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favorable opportunity to threaten and cut his up a rebel party known as the Confederate Vollines. In December last, he marched against unteer Coast-Guard, who were engaged in smugKinston, and on the fourteenth defeated the ene-gling goods across the Chesapeake from Marymy and captured the place. He then moved up land and the Eastern Shore. Most of these coastthe south side of the Neuse River to Goldsboro, guards were absent at the time, but the expediburned the railroad bridge at that place, and tore tion resulted in capturing one hundred and fifty up much of the railroad between the river and boats and schooners, and eighty head of beef Mount Olive. cattle.
He captured four hundred and ninety-six prisoners and nine pieces of artillery. His loss was ninety killed, four hundred and seventy-eight wounded, and nine missing. In March, the rebel General Pettigrew, with a large force of infantry and artillery, made a demonstration on Newbern, but was forced to abandon the attempt on that place. General Foster's loss was only two killed and four wounded. In April, General Hill laid siege to Washington, on Tar River. The place had only a small garrison, and was but slightly fortified. General Foster, however, immediately directed all his energies to strengthen the works so as to resist any assault till reinforcements arrived from Newbern, to raise the siege there. | No report of the losses on either side.
The navy has given efficient aid in all the operations in this department.
DEPARTMENT OF THE SOUTH.
The withdrawal, last year, of most of our troops in South-Carolina, to reenforce General McClellan on the Peninsula, compelled the Commanding General of that departiment to confine himself mainly to the defence of the points which he then occupied. An attack upon Fort Sumter and Charleston had long been in contemplation by the Navy Department, and in March last it was represented that the operations of the iron-clads and monitors would be greatly facilitated by a land force prepared to assist the attack, and to occupy any work reduced by the An expedition sent against a rebel camp at navy. Accordingly General Foster, with a conGum Swamp, in May, which captured one hun-siderable force and a large siege equipage, which dred and sixty-five prisoners and military stores, had been prepared for another purpose, was sent and another, in July, against Rocky Mount, on to assist in this naval attack. Tar River, which destroyed the bridge at that place and a large amount of rebel property, terninate the military operations in that State to the present time.
It was thought that his talents and experience as an engineer officer, and his personal knowledge of the localities and defensive works of Charleston harbor, rendered him peculiarly suited for On being compelled to abandon his attempt this duty; but not proving acceptable to the upon Washington, the rebel General Hill inarched Commanding General of the department, he was toward Nansemond to reënforce Longstreet, who permitted to return to his command in the Carowas investing Suffolk. Failing in his direct as- lina, leaving his troops and siege preparations in saults upon this place, the enemy proceeded to the Department of the South. The naval attack establish batteries for its reduction. General on Fort Sumter took place on the seventh of Peck made every preparation for defence of which April; but being unsuccessful, nothing, apparthe place was capable, and started the construc-ently, remained to be done by the land forces. tion of his works, till finally, the attempt was A siege of Charleston and its defences by land abandoned. Our loss in these operations was had never been attempted, and, therefore, was forty-four killed, two hundred and two wounded, no part of the plan. and fourteen missing. We captured four hundred prisoners and five guns during the siege.
It was now represented by the Navy Department that a second attack upon Fort Sumter and Charleston was preparing, and that its suecess required the military occupation of Morris Island, and the establishment of land batteries on that island, to assist in the reduction of Fort Sumter.
As Suffolk possessed no advantages as a military post, and was not susceptible of a good defence, the garrison was afterwards withdrawn within the new lines constructed around Norfolk. When the rebel army was moving North, upon Maryland and Pennsylvania, General Dix sent all of his available force from Norfolk and Fortress Monroe up the York River, for the purpose of cutting off Lee's communications with Richmond and of attacking that place, which was then defended by only a handful of militia. The expedition, however, failed to accomplish a single object for which it had been fitted out.
