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garded as best. The To Kalon, Creveling, Adi- the yield was not more than one half an averrondac and Ionia, new varieties, have also a age one. Lower down on the Mississippi, as fair reputation. The Clinton, a small grape, well as on the coast of South Carolina and but prolific and of fair quality, has some good Florida, the abandoned plantations of persons fruits. Loomis's honey grape, a remarkably who had joined their fortunes to the Confedersweet, large, black fruit, has begun to attract at- , ates, were taken up, and cotton raised with tention. The establishment of vineyards for considerable success. The desire to substitute wine making is increasing with extraordinary some other textile material for cotton, led also rapidity. For some years past the vineyards to the greatly increased production of filax, and on the Ohio, in the vicinity of Cincinnati, have the introduction of machines for dressing it furnished considerable quantities of wine of with greater facility and less labor, and for refair quality, though not well calculated to re- ducing it to a condition analogous to that of place foreign wines. The production of this cotton. The Sanford and Mallory flax-dresswine, which was made mostly from the Cataw- ing machine, invented the year before, but not ba grape, has been constantly increasing. With- introduced into market to any considerable exin the past year or two, large quantities of wine tent till 1863, has already wrought a great revfrom California have been brought into the East- olution in the formerly difficult and laborious ern markets. This was at first produced from business of flax breaking, accomplishing as the Los Angeles and Savanna, both called the much in one day, with the aid of two boys, as mission grape, varieties cultivated by the Jesuit could be done with far greater labor by four Fathers at their missions on the coast; but as men in five days. The attempt to produce a the wine from these grapes was somewhat ob- flax cotton, suitable for use on cotton-spinning jectionable on account of an earthiness of taste, machinery, though greatly multiplied during the Catawba, Isabella, and many European the year, can hardly be regarded as successful varieties have been introduced, and are now on a large scale, probably from an erroneous used in the making of wines. The interest view of the nature of the flax fibre. in the subject in California is so great, that an The lack of cotton has stimulated the growth agent (Col. A. Haraszthy) was sent to Europe of wool, and the production of that staple has to investigate the methods of cultivating the greatly increased, while its quality is somewhat grape for wine, and the process of wine mak- improved. There are now nearly eight huning, and has published, during the last year, an dred woollen factories in the United States, emelaborate and very interesting report, entitled ploying 3,000 sets of cards. The heavier broad. “Grape Culture and Wine Making" (N. Y., cloths, satinets, and cassimeres, and most vaHarper and Brothers). The California wines rieties of woollen goods for female wear, are gaining a good reputation. Recently, shawls, blankets, under clothing, &c., are manalso, Missouri has become largely engaged in ufactured from American wool in American the production of native wines. The vine- factories. The finest broadcloths are still imgrowers in that State are for the most part, ported, but the manufacture of woollen goods though not wholly, Germans, and the grapes has received such an impulse from the great most cultivated are Norton's Virginia, the Ca- demand of the Government, that it cannot be tawba, Concord, Herbemont, and Delaware. long before the American goods will equal the The cost of the investment for a first-class vine- foreign in the beauty and perfection of their yard (aside from the value of land), including manufacture. The great excellence attained in trenching, larger root planting, stakes, posts, the breeding of sheep in this country received &c., is about $400 per acre, and there are no a striking illustration at the International Agrireturns till the third year, when the crop should cultural Fair, held at Hamburg, July 14th, 1863, be sufficient to pay the expenses of that year's where a flock of twelve merino sheep from the cultivation, and after the third year, the aver- estate of George Campbell, Esq., of Vermont, age annual value of the crop should not be less took three of the highest prizes, viz.: the first than $500 per acre, and, in favorable years, will prize for the buck of the best quality; the first be nearly or quite double this.

prize for the buck yielding the greatest quanAnother region, in which the grape culture tity of wool; and the second prize for the best for wine has already attained a considerable ewe, considering both quantity and quality. prominence, is on the Lake shore and the These prizes were obtained in competition with islands of Lake Erie, where the soil is ad- 1,761 other sheep from all parts of Europe, mirably adapted to its cultivation. A large sixty of them being from the flock of the Emproportion of the vine-growers are Canadians, peror of the French. At the close of the Exand the grapes principally grown are the Dela- hibition, the twelve sheep were purchased by ware and Concord. “At Croton Point, on the Count Sher Thoss for $5,000. At the same fair, Hudson, and at Georgetown, D. O., are exten- eleven other American inventors or manufacsive vineyards, from which, of late years, wine turers received gold, silver, or bronze medals of good quality has been made.

