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ourselves on the certainty of capturing "Mud-eighth Ohio, Colonel Moore, (German regiment,) wall Jackson" and his fleet-footed ragged chiv- were sent to the right, to endeavor to turn the alry; but after a hard ride of nine miles, we rebel position. Next to the Twenty-eighth was found that the force sent out to intercept him the Third Virginia, Lieutenant-Colonel Thompwere just too late, and only came up with his son; then the Second Virginia, Lieutenant-Colrear-guard. When we arrived, the fighting had onel Scott; and the Eighth Virginia, Colonel already begun, and an artillery duel was in pro- Oley. These were all old veterans, that had gress. We dismounted, and immediately formed been trained in the valley and Eastern Virginia, into line of battle and went into the fight. under Milroy, Cluseret, and Bohlen. The skirpart of the brigade engaged drove him six miles, mishers moved off in splendid style, with the supand he finally took position on the top of Droop porting line close behind them, and in a very Mountain. Mill Point was the depot for his short time the firing became brisk and animated, supplies and stores, and these we captured and and right gallantly did the regiments on the destroyed. right perform their part, as they swept around the westward of the two mountains, while the regiments in the front moved more slowly; but it was a steady, onward movement, over a hill, across a field, through the woods, and across ravines, the rebels retiring, as if to husband their strength for their strong position.

The Second and Eighth moved up until they got within point-blank range of the rebel sharpshooters, the Eighth exposed to a galling fire from the rebel breastworks, and right under the rebel battery that opened on us with shell, but we were protected with woods, and by lying on the ground the shot and shell passed over us. The skirmishers kept a constant fire, while the heavy roll of musketry on the right, as it curved around the mountain, was as steady as the fire fanned by the wind advances through the leaves on the mountain-side. The keen crack of the Enfields of the Tenth, and the deeper bass of the big bores of the Germans, could be readily distinguishe 1, while overhead a strong wind made a deep, steady roar in the naked branches of the forest, and to heighten the grand battle picture, the woods were on fire, the branches of the trees crossing to the ground, under the effects of the shot and shell, accompanied by the heavy roar of the artillery, and music, and bursting of shell, and the constant roll of the musketry.

When the critical moment arrived, the Third and Second advanced, and just as the Eighth emerged from the woods the rebels began to waver, and with a cheer we charged up the steep mountain-side, and over the breastworks, officers and men mingled in confusion, covered with perspiration, dirt, and their clothes covered with burs. Just at this time Ewing's battery found a position, and opened fire on the rebels.

It was not part of the General's plan to drive him any farther, or bring on an engagement that day; for General Averill expected to form a junction with the forces of General Duffic, from the Kanawha valley, at Lewisburgh, on the seventh, two days hence. We, therefore, went into camp in the morning on the farm of McNeil, who had a son a captain in the rebel army, and uncle to the McNeil who infests the country about Moorfield, in Hardy County.

Here we found plenty of corn, oats, and hay for our horses, and they, together with the men, had a good rest.

At this place the boys made a purchase of butter. The price was five dollars in confederate money, but they purchased it for fifteen cents in postal currency. At night it threatened rain, but the sun rose clear next morning, with a high wind blowing; and after breakfast we mounted, and started for the scene of conflict.

Droop Mountain was a high, elevated position, overlooking the whole valley, the eastern face cleared, and the turnpike ascending that slope, and the rebel battery commanding every turn of the road and the whole country in the front, while the extreme point of the mountain was covered with woods. And this the rebels had fortified with a breastwork of logs, brush, rails, and rocks. Immediately under the point it was cleared, and very steep. In this steep hill-side was a spring, with swampy soil overgrown with tussocks of grass, briers, weeds, and burs. The western side of the mountain was covered with thick woods and heavy undergrowth, and to the westward another mountain, covered with timber, while the country in front was broken by low hills, partly open and partly wooded, and from the elevated position that the rebels occupied they could see almost all our movements below, and besides, it was exceedingly difficult to find a position for our artillery. Nature could not have made a stronger position, and this they had fortified; and when the rebel Colonel Patten arrived, he stated that "he could with his regiment, the Twenty-second, hold it against the whole of Averill's brigade;" but, poor fellow, he was wofully mistaken..

