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with the head bowed upon the clenched hands,
as the horror of the great darkness came upon
him and fixed itself in eternal lithograph, tells
the tale more eloquently than tongue or pen of
living man could do.

Our last call was at Diomede's house, the extravagant dimensions of which contrast boldly with the dainty proportions of his neighbors' abodes; suggesting the alternatives of showy extravagance set forth in the modern parable of her who went up to Tiffany's to buy diamonds of the first water, and being eyed enviously and superciliously by a woman of the Pharisees, who said to herself "Shoddy!" lifted up her voice boldly and answered, "Nay, verily, Petroleum !"

In our zeal to make our own way back to the station we lost it, but were found with surprising quickness by the blind musicians, the little chin-choppers, together with various disinterested parties, who were confident we should never again have so favorable a time for ascending Vesuvius (it was five o'clock of a January night), tasting Lachryma Christi, or of buying Pompeiian lamps and other antiquities (?). When we finally reached the station, our train was swollen to an appalling degree, and was made up of as motley material as was that of young David of Adullam ; "every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented;" but the steam-monster scattered them speedily and bore us away to a place of safety.

ing at night to our cheery dinner-table, and hearing the utterance from ministers and laymen of a brave hope in God and a redeemed humanity, we were ready again to thank God, might not be altogether an enthusiast's dream. and take courage that the regeneration of Italy

sible purification of Naples under the new régime Another ground of hope I have for the poswill, I fear, be regarded by many persons as offensively trivial, but any one who visited Naples years ago will be able to appreciate its significance.

National Museum! Of course one has not seen I refer to the umbrella man of the Pompeii until he has spent hours and days in this museum, where its treasures are gathered, down to the very bread-loaves and freshly-laid from the exquisitely graceful Narcissus in bronze eggs which furnished the breakfast-tables of that doomed city on the day of its destruction. All these spoils, together with innumerable paintings, statues, and articles of virtu from the wide world are actually opened to the visitor's view without money or price! And much more than this: not only did the workmen who came at our summons to open the door of the gallery (then undergoing repairs) which contains the Farnese Bull and the Hercules re-stolen from the Roman thief, Caracalla, say, "It is not permitted," in response to our little offering; not only this, but the official guardian of our umbrellas actually shook his head regretfully but decidedly at the proffered fee! It is something supernatural resistance must have cost a Neapolawful to think of the mental struggle which this itan.

compared with the hordes with which books of There are few beggars remaining in Naples travel threatened us. The lazaroni, as a class,

exist no longer; but although the tourist may sigh for the picturesque groups who formerly dreamed away life upon that beautiful shore, yet the philanthropist finds in their disappearance an evidence of social progress.

On our return to our hotel in Naples it was somewhat adverse to our previous ideas of comfort to have our fire for the evening brought in on a salver! However, when we were gathered about the table, with the brasier of coals beneath it, discussing with each other, and with our four several journals the marvelous enjoyments of the day, there was quite an atmosphere of home comfort about that apartment in the sombre Naples sun. Indeed, during our stay, that same gloomy, damp, stormy albugo was transformed into a cozy American household. learning self-respect. Already, to beg they are Emancipated from priestcraft, the people are Through a happy coincidence there were gath- ashamed. ered together there eight Americans, one in pers" proffered an equivalent for our sous. Even the Pompeiian "chin-chopChristian faith and in loyalty to our country. whoever pays a Neapolitan more than one-half But There was also with us a German artist, whose his demand for any individual article, from an intelligent sympathy in our national struggle, orange up to a reef of pink coral, cheats himself, as well as his irresistible good-nature, forbade and astonishes the native of whom he makes the us to regard as an interloper. Our outspoken purchase. The only exceptions to this disagreenationality drove away more than one English-able rule are found at the Bible Depository, and man, and reduced a garrulous Scotchman to the in the sale of photographs in the National Munecessity of immuring himself in his own bed-seum, where the price is fixed by law. room, where he wreaked his spite upon a wheezy accordion.

As has been before intimated this guerrilla
warfare harassed every moment of our stay in
"Che!" and our shoulders lift in the charac-
Our tongues still twirl the sharp
teristic shrug, which they then acquired, and
which is one's only weapon of warfare and de-

As we walked the streets of the filthy city (stirred to the depths of its vileness rather than cleansed by the sullen rains which fell pertinaciously during our visit), and saw on every side the tokens of sin and suffering-diseased and mutilated adults, abused and neglected children, overworked and flayed-alive animals, our hearts unique. In the convent of San Martino, above The expression of Neapolitan shoulders is sank within us, and we were ready to cry, "Can the city, is a picture representing Peter's denial these dry, these rotten bones live ?" But return-of his Lord, wherein the shrug of the Galilean's

shoulder is eloquently Neapolitan, saying as it version with all its "pecooliar" phraseology and does unmistakably, "Che lo sa!" unmodulatable rhythm. To him it is

"Familiar as his mother's face, And grand as is the countenance of heaven with stars." Grand indeed it is in its divine simplicity and exact conformity to the very letter of God's psalmody.