The failure resulting, as it was alleged, from the inefficiency of one of the generals commanding, General Dix, therefore, ordered its return, and sent the troops of which it was composed to reinforce the army of General Meade, north of the Potomac. On the fifth of October, BrigadierGeneral Wistar was sent with a small force, aided by gunboats, to Matthew County, Virginia, to break
The establishment of these batteries and the reduction of the enemy's works, Fort Wagner and Battery Gregg, being a matter of engineering skill, Brigadier-General (now Major-General, Q. A. Gillmore was selected to command the land forces engaged in these operations. In addition to being an educated and skilful military engi neer, he had considerable experience in the special duties required in these operations. General Gillmore, despite the enemy's defensive works, landed his force on Morris Island on the tenth of July, and immediately commenced the slow and difficult operations of conducting the siege of Fort Wagner, and establishing batteries against Fort Sumpter.
Without, however, waiting for the reduction
of the former, he opened, on the seventeenth of with a force of infantry and artillery, aided by August, his fire on the latter, and, on the twenty- the gunboats under Lieutenant Commanding third, after seven days' bombardment, Fort Buchanan, crossed Berwick Bay, and attacked Sumter was reported a shapeless and harmless the rebel gunboat Cotton, in the Bayou Teche. mass of ruins. Being under the fire of other This gunboat, being disabled by the fire of our forts of the enemy, and inaccessible by land, our naval and land forces, was burned by the retroops could not occupy it, and a few guns have bels. since been temporarily remounted, but they have been as often silenced. General Gillmore now vigorously pushed forward his sappers against Fort Wagner, and on the morning of the seventh of September, took possession of that place, and also of Battery Gregg, most of the garrison having made their escape in boats during the night.
The loss of General Weitzel's command in this expedition was six killed and twenty-seven wounded. A number were killed and wounded on our gunboats, and among the former, Lieutenant Commanding Buchanan.
On learning of the capture of the Queen of the West by the rebels, above Port Hudson, and He captured in all thirty-six pieces of artillery their movements in Red River and the Teche, and a large amount of ammunition. General Admiral Farragut determined to run past the Gillmore's operations have been characterized by enemy's batteries, while the land forces at Baton great professional skill and boldness. He has Rouge made a demonstration on the land side of overcome difficulties almost unknown in modern Port Hudson. The demonstration was made, sieges. Indeed, his operations on Morris Island and, on March fourteenth, Admiral Farragut constitute almost a new era in the science of en- | succeeded in passing the batteries with the Hartgineering and gunnery. Since the capture of ford and Albatross. The Monongahela and RichForts Wagner and Gregg, he has enlarged the mond fell back, and the Mississippi grounded, works, and established powerful batteries, which and was blown up by her commander. effectually command Fort Sumter, and can render efficient aid to any naval attack upon Charleston. They also control the entrance to the harbor.
DEPARTMENT OF THE GULF.
Had our land forces invested Port Hudson at this time, it could have been easily reduced, for its garrison was weak. This would have opened communication, by the Mississippi River, with General Grant at. Vicksburgh. But the strength Major-General Banks took command of the of the place was not then known, and General Department of the Gulf on the seventeenth of Banks resumed his operations by the Teche and December. Almost immediately on assuming Atchafalaya. In the latter part of March, Colcommand, he ordered a detachment of troops to onel Clarke was sent with a small force up the Galveston, Texas, to occupy that place under the Pontchatoula, and destroyed the railroad bridge protection of our gunboats. Colonel Burrill, at that place. He captured a rebel officer and with three companies of the Forty-second Mas-four privates, and three schooners loaded with sachusetts volunteers, the advance of the expe- cotton. His loss was six wounded. dition, arrived at that place on the evening of| the twenty-fourth December. On consultation with the commander of the blockading force, he landed his men upon the wharf, and took possession of the city on the first of January.