The rebel battery swept the point with grape and canister, but our men fought from behind stumps, trees, and logs; the gallant Tenth and glorious old Twenty-eighth closed in, and the rebels became terror-stricken and began to retreat, and then the retreat became a rout, while from our boys went up one prolonged cheer that was kept up, and the pursuit began immediately. It was a hard day's work, but officers and men worked with a will, and did their whole dutyno flinching, no shirking.

When the brigade arrived at Hillsborough, a village three miles from the top of the mountain, The rebel dead and wounded lay on top of the Keeper's battery was sent to the left, supported mountain, and almost the first one we saw was a by the Fourteenth Pennsylvania; while the dead negro, with gun in hand and cartridge-box Tenth Virginia, Colonel Harris, and the Twenty-buckled on; while prisoners were being taken

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every moment, the men in their eagerness were following on, but the Tenth and Twenty-eighth were resting from sheer exhaustion.

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These sink-holes are one of the peculiar features of this valley, and the town of Lewisburgh is built in one.

Immediately in rear of the battle-field was the rebel commissary building, and they had tumbled out barrels of flour and provisions, with arms, ammunition, accoutrements, clothing, etc., thrown away in their flight. In a short time the horses were brought up, we mounted, and the pursuit began, and Major Gibson, with his battalion, took the lead. In a few moments we came to two broken ambulances, with their contents lying by the roadside; here lay Major Bailey, of the Twenty-second; here, some wounded; there, some dead; a little further on, a large party of prisoners; a little further on, another group; in the middle of the road, a broken wagon, and a large bay horse shot in the head; and a little further on, a burning caisson, with the terrified rebels flying and scattering through the woods, where cavalry could not pursue them, while the road was strewn with the débris of a terrorstricken, routed army. It was late in the day, and we kept up the pursuit for ten miles, until after dark, when we went into camp in a field, around a "sink-hole" that afforded water for our horses, after achieving one of the most complete as well as brilliant victories of the war.

The rebels were commanded by General Echols, and the forces engaged were the Twenty-ed second Virginia, Colonel Patten's regiment, who commanded a brigade, Fourteenth Virginia, Eighteenth, Nineteenth, Twentieth, Edgar's battalion, Derrick's battalion, four companies partisan rangers, one section Jackson's battery, Chapman's battery, Colonel Jackson's battery of four guns, and the militia from part of Pocahontas and Green Brier were present. Rebel killed and wounded .hree hundred, and over one hundred prisoners, seven hundred stand of small arms, three pieces f artillery, and one stand of colors. Our loss vas two officers killed and four wounded, twentyLine men killed, ninety wounded, and one missing. In this battle, as at Rocky Gap, the rebels Next morning, as the column started, a party vershot us. The battle was fought on Friday, of bushwhackers fired into the Second. One of Tovember sixth, and on the seventh we expected the rascals was captured. We took the road to > unite with General Duffie, and now that the Warm Springs, and a detachment of the Eighth, attle was over, we were in hopes that the Kana- under Major Slack, was sent to make a reconwha forces would intercept the fugitives at Lew-noissance in the direction of Covington. During sburgh. the march this morning, we were startled by an Saturday morning was warm and spring-like, explosion, as if a steam-boiler or mine had burst, and we took up the line of march for Lewis- and a large volume of smoke arose. One of the burgh. After our descent from the mountains, caissons of Ewing's battery, in crossing a gully, we entered the fertile valley of the Green Brier, had exploded, providentially injuring but thre which expands to a breadth similar to the She- men, but scattering the contents all around, nandoah, and the same kind of geological forma- and blowing the caisson all to atoms. The accition Saurian limestone. In coming down the dent was occasioned by a percussion-shell being mountain, we came across the brass twelve- carelessly packed. We arrived at the Jackson pound howitzer that the rebels had cast away in River road at one o'clock, and made a halt for their flight, and all along the road was the same the detachment under Major Slack to overtake rubbish as near the battle-field. Our march was us. We marched up the valley of Jackson River, slow, for we wished to save our horses. We and after night burned a rebel camp and potash passed through the town of Frankfort, and a factory. We encamped for the night at Gateshort distance from Lewisburgh we came to the wood's, and here was plenty of corn and wheat camp of the Twenty-second, screened from view for our horses; it had been snowing during the in a grove in a "sink-hole." day, and a cold, wintry night, but there was