for agricultural implements, including McCorThe scarcity of cotton led to the attempt to mick's and other mowers and reapers, ploughs, raise it in Southern Illinois, Indiana, and Mis- harrows, cultivators, seed sowers, fanning mills, souri, as well as in Kentucky. The frosts, al- root cutters, horse powers, &c. ready noticed, affected this crop severely, and The Agricultural Fairs, National, State, County, and Town, throughout the Northern States of horses, cattle and sheep, and agricultural during the autumn of 1863, were largely attend- implements, but in some, lately, fruits have ed, and gave, to some extent, an additional been exhibited with advantage. A few parstimulus to the development of agriculture. ticulars concerning the agricultural products

The grants of land, by the Government, an- of Sweden, a country which has furnished so der the Agricultural College Act of 1862, have large a body farmers to the Northwestern been accepted by all the Northern States, and States, may be of interest to the readers of the arrangements made by most of them either to Oyclopædia. They were collected by the Uniorganize Agricultural Colleges, or to add an ted States consul at Gottenburg. Agricultural Department to colleges already The crop of 1863, which at one time promised established. In New Hampshire, Dartmouth to be unusually large, was damaged by rainy College receives the endowment, and is to or- weather during harvest time, and thus reduced ganize an Agricultural School in connection to an average amount, of which the figures in with the Chandler Scientific School; in Mas- the table below may be taken as a fair statesachusetts there is a vigorous competition be- ment. tween the prominent towns of the common- About 1,500,000 Swedish acres, equal to 48,. wealth, for the location of the Agricultural 600,000 English acres, are devoted to growing College; Rhode Island bestows the lands grain, and 100,000 Swedish acres, or 3,200,000 upon Brown University, which is to have an English acres, to potatoes; yet the yield of Agricultural Department; Connecticut donates potatoes is so large, that it stands in the ratio them to the Agricultural Department of Yale of 3 to 5. The potato can be raised in the College, connected with the Sheffield Scientific short summer of these high latitudes, when no School; New York divides hers between the grain, save barley, can live, and thus becomes Agricultural College at Ovid, New York, and the “staff of life” to the Swedish peasants. the People's College, at Havana. Pennsyl- Fine crops of potatoes, and occasionally of barvania bas handed over her share to her ex. ley, are raised far within the arctic circle, and cellent Agricultural College in Central County, even above 70° north latitude, the highest culthe most efficient institution of its class in the tivated land in the world. United States, and which, by this grant, will be The Alsike clover is the most productive placed in a condition of still greater efficiency. clover in Sweden; cuts about five tons to the In most of the Western States, where Agricul- Swedish acre, can be made to yield two crops tural Colleges have been already chartered, the in the short Swedish summer, and has been ingrant has been bestowed upon them, and will, troduced into Scotland to great advantage. in most instances, secure their speedy organi- There is a kind of egg plant called “Gula zation, or if already organized, aid in their rapid Plummon,” which is produced in the middle development.

and southern districts of Sweden in considerForeign agriculture offers but little of special able quantities. This plant is of a light straw interest at the present time. The crops of color, firm, juicy, and of a peachy flavor. It is cereals in 1863, in Great Britain and on the thought it would flourish in the northern councontinent, were generally good, and were forties of New England and New York. the most part successfully harvested. The This table is the average yearly product of price of wheat, in England, which, in Septem- Sweden, taking the figures for five years to 1861: ber, 1860, had been $1.62 per American bushel, in 1861, $1.45, and, in 1862, $1.40, was in Sep

Amount after deducting seed. tember, 1863, $1.16-a very marked reduction; Wbeat, tunn*.

66, S29 and the potato crop was generally good in Bye, tunn..

8,763,766 568,891 4,832,657

2,669,419 474,722 8,143, 141 Great Britain, though almosť a failure in Ire- Barley, tunn..


4,677,204 979,124 5,656,329 land. In France, the crop, though injured in Mixed Oats and Barley, tunn., 1,208,914 216,663 1,424,897 some quarters by the drought, was on the

Peas and Beans, tunn...

391,850 Potatoes, tupa...

7,985,607 1,271,143 9,258,752 whole a fair average. The practice of holding Other edible roots, tunn..... regional agricultural expositions in the differ

Flax and Hemp, centnert.. ent departments of France, annually, is coming

14,837 rapidly into favor. For the most part these The following table shows the exports and have been confined thus far to the exhibition imports of grain for seven years :





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Rape, tunn..








1855. 1556 1557. 1858 1899. 1300 1861.

2,470 86,147 99,844 80,668 71,311 17,416 87,765 89,769 20,488 84,319 24,315 98,444

89,914 74,802
Overplas of exports.....






703,806 208.455 857,080

86,113 101,659 164,785 699,477


Overplus of exports...


* One tonn equals four bushels English.

# One centner equals 98 pounds English.

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90 25,971

25,811 1856.. ............... 19,918 7,805

12,618 1857..

15,760 8,115

7,645 1838.............................


8,593 1859............................

179 87,649

87,470 1860............................


25,510 1861............................ 4,439 12,353

7,914 Overplus of esports.......


Overplus of exports....
The table is made out in tunns-1 tunn = 4 busbels.



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ALABAMA.—The details of the Census of crowd to help themselves to what they liked, 1860, additional to these published in previous which they did accordingly, giving preference volumes, have not yet been issued by the Gove to the bacon, until they had taken about $200 ernment.

worth. They went out, and on being quesThe changes which took place in the State tioned by some gentlemen as to what they of Alabama during 1863 present no new aspect. meant, they related their suffering condition. Immediately after the occupation of the penin- “Seeing what was going on, and feeling a sula, opposite Vicksburg, by General Grant's deep sympathy for these ladies, a number of army, in January, measures were taken to cut gentlemen, of very moderate means, who off the communication between the inhabitants themselves have families to support, set to in the east and west_sides of the Mississippi work to raise a subscription in their behalf.” through Red River. From that stream the in- This was one of several instances of distress habitants on the east side of the Mississippi which occurred at Mobile. The famine existed had access to vast supplies, particularly of salt, chiefly in the families of absent soldiers. sugar, and molasses. A large portion of the The scarcity of provisions was such as to inConfederate army was supplied from the same duce all the authorities to wisely prepare for

This communication was destroyed the ensuing winter. The Confederate Con. by the gunboats of Admiral Porter, which were gress urged the people to plant less cotton and below the batteries at Vicksburg, and by ves- more corn; and the Governors of the States resels of Admiral Farragut's fleet at New Orleans. peated the request. In April a scarcity of provisions prevailed in Governor Shorter issued an appeal to the the southern part of the State, which created planters of the State at this time, urging the an advance in prices. This was attended with importance of raising articles necessary to keep & depreciation of the currency, and food soon the people froin starving. He said:"Failing advanced almost beyond the reach of the poor. to accomplish our subjugation by the force of About the 15th of April a scene occurred in arms and the power of numbers, the enemy Mobile, which was thus described :

has called to his aid the terrible appliances of “ A number of ladies, perhaps a dozen, com- want and starvation, and is carrying out this posed of the wives and daughters of soldiers' savage and inhuman policy by the wholesale families, who represented themselves and their larceny of slaves, the seizure of provisions, and families to have been deprived of anything to even the destruction of agricultural implements. eat in the last days, save a small portion of Are you, planters of Alabama, prepared to corn bread, were seen perambulating our streets aid in this policy by pursuing a course which until they came up to a provision store on may tend to its accomplishment? Look around Whitehall street. They all entered it, being you this moment, when the crop upon which preceded by a tall lady, on whose countenance the poor must mainly depend is not yet planted, rested care and determination. She asked the and behold the want and destitution which, merchant the price of bacon. He replied, stat- notwithstanding the munificent provision made ing that it was $1.10 per pound. She remon- by public and private benevolence, are to be strated with him as to the impossibility of fe- found at the hearthstones of many whose legitmales in their condition paying such prices for imate protectors have fallen in battle, or are the necessaries of life. He remaining inexora- now fighting in defence of your homes and propble in his demand, the tall lady proceeded to erty. Let us not deceive ourselves. The draw from her bosom a long navy repeater, and failure to raise the largest possible quantity of at the same time ordered the others in the supplies in the present year may bring disaster

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and ruin upon our cause. The soldier must be confiscation of our lands, and the subjugation of a free fed and his family provided for, and our home people., God in his providence will not permit such a

calamity. population, white and black, must be supported. The experience of the past and the neces

The Senate adopted the following resolusities of the present give serious and solemn

tion: Warning as to the future. Let not our armies, Resolved, That the people of Alabama and the State which have hitherto, by the blessing of God, hereby, pledge the entire resources of the State, to the

last dollar and the last man, to a successful prosecution proved invincible, be conquered or disbanded of the war now being waged by the North for the subby the want of subsistence in their camps, or jugation of the people of the Confederate States, and be demoralized by the presence of famine in that we will never yield the contest until the achievetheir homes. These results can and will be pre- ment of the acknowledgment of our independence as a vented if the planting community realize their separate people. heavy responsibility, and discharge their full A joint resolution relative to the employduty to the country. The Legislature of Georgia ment of slaves was adopted as follows: is called to reassemble to reconsider its late ac