At the same time General Dickerson was sent to the Amite River to destroy the Jackson Railroad. He proceeded as far as Camp Moore, captured forty-three prisoners, a considerable amount of cotton, and destroyed valuable rebel manufactories. In his operations up the Teche and Atchafalaya, General Banks encountered the enemy, under Sibley, Taylor, and Mouton, at
Before the arrival of the remainder of our forces, the rebels made an attack by land, with artillery and infantry, and by water with three powerful rams. Colonel Burrill's command of several points, and defeated them in every entwo hundred and sixty men were nearly all kill-gagement. Buttea La Rose was captured, with ed and taken prisoners. The Harriet Lane was a garrison and two heavy guns. By the guncaptured, and the flag-ship Westfield was blown boats, under Lieutenant Commanding T. Cooke, up by her commander to prevent her falling into of the navy, General Banks reached Alexandria the hands of the enemy. The rebels also cap-on the eighth of May, the enemy retreating totured the coal-transports and a schooner. The ward Shreveport and into Texas. commanders of the Harriet Lane and Westfield, and a number of other naval officers and men, were killed.
In this expedition General Banks reports the capture of two thousand prisoners, twenty-two pieces of artillery, two transports, and a large amount of public property. We destroyed three gunboats and eight transports. Our own loss, in the different engagements with the enemy, was very slight-numbers not given.
General Banks now returned to the Mississippi
The remainder of the expedition did not leave New-Orleans till December thirty-first, and arrived off Galveston on the second of January, the day after our forces there had been captured or destroyed by the enemy. Fortunately they did not attempt to land, and returned to New-River, and crossed his army to Bayou Sara, Orleans in safety. It is proper to remark that where he formed a junction, on the twenty-third this expedition was not contemplated or provided of May, with General Augur's forces from Baton for in General Banks's instructions. Rouge. The latter had an engagement with the enemy at Port Hudson Plains on the twenty
On the eleventh of January, General Weitzel,
third, in which he lost nineteen killed and eighty wounded.
Port Hudson was immediately invested. While awaiting the slow operations of a siege, General Banks made two unsuccessful assaults upon the place; finally, on the eighth of July, the place unconditionally surrendered. We captured six thousand two hundred and thirty-three prisoners, fifty-one pieces of artillery, two steamers, four thousand four hundred pounds of cannon powder, five thousand small-arms, one hundred and fifty thousand rounds of ammunition, etc. In order to facilitate General Grant's operations, by destroying the enemy's line of communication, and to prevent the early concentration of any reënforcements, Colonel (now Brigadier-General) Grierson was sent with a cavalry force from La Grange on the seventeenth of April, to traverse the interior of the State of Mississippi. This expedition was most successfully conducted. It destroyed many of the enemy's railroad bridges, dépôts, and much of the rolling stock, and reached Baton Rouge, Louisiana, in safety on the second of May.
On returning to Vicksburgh, General Grant found his forces insufficient to entirely invest the enemy's works. There was, therefore, danger that the two bodies of the enemy, under the command of Generals Pemberton and Johnston, might yet effect a junction, as it was known that the latter was being largely reënforced from Bragg's army in Middle and East-Tennessee. Under these circumstances, General Grant determined to attempt to carry the place by assault. Two unsuccessful attacks were made on the nineteenth and twenty-second of May; but as reënforcements reached him a few days after, sufficiently large to enable him to completely invest the rebel defences, he resorted to the slower but more effective way of a regular siege. By the third of July his sappers were so far vanced as to render his success certain, and on that day General Pemberton proposed an armistice and capitulation, which were finally accepted, and Vicksburgh surrendered on the fourth of July.
Of the wounded, many were but slightly wounded, and continued on duty; many more required but a few days or weeks for their recovery, and not more than one half of the wounded were permanently disabled.
When we consider the character of the country in which this army operated, the formidable obstacles to be overcome, the number of the enemy's force, and the strength of his works, we cannot but admire the courage and endurance of the troops, and the skill and daring of the commander. No more brilliant exploit can be found in military history. It has been alleged, and the allegation has been widely circulated by the press, that General Grant, in the conduct of his campaign, positively disobeyed the instructions of his superiors. It is hardly necessary to remark that General Grant never disobeyed an order or instruction, but always carried out, to the best of his ability, every wish or suggestion made to him by the Government.