We arrived at the town at four o'clock, where the Kanawha force had already arrived. Here we learned that the rebels had kept on their flight in the direction of Sweet Springs, in Monroe, and after passing the Green Brier had burned the bridge.

After a night's rest, took up the march for the White Sulphur, the Ninety-first Ohio going with us as far as the ford of the river. On our march, we found two camps that were burning, and were designed for winter-quarters. One was on a hill beyond the town, and the other hid away in the ravine alongside of the turnpike. At the river we discovered that the rebels had destroyed five hundred barrels of flour that were in the mills, and the empty barrels were floating in the water.

Here the Ninety-first took the road to Union, in Monroe, (wonder that the rebels have not changed the name,) and we took the road to the White Sulphur. When within four miles of the latter place, two of the poor wounded men belonging to Ewing's battery came to us. One of the poor fellows had lost a leg, and came on crutches. They were overjoyed to meet us. We arrived at the Springs at ten o'clock, and released. the balance of the wounded, who had been woundin the Rocky Gap battle. The White Sulphur is a beautiful spot, but now appeared lonely and desolate, with its hotels, halls, and buildings closed; and I felt sad and indignant both, that this lovely spot had been desecrated by the foul breath of treason, its beauty marred by the loathsome presence of the wicked conspirators, who resorted here to concoct their plans of treachery. From here we went to our Rocky Gap battlefield of August, where we made a halt, and took a survey of the ground; and after visiting the graves of the brave and good men who repose here, we resumed the march, and halted for the night at Calighan's.

plenty of rails for fuel, and we slept by blazing fires.

Next morning, at seven o'clock, we resumed the march, and when we arrived at the place where the road diverges to Monterey, we destroyed another winter encampment of the rebels, and the Fourteenth Pennsylvania was sent around by that route to meet us at the point where the Crab Bottom road strikes the South Branch, while the rest of the brigade continued up the valley to Hightown; we arrived here at noon and halted. This is the point where the Beverly and Staunton road descends the Alleghanies on the castern side, and this gap between the double mountain is the source of the two branches of the James and Potomac.

Next morning resumed the march up the Back Creek valley. This morning a dog ran a fine buck into the water at the picket-post, which they secured. We burned an extensive saltpetre works, and another winter encampment of Next morning a detachment of the Eighth was the rebels. Our train was fired into by a bush- sent down the North Fork, while the balance of whacker, but he was secured after receiving a the brigade started for Petersburgh. The march broken leg. Our march led us through the settle-to-day called up the recollections of the march ment where we had been bushwhacked on our the first time under Fremont, and through this former expedition, and as we had a little account beautiful valley almost every spot was rememto settle, we camped" there. Here we cap-bered: the road, the camps, the church at the tured a rebel lieutenant, and the boys found quite "Tract," the burned bridge-all would call forth a number of deposits of apples hid away in the some remark; for then every thing was fresh and ground. Here was abundant forage for the horses novel, and we had not become hardened. and mountain-mutton for supper, and with a soft bed of hay after supper, before our “big” fires, we had a luxurious night's rest.


We came through the Mill Creek Valley -a good, loyal neighborhood, and the homes of Captain Ault's "Swamp Rangers." We now felt that we were among friends; and from here to New-Creek there is a large proportion of Union men.

Here is another of the splendid views to be met with in the mountains, and as each season has its own peculiar beauties and charms, yet for grandeur, the winter scenery of the mountains cannot be surpassed, when earth's huge billows are capped with snow, and a wilderness of mountains is spread out as far as the eye can reach.