Resolved, That it is the duty of Congress to provide tion upon this important subject; and the Con- by law for the employment in the service of the Confederate Congress, perceiving the danger, have federate States of America, in such situations and in given timely notice of its approach by an earnest such numbers as may be found absolutely necessary, appeal to the whole country. The indications of the able bodied slaves of the country, whether as pio: of a continuance of the war are so unmistak. neers, sappers and miners, cooks, nurses or team

. able, and the necessity of providing the means

On the 22d of August, Robert Jemison, jr., indispensable to its prosecution so urgent, that I have thought it not improper to unite in the Yancey, deceased, in the Senate of the Confed

was elected to fill the unexpired term of William appeal to that class of our population through erate Congress. He was a member of the conwhose active energies and foresight alone these vention which passed the ordinance of Secesmeans can be supplied.". An address was also sion, and at that time a made to the people by the Senators and Repre- ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA, 1861. Alabama), but be

coöperationist” (see sentatives of the State in Congress, urging came “a firm and uncompromising supporter them to plant corn and raise hogs and cattle. of the war.” For many years he had been a At this time bands of deserters from the South- member of the State Legislature from Tuscaern army and Union men were organized in the loosa county. northern part of the State. In Wayne and the

At the election for State officers in August, adjoining counties they were quite numerous.

1863, Governor John G. Shorter and Thomas After the losses at Gettysburg and the re

H. Watts were the candidates for the office of treat of General Lee from Pennsylvania, ex

governor. The result in fifty-two counties was: traordinary efforts were made to recruit the Watts, 22,223 votes ; Shorter, 6,342 votes. Southern armies. On the 20th of July, Gov- The former was elected by a large majority. ernor Shorter issued a call for an extra session

Governor Watts had been one of the electors of the State Legislature to be convened Aug. named on the Bell and Everett ticket at the 17th. The reason for this session was to pro- presidential election in 1860. Soon after his vide for the better defence of the State.

election it was stated that he was in favor of a In his message to the Legislature the Gover- reconstruction of the Union. A letter was adnor confined his remarks to the subject of mili- dressed to him on this subject, to which bre tary defence. He examined the question rela; made the following reply: tive to the classes exempt under the State and Confederate enactments, and being without


DEPARTMENT OF Justice, RICHMOND, Sept. 12th. means of ascertaining the number of exempts, Hon. Ira Foster, Quartermaster-General of Georgia, he supposed there were several thousand. Hé

Atlanta, Georgia: recommended that all persons between the Dear Sir: I have to-day received your letter of the ages of sixteen and sixty, including those hav. Ist inst., forwarded to me from Montgomery, Alabama, ing substitutes, those of foreign birth domiciled and hasten to reply; You say that my name, since the within the State, and all who had evaded the Alabama election, has been

freely used by many in

connection with “reconstruction," meaning thereby full requirements of the Confederate Govern

that some people in Georgia suppose I am in favor of ment, should be embraced in an amendment to re-union with the Yankee Government of the North. the militia laws as liable to military duty; also I am surprised and mortified that any body in the that the officers of the State should be charged those who claim my election as indicating any such

South should so interpret the Alabama election. If with the duty of arresting stragglers and de- feeling in Alabama had read my letter of the 21st March serters, and that the judicial officers should be to Geo. Lawler, and my short address to the people of held to a rigid enforcement of the penalties Alabama, dated 6th June last

, they would never have against their abettors. He concluded as fol- entertained such false notions. It is due to the gallant lows:

people of my State to call attention to the resolutions

of the recent called session of the Legislature, passed Alabama has and will cheerfully respond to every unanimously, pledging all the men and resources of demand upon her, so long as the unnatural foe perse the State to prosecute the war until the independence veres in his unboly crusade. May the invaded people of the Confederate States is fully established. "For mynot give way to alarm and false security, but nerve self, I will not forfeit my self-respect by arguing the thernselves to an undying resistance to the despotism question of “reconstruction.” He who is now, deliberwhich has decreed the emancipation of our slaves, the ately or otherwise, in favor of “reconstruction " with





The United States of America.
San Salvador.