Moreover, he has never complained that the Government did not furnish him all the means and assistance in its power to facilitate the execution of any plan which he saw fit to adopt. While the main army of Tennessee was operating against Vicksburgh, the enemy's forces on the west side of the river made successful attacks on Milliken's Bend and Lake Providence, on the sixth and tenth of June. Our loss in the former was one hundred and one killed, two hundred and eighty-five wounded, and two hundred and sixty-six missing. Loss in the latter not ad-reported. It is represented that the colored troops in these engagements fought with great bravery, and that the rebels treated this class of prisoners of war as well as their officers with great barbarity.
It has not been possible, however, to ascertain the correctness of the representations in regard to the treatment of these prisoners. After the capture of Vicksburgh, General Grant reported that his troops were so much fatigued and worn
In the language of General Grant's official report, the results of this short campaign were : The defeat of the enemy in five battles outside of Vicksburgh; the occupation of Jackson, the capital of the State of Mississippi, and the cap-out, with forced marches and the labors of the ture of Vicksburgh and its garrison, and mu- siege, as absolutely to require several weeks of nitions of war; a loss to the enemy of thirty-repose before undertaking another campaign. seven thousand prisoners, among whom were Nevertheless, as the exigencies of the service fifteen general officers, at least ten thousand seemed to require it, he sent out those who were killed and wounded, and among the killed Gen- least fatigued on several important expeditions, erals Tracy, Tilghman, and Green, and hundreds, while the others remained at Vicksburgh, to put perhaps thousands, of stragglers, who can never that place in a better defensible condition for a be collected and organized; arms and munitions small garrison. of war for an army of sixty thousand men have fallen into our hands, beside a large amount of other public property, consisting of railroads, locomotives, cars, steamboats, cotton, etc., and much was destroyed to prevent our capturing it. Our losses in the series of battles may be summed up as follows:
As soon as Vicksburgh was captured, General Sherman was sent in pursuit of Johnston's forces, The latter retreated to Jackson, Mississippi, which place was taken by us on the sixteenth of July. Our loss was about one thousand in killed, wounded, and missing. General Sherman captured seven hundred and sixty-four prisoners,
two rifled guns, a large amount of ammunition, and destroyed the railroad, rolling stock, etc. The enemy retreated toward the Alabama line, and General Sherman returned to Vicksburgh to recuperate his forces.
Our loss from the twenty-third to the thirtieth of May, including the assault of the twenty-sev-| enth, as reported, was about one thousand. Being reënforced from General Grant's army on the termination of the Mississippi campaign, General | Banks sent an expedition, under General Franklin, to occupy the mouth of the Sabine River, in Texas. It reached the entrance to the harbor on the eighth of September, and the gunboats engaged the enemy's batteries, but two of them, the Clifton and Sachem, being disabled, were forced to surrender, the others retreated, and the whole expedition returned to Brashear City.
The officers and crews of the gunboats, and about ninety sharp-shooters, who were on board, were captured, and our loss in killed and wounded was about thirty. After a long delay at Brashear City, the army moved forward by Franklin and Vermillionville, and at last accounts occupied Opelousas.
DEPARTMENT OF THE TENNESSEE.
At the date of my last annual report General Grant occupied West-Tennessee and the northern boundary of Mississippi. The object of the campaign of this army was the opening of the Mississippi River, in conjunction with the army of General Banks.
opening the canal, which had been commenced the year before by General Williams, across the peninsula, on the west bank of the river.
This canal had been improperly located, its upper terminus being in an eddy, and the lower terminus being exposed to the enemy's guns. Nevertheless, it was thought that it could be completed sooner than a new one could be constructed. While working parties under Captain Prime, Chief Engineer of that army, were diligently employed on this canal, General Grant directed his attention to several other projects for turning the enemy's position.
These are fully described in his official report. The canal proving impracticable, his other plans being unsuccessful, he determined to move this army by land down the west bank, some seventy miles, while transports for crossing should run past the enemy's batteries at Vicksburgh, the danger of running the batteries being very great and the roads on the west side in horrible condition. This was a difficult and hazardous expedient, but it seemed to be the only possible solution of the problem.