While we were at rest, word was brought that there was a force of rebels in camp down Crab Bottom, so we started expecting to surprise them, but when we arrived, we found the Ringgold cavalry and a force of infantry under Colonel Thoburn of the First Virginia, and they, like us, had suspected that there was a rebel force in the Gap, and if we had been rebels we would have had a warm time if we had attacked them, for they were wide awake and drawn up in line ready to receive us. We went into camp on the south side of Franklin road.

November twelfth, resuined the march, and our advance broke up a party of guerrillas who were getting ready to bushwhack Thoburn at Crab Bottom. We destroyed four hundred gallons of apple brandy at one distillery, and a barrel at another. We came to the saltpetre works that we had destroyed in August, and that the rebels had begun to repair; this we again destroyed, and a contraband told us of another up a ravine; this was also destroyed, and a guerrilla party put to flight. This was a fine warm day, and in the clear water of the stream we noticed fine large trout basking in the sunshine. We passed through Franklin, and camped on a

large bottom on the river, and again found an abundant supply of corn and hay for the horses, and the boys, believing that all such forage belongs to "Uncle Sam," especially if claimed by rebels, have no compunctions of conscience about using it.

We arrived at Petersburgh, and enjoyed a two days' rest.

This morning McNeil and White, with three hundred guerrillas, attacked a train of ninety wagons, which were on the way from New-Creek to Petersburgh. They killed two of the guards, wounded five, pillaged seven wagons and burned five, and captured two hundred horses. It was a bold, daring act; but the train was some two miles in length, and a guard of only seventy-five men to protect it. As soon as the General got the news, he sent the Third Virginia in pursuit, if possible to overtake them; but the rebels had six hours' start, and with their knowledge of the country, but a slight prospect of overtaking them. This evening we camped on the farm of Mrs. Williams, who has a son with McNeil, and she, with her daughters, are bitter "secesh." But we found corn and hay in abundance, and that was what our horses needed, so we used it.

The morning of the seventeenth we started for New-Creek, where we arrived in the afternoon, and where our ears were gladdened by the music of the steam-whistles on the locomotives of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.

It is refreshing to hear the sounds, to see sights, and witness the customs of civilization, in contrast to the semi-barbarism of Dixie that we have been conversant with during our campaigns.

The results of the expedition are that we have inflicted a blow upon the rebellion in West-Virginia, such as it has not received before since the war begun. We have made glad the hearts of the Union men, who are suffering under a despotism worse than that inflicted in the slavepens of Africa. We have liberated a number of refugees who will find their way inside of our lines. We have thoroughly scouted the mountains and valleys, scattered and frightened the small bands of guerrillas, destroyed all the winter-quarters that the rebels had expected to occupy the coming winter; know the roads, and the places that they have made their haunts;

have become acquainted with valuable facts, of which we were before ignorant.

And in addition to the terrible punishment that was inflicted on the rebels at Droop Mountatn, we captured two hundred horses, three hundred cattle, five hundred sheep, brought out to freedom a number of contrabands, some of them waiters at the Springs; we have created a wholesome dread of “Averill and his Yankees," and caused the country to rejoice over our brilliant success.


General Averill has proved himself to be an earnest, energetic, and skilful general.

Although we were in the saddle seventeen days, travelled three hundred miles, and suffered from the exposure of the cold winds of the mountains, yet I have not heard a word of complaint, nor was there a single case of sickness that occurred during the march that I heard of, and our horses, on the average, are in better condition than when we left Beverly. IRWIN.

RICHMOND, November 14, 1863.

A correspondent, to whom we hope to be similarly indebted again, has furnished us with the clearest and most satisfactory particulars of the fight in Green Brier we have yet seen:

The line defended by the Army of Western Virginia extended from Pocahontas County to the Tennessee line. Colonel William L. Jackson, with a small force of cavalry and a section of artillery, occupied the extreme right at or beyond Mill Point, in Pocahontas County-a point about forty miles from Lewisburgh, where was stationed the First brigade, commanded by BrigadierGeneral Echols, and Chapman's battery, with two regiments of Jackson's cavalry brigade and two pieces of Jackson's battery.

On the night of the fourth instant, General Echols received a despatch from Colonel Johnson, stating that the enemy was advancing in force. It was determined to reenforce him at once, and the First brigade, with Chapman's battery, with one regiment of cavalry, (the Fourteenth Virginia,) and the two pieces of Jackson's battery, started at once for that purpose. The Sixteenth Virginia cavalry was left to scout and guard the roads leading from the Kanawha Valley. The command reached a point about fourteen miles from Lewisburgh, on the fifth instant. There it was learned that Colonel Jackson had retired before the superior force of the enemy, and held a position on the top of Droop Mountain, twenty-eight miles from Lewisburgh.

Early on the morning of the sixth the march was resumed, and Colonel Jackson's position reached about ten A.M. The enemy were making preparations for the attack. The country was so densely covered with forests that it was impossible to ascertain the force of the enemy.

Our position in many respects was a very strong one, but, as the enemy could easily get in our rear by taking a road on our right flank, it was necessary to detach the Twenty-sixth battalion to blockade it.

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The battle was joined about eleven o'clock by our artillery firing at the enemy's battery as it came into position. This was soon ended, as he was driven away by our well-directed shots. The enemy now massed his whole force on our left and centre, consisting of about four thousand cavalry under Averill, and three thousand infantry under Kelley. To oppose this force, we had eleven hundred, of which eight hundred were cavalry. For four hours we contended against these overwhelming odds. The enemy, moving his forces beyond our left, wheeled his men, and thus obtained an enfilading fire.

Just at this time, our centre, which had been much weakened to reenforce the left, was attacked by a largely superior force and pressed back. General Echols, seeing it was useless to contend longer, gave orders to retreat. The enemy, badly cut up, made only a feeble pursuit. Our loss was necessarily very heavy, especially in killed and wounded. Major R. A. Bailey, of the Twenty-second Virginia regiment, was woundded (reported mortally) and captured. Of ten officers in three companies of this same regiment that fought on our left, but two escaped unhurt.

The Twenty-third battalion suffered severely, but as reports have not been handed in, no accurate information can yet be obtained.

The retreat had continued but a short time, when General Echols received information that the Yankees, several thousand strong, were marching on Lewisburgh, by the Kanawha road, to cut him off. It was now all-important to get our teams and artillery by Lewisburgh and across the Green Brier River, before the new force could come up. This was done, and the enemy baffled, with the loss of one wagon and one piece of artillery, which was abandoned because the carriage broke down. General Echols crossed the river early on the morning of the seventh instant, and after resting a few hours continued the march toward Union, Monroe County.

The Yankees, no doubt, supposed we would be easily caught, but after marching fourteen miles, and fighting four times his own number for several hours, he retreated, bringing off his trains and artillery.

Men and horses are, of course, very much exhausted, but in a few days all will be again ready to meet the enemy.

No troops ever displayed more endurance and courage. The long list of killed and wounded will attest how desperately they fought, and the failure of the enemy to follow them closely, how terribly he suffered.

Doc. 10.


AFTER the fight at Bristoe we followed on Lee's retreating army pretty briskly, but soon found they had too rapidly fallen back, and had

the First and Twentieth Indiana, the Third and Fifth Michigan, and the One Hundred and Tenth Pennsylvania, but the brunt of the fight fell on the Sharp-shooters. We captured Colonel Cleason, of the Twelfth Virginia, who was in command; one surgeon, one major, two captains, several lieutenants, and nearly five hundred privates. They mostly belonged to the Twelfth Virginia, Thirteenth North-Carolina, and Ninth Alabama, and were skirmishers selected from Ewell's corps. We lost in killed and wound

thrown too many obstacles in our way for us to overtake them. The troops were then encamped in a kind of semi-circle, extending from Warrenton via Auburn, to the line of railway near Catlett's Station. On the evening of the ninth instant, a General Order indicating the line of forts was issued to the corps commanders, and early on the morning of the seventh-Saturday-the troops fell back into column in the following order the Sixth corps moved from Warrenton to Rappahannock Station; the Second, Third, and Fifth corps marched by Warrenton Junctioned about thirty-five; the enemy I should think along the line of railroad by way of Bealton, the same. As Captain Maynard, Commissary of where the First corps brought up our extreme Subsistence, was giving a drink to a wounded left. I should have stated that our cavalry was rebel, he was hit by a stray ball, and died next out some days on a reconnoissance, and had as- morning. certained that the enemy occupied the forts at Rappahannock Station, and were also in force to the south of Kelly's Ford. From Bealton the Fifth corps continued in direct line of march to form a junction with the Sixth, while the Second and Third deployed for Kelly's Ford.