1860 1862


Costa Rica.



the States under Lincoln's dominion, is a traitor in his contributing their blood; and let those who are too heart to the State of his residence and deserves a poor for this contribute their influence. There is some. traitor's doom. If I had the power, I would build up thing that all can do. Self must be entirely forgotten; a wall of fire between Yankeedom and the Confederate and let those who are deaf to any other appeal, remem. States, there to burn, for ages, as a monument of the ber that he who is hoarding up wealth, in such a time folly, wickedness, and vandalism of the Puritanic race ! as this, is boarding up infamy, the mark of which he No, sir! rather than reunite with such a people, I and his posterity must bear who shall have grown would see the Confederate States desolated with tre rich by this war. and sword. When the men of the South become such base cowards as to wish for such reunion, let us call

The number of troops contributed to the on the women of the South to march to the battle field, Confederacy by the State is at present un. and in the name of God and justice, bid them fight known. The military operations of the year under the banner of Southern liberty! The call would touched the northern part of the State; but no not be made in vain. Let the patriotic sires, whose children have bared their breasts to Yankee bullets important actions took place. and welcomed glorious deaths in this struggle for self- The foreign commerce of the State was congovernment, rebuke the foul spirit which even whispers fined to the cargoes of two or three steamers * reconstruction." Let the noble mothers, whose sons which reached Mobile through the blockade, have made sacred with their blood so many fields con: and the export of some cotton which escaped secrated to freedom, rebuke the fell heresy! Let our blood-stained banners, now unfurled “ to the battle and in small vessels. the breeze," rebuke the cowardice and cupidity which AMERICA. The political subdivisions of suggest “reconstruction.” The spirits of our heroic America in 1863 were as follows: dead, the martyrs to our sacred cause, rebuke, a thou. sand times rebuke, “reconstruction"! We have little cause for despondency, none for despair! Let us now nerve ourselves afresh for the contest, and let us not

Population. forget that “Freedom's battle, once begun,

81,445,080 Bequeathed from bleeding sire to son,

*9,295,553 Though baffled oft, is ever won!"

*600,000 If we are true to ourselves, true to the memories of

Nicaragua .

*400,000 the past, true to our homes and our firesides, and true Honduras.

*850,000 to our God, we can not, we will not be conquered! In

1860 126,750 any and in every event, let us prefer death to a life of United States of Colombia (New Gra. cowardly shame! Your obedient servant,


2,223,887 T. H. WATTS. Ecuador

1,040,871 Venezuela.

1,565,000 Bolivia..

1,987,852 In October, Mobile was visited by the Pres

2,500,000 ident of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis. Chili

1857 1,558,819 After a review of the local troops, he was call- Brazil

7,677,800 ed out by the people and made a brief speech, Uruguay..

Argentine Republic.


1862 *850,000 which was thus reported:


1,887,481 Hayti.

572,000 He congratulated the people upon the fact—which he assured them he felt to be the fact—that our cause is now in a better condition than it was a year ago.

Russian Possessions
Having just come from the scene of the great battle

57,000 (Danish..

47,029 British Possessions. 4,422,261 Swedish.

8,300 Chickamauga, it was impossible that he should not re

300,162 Spanish

2,032,062 fer to that, and though it could not be expected that Dutch..

196,016 he should allude to contemplated movements, yet he was happy to say that the brave victors of that

The most important events in the history of bloody field stood ready and anxious to strike the the American continent, during the year 1863, blow which should secure the complete fruits of their glorious victory. He could say more-that he are the continuance of the civil war in the believed they would strike the blow, and that Rose. United States, and the progress of the French crans' unwieldy legions would be destroyed, or driven invasion in Mexico. Both are fully treated for refuge to the Ohio. The same spirit animated our elsewhere in these pages. At the conclusion armies elsewhere, and all they needed was to be properly seconded by the people at home to send the of the year these wars were unended. In Cenhordes of Yankees back to their beloved Boston, or tral America the president of Guatemala, Gen. any other place from which their return might be more Carrera, declared on January 23d war against difficult.

President Barrios of San Salvador. Ai the The citizen soldiery, also, he believed, were emulous Central American States, with the exception of the reputation of their brethren in camp: He had of Costa Rica, were drawn into this war, which been much moved, as he rode along the lines, at seeing among them young boys, some very young, and terminated with the victory of Gen. Carrera, men whose heads were silvered with the frosts of many and the expulsion of Gen. Barrios from the winters. He could remind all these, regulars and others, that ter part of the

year a war broke out between

country. (See CENTRAL AMERICA.) In the latthey are not common soldiers. They present a spectacle which the world has never witnessed--the best the United States of Colombia and Ecuador. population of the country poured into the army. Such (See COLOMBIA, UNITED STATES OF.) In Venmen may be appealed to from other incentives than ezuela, the Federalists, who had been at war that of rigid military discipline. The time, the cause, all considerations, require efforts which may be de with the Government, concluded a treaty of manded of an army of heroes, for such they are. peace with the latter, at Coche, near Caraccas,

Besides these, there are some too old to bear arms, upon the following conditions: an armistice; but they, too, can do something. Let them contribute their means to the support and relief of those who are

1856 1857





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