The execution of the plan, however, was greatly facilitated by Admiral Farragut, who had run two of his vessels past the enemy's batteries at Port Hudson and Grand Gulf, and cleared the river of the enemy's boats below Vicksburgh; and, finally, through the indomitable energy of the Commanding General, and the admirable dispositions of Admiral Porter for running the enemy's batteries, the operations were completely successful. The army crossed the river at Bruinsburgh. April thirtieth, turned Grand Gulf, and engaged the enemy near Port Gibson on the first, and at Fourteen Mile Creek on the third of May. The enemy was defeated in both engagements, with heavy loss.
General Grant was instructed to drive the enemy in the interior as far south as possible, and destroy their railroad communication; then fall back to Memphis, and embark his available forces on transports, and, with the assistance of the fleet of Admiral Porter, reduce Vicksburgh. The first part of this plan was most successfully exe- General Grant now moved his forces, by rapid cuted; but the right wing of the army, sent marches, to the north, in order to separate the against Vicksburgh, under General Sherman, garrison of Vicksburgh from the covering arm of found that place much stronger than was ex- Johnston. This movement was followed by the pected. Two attacks were made, on the twenty- battles of Raymond, May twelfth; of Jackson, eighth and twenty-ninth of December, but failing May fourteenth; of Champion Hills, May sixin their object, our troops were withdrawn, and, teenth; and Big Black River Bridge, May twentywhile waiting reenforcements from General Grant, seventh; in all of which our troops were victorimoved up the Arkansas River to Arkansas Post, ous. General Grant now proceeded to invest which place was, with the assistance of the gun-Vicksburgh. boats, captured on the eleventh of January.
A military and naval force was sent to Yazoo Our loss at Vicksburgh was one hundred and City on the thirteenth. It took three hundred ninety-one killed, nine hundred and eighty-two prisoners, captured one steamer, burned five, wounded, and seven hundred and fifty-six miss- took six cannon, two hundred and fifty small ing; at Arkansas Post, one hundred and twenty-arms, and eight hundred horses and mules. No nine killed, five hundred and thirty-one wound- loss on our side reported. Small expeditions ed, and seventeen missing. We captured at the were also sent against Canton, Pontotoc, Grenalatter place five thousand prisoners, seventeen da, and Natchez, Mississippi. At Grenada a pieces of cannon, three thousand small arms, large amount of rolling stock was destroyed. forty-six thousand rounds of ammunition, and Near Natchez, General Ransom captured five five hundred and sixty-three animals. thousand head of Texas cattle, a number of prisoners and teams, and a large amount of ammunition. The other expeditions were also suc cessful, meeting with very little opposition. As soon as his army was supplied and rested, General Grant sent a force under General Steele to Helena to cooperate with General Schofield's
General Grant now assumed the immediate command of the army on the Mississippi, which was largely reenforced. Being satisfied by the result of General Sherman's operations that the north line of works was too strong to be carried without heavy loss, he directed his attention to
troops against Little Rock, and another under Generals Ord and Herron to New-Orleans, to reenforce General Banks for such ulterior operations as he might deem proper to undertake. Some expeditions were also sent to the Red River, and to Harrisonburgh and Monroe, on the Washita, to break up and destroy guerrilla bands. After General Grant left Vicksburgh to assume the general command east of the Mississippi, General McPherson moved with a part of his force to Canton, Mississippi, scattering the enemy's cavalry, and destroying his materials and roads in the centre of that State.
thousand, under Marmaduke, moved upon Lawrence Mills, and proceeded by way of Ozark to the attack of Springfield, Missouri, to which place our small force, consisting chiefly of militia, convalescents, and citizens, was compelled to fall back. This miscellaneous garrison, a motley mass of only about one thousand men, obstinately defended the place most of the day of the eighth of January, with the loss of fourteen killed, one hundred and forty-five wounded, and five missing-in all one hundred and sixty-four.
Under cover of the night the enemy withdrew, and our force was too feeble to make a vigorous pursuit. Another skirmish took place at Hartsville, on the eleventh, in which our loss was seven killed and sixty four wounded. We captured twenty-seven prisoners. The season was now so far advanced, and the roads so impassable, that further operations could not be carried
DEPARTMENT OF THE MISSOURI.
The withdrawal to Missouri of a large part of our forces in Arkansas, as was stated in my last annual report, left the frontier of the former exposed to raids, of which the rebels were prompt to take advantage. Marmaduke, with the ad-on by either party. On the fifteenth of July, vance of Hindman's rebel army, moved forward | Major-General Blunt crossed Arkansas River, with the purpose of entering the south-west of near Honey Springs, Indian Territory, and on Missouri. Before the enemy could concentrate the sixteenth attacked a superior force of rebels, his forces for battle, Brigadier-General Blunt, by under General Cooper, which he completely forced marches, encountered him at Cave Hill. routed, the enemy leaving their killed and woundIn the Boston Mountains a running fight tooked on the field. Our loss was seventeen killed place on the eighteenth of November, 1862, in and sixty wounded, while that of the enemy was which the enemy was defeated with a heavy loss. a hundred and fifty killed, (buried by our men,) Our loss was four killed and thirty-six wounded. four hundred wounded, and seventy-seven prisFour days after the combat of Cave Hill, from re- oners taken, besides one piece of artillery, two liable information it was ascertained that Hind- hundred stand of arms, and fifteen wagons. man's army had crossed the Arkansas River and After several skirmishes with the enemy, General formed a junction with Marmaduke at Lee's Blunt descended Arkansas River, and on the Creek, fifteen miles north of Van Buren, to which first of September occupied Fort Smith, Arkanpoint the latter had retreated after the action of sas. The main body of our troops in the Dethe twenty-eighth of November. The united partment of the Missouri had, in the early part rebel force was believed to be very much greater of the season, been sent to reënforce General than our own, two divisions of which were more Grant before Vicksburgh. than one hundred miles in the rear. Immediately upon learning General Blunt's danger from an overwhelming attack of the enemy, General Herron, by forced marches of one hundred and ten miles in three days, arrived at Fayetteville, Arkansas, early on the morning of the seventh December, and soon after encountered the enemy in force at Prairie Grove, while attempting a flank movement to get between Blunt and the approaching succor, to crush them both in succession. This skilfully devised project was fortunately frustrated by the valor and endurance of Herron's division, which stoutly held their ground till about two o'clock in the afternoon.
When Blunt's forces arrived upon the field, the engagement became general along the entire line, and continued to be fiercely contested until dark. During the night the enemy retreated across the Boston Mountains. Although the enemy suffered much more severely than ourselves, we purchased victory with the loss of one hundred and sixty-seven killed, seven hundred and thirty-eight wounded, and one hundred and eighty-three missing, making a total loss of one thousand one hundred and forty eight, of which nine hundred and fifty-three were of Herron's division. Early in January, 1863, a rebel force, estimated at from four thousand to six
Taking advantage of this reduction of force, the enemy moved against Helena and attacked that place on the fourth of July. After a severe engagement he was defeated by Major-General Prentiss, with a heavy loss in killed and wounded, and one thousand one hundred prisoners. Our loss, in killed, wounded, and missing, was only about two hundred and fifty. As soon as Vicksburgh had capitulated, Major-General Steele was sent with a force to Helena, with instructions to form a junction with Brigadier-General Davidson, who was moving south from Missouri by Crowley's Ridge, and drive the enemy south of Arkansas River. The junction being effected, General Steele established his depot and hospitals at Duvall's Bluff, and on the first of August advanced against the enemy, who fell back toward Little Rock. After several successful skir mishes, he reached Arkansas River, and threw part of his force upon the south side to threaten the enemy's communication with Arkadelphia and take his defences in reverse. The enemy, on seeing this movement, destroyed what property they could, and, after a slight resistance, Hed in disorder, pursued by our cavalry, and on the tenth September our troops took possession of the capital of Arkansas.
Our loss in killed, wounded, and missing did