolished, and fires sprang ments were sent ahead to every visible farm- up in all directions under the trees, while a large house to repeat this operation, and have the fire of fence-rails was burning in the road. A slaves ready to fall in by the time the rear-guard hundred horses were tied to every available should come along. Once a soldier came run-post and tree; a maze of carts, with their loads ning to the General in breathless haste. He be- of contrabands, inclosed the stables and extend. longed in the neighborhood, and wished permis- ed out into the adjoining corn-field; otlicers were sion to go to the house of his former master, a riding to and fro; squads of men were marching

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