This and the fight at Rappahannock Station must have a disheartening and demoralizing effect on the enemy. One thing is certain: they did not fight with their accustomed desperate bravery, and numbers of them openly expressed their joy at being captured. Some of the officers even stated that the "rascals did not fight, and only wanted the opportunity of deserting us.” This tells enough for the war feeling of the South. It was also certain that Lee was outmanoeuvred this time, for they were taken by suprise, both at Kelleyville and at Rappahannock Station.

Just before we attacked the forts on the north side of the river, General Lee was over with Colonel Godwin, who was in command, and gave him his instructions. He had the pleasure of seeing from the other side his troops captured, without the possibility of assisting them.


The Third corps was in the advance, and as they neared the ford, they threw out strong lines of skirmishers and sharp-shooters. General Birney, who was in command of the corps, advanced two batteries and placed Randolph on the right, near Mount Holly Church, and the Tenth Massachusetts battery on the left. Though the enemy shelled us all the time while our batteries were getting into position, still we suffered very little. Our position now was a strong one. A range of high hills rises abruptly along the north side of the river, their wooded crest, and the little brick church peeping out of the foliage giving them a picturesque appearance. At their base runs the Rappahannock, while a little way up on the south side of the river are the mill and extensive concerns of Mr. Kelly, whose son is now enjoying free quarters in the Old Capitol.

Our battery now occupied a sweeping range of the extensive plateau on the south side. Under shelter of the guns, which were vomiting forth shot and shell on them and forcing them back from the river, the working parties advanced to lay the pontoons. The First division, commanded by General Ward, was now massed, and the Third brigade ordered to lead the attack. They were commanded by Colonel de Trobriand, native of Britanny, France, who has displayed the chivalrous daring of his race. The pontoons were now laid, the enemy's guns were silenced, and the attacking party rapidly advanced across the bridge. The First United States Sharp-shooters, known as Berdan's Sharp-shooters, led by Lieutenant-Colonel Trappe, were in front. Having gained the opposite bank, the Sharp-shooters, armed with Sharpe's rifles, deployed and charged the enemy's rifle-pits, and after a brisk fire of musketry, the enemy, finding themselves surrounded on all sides, threw down their arms and surrendered.

Our regiments engaged were the First United States Sharp-shooters, the Fortieth New-York, VOL. VIII.-Doc. 11


The Rappahannock Station is protected by several strong forts. On the north side is a strong fort, two redoubts, and several rifle-pits. These were protected by a force of nearly two thousand men, and a battery of guns, in command of Colonel Godwin, of the Fifty-fourth North-Carolina. They were part of Ewell's corps, Early's division. It was about three o'clock when the head of the column neared the station. A heavy line of skirmishers and sharp-shooters was thrown out to cover the advance of our batteries. There is a commanding position to the rear of the forts, and here Martin's and the First reserve artillery of heavy guns got into position and opened on the foe. Just before dark the storming parties— Russell's and Upton's brigades, led by General Russell in person-were formed. The Fifth corps were now advancing on the centre, and threw out the Fifth division in support of the Sixth corps, and in order to take up a position lower down the river, so as to cover the advance and cut off the enemy's retreat that way.

The batteries now opened fiercely and desperately on one another. Shot and shell flew like hail across the river, sweeping through the forts on both sides. The storming party, comprising the Sixth Maine, the Fifth Wisconsin, and the Fourteenth New-York, now rushed on the forts, while a strong party took possession of the pontoon, thus cutting off the enemy's retreat and their

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