But there is a sunny, or better, a heavenly side to humanity in Naples. Bibles and Protestant books are openly sold in the streets, as well as scathing caricatures (which the most illiterate can read) setting forth the abominations and follies of priestcraft, which in their point and impression "are as goads and as nails fast-rian Church in Naples, is doing yeoman's servened by the masters of assemblies."

Art is already using the liberty which Italy has bought with a great price in depicting the crimes of the old absolutism.

The most attractive pictures in the recent exhibition by Neapolitan artists of to-day were two or three inquisitorial scenes, and another representing Galileo arraigned for blasphemy. "But it does move!"

We were so fortunate as to make our way to the Scotch Presbyterian service on the Sunday which we spent in Naples. It is held, thank God! openly, and with free consent of the Government; and not like our Protestant services in Rome, under the sheltering wings of our strong eagle within the walls, or under the rose without. The service is held in an upper chamber, a bright, attractive apartment looking out upon the beautiful bay; and as we worshiped with the large congregation gathered that day we grew more hopeful than before for the luxurious, idle, cruel community in which this pure leaven of a free Gospel is working.

Rev. Mr. Buscarlet, of the Scotch Presbyte

ice in the mighty service of regenerating Italy. Our party had the pleasure of visiting with him the schools under his care. Turning into a bystreet, and ascending several flights of stairs, they came out upon a house-top; this they crossed, and one or two others besides; then entering a door they descended a few steps, and came into a pleasant apartment. Here was gathered a busy group of perhaps fifteen little boys, who were under the supervision of a monitor somewhat older than themselves. A second room contained fifty boys between the ages of ten and fifteen, pursuing various studies, including that of the Bible. Still a third room was set apart for the instruction of young men in book-keeping and other preparatory studies for a business life. These were under the tutelage of two converted Romish priests.

The boys had committed to memory nearly all the Gospel of St. Luke, and, as M. Buscarlet remarked, "whatever the priests may do hereafter, they can not extract that Gospel from my boys' hearts." But it is a mighty task to

I doubt if mine were the only eyes which re-uplift a people so long enslaved by superstition. sponded tearfully when the good minister in charge included in his earnest prayer a fervent petition for "that great country beyond the sea, so highly favored of God; so instrumental in the work of the world's evangelization, but now rent by the wicked rebellion." And as he besought that the right might prevail, and good government be restored, we recognized the grateful notes of a trumpet which gave no uncertain sound.

To a homesick American it was good to join in such prayers, led by a stranger of Swiss birth and Scotch education, and responded to by Christians from various lands.

The Neapolitan boys are singularly bright and sharp of apprehension, but deficient in perseverance. As they grow from under the firm control of the teacher, up to an age when they ought to be competent to pursue their studies without coercion, they sometimes disappoint the hope of their former instructors, and sink back into the national dolce far niente. But a "great patience" is directing and watching over the experiment, and there is reason to hope that ere long this "Paradise lost" will be "regained" for our Lord. So at least thought our party, as they climbed still another stairway, after their examination of the schools was ended, and came When the minister had "wailed a portion out into a garden from which the whole beautiwith judicious care" from David's Psalms, the ful panorama of city and bay was visible. Here entire congregation sung it to a simple air with- they discovered that in their labyrinthine ascent out accompaniment. The quaint old song re- to the school-rooms through and over houses called a somewhat comical incident of the domi- they had been gradually climbing one of the nie's experience. Having arranged an exchange hills which surround Naples, up whose slope of pulpits with a Scotch Presbyterian clergyman, houses are built to the very summit; the lower early on the Sunday morning the dominie was domiciles being thus subject to the inconvenwaited upon solemnly by the conscientious pre-ience of serving as the only passage-way to the centor, armed with a true copy of the Psalms, from which he begged him to select the portions he intended to give out for singing, and read them over carefully to himself, "For," he added, apologetically, "they are summat pecooliar, and ye must modulate your voice as ye read 'em!"

But I can fully appreciate the loving tenacity with which a man of that ilk clings to this very VOL. XXXI.-No. 185.-S s


As they came down from these heights, their hands laden with luscious oranges and lemons plucked in the hanging-gardens, and their hearts full of what they had heard and seen, their tongues were eloquent upon the theme of New Italy and the glorious promise these children gave that they would one day go forth in stalwart Christian manhood for her salvation.


[The following article is written by General THOMAS JORDAN, chief of staff to General Beauregard from June, 1861, to May, 1864, and subsequently on Beauregard's staff at the close of the war. Without indorsing all the opin. ions of the writer, we present it as giving the views of one who, from his position, had the most ample means of forming a correct judgment as to the character and abilities of the Chief of the late Confederacy.-ED. HARPER'S MAGA


the watchful, effective friend of the Military Academy and of the Coast Survey, doing much to avert injurious legislation, as well as to add materially to the value of these two public establishments, which have rendered such conspicuous services to the United States in the course of the war just ended. As Secretary of War the influence of Mr. Davis was overruling in all matters connected in any way with his Department, and his strong will was constantly

LL that can throw light upon the hitherto felt in the councils of a Cabinet of which Mr.

A hidden causes of events, uncover some- Marey was the Premier.

what the ruling motives, or give a correct measure of the character, capacities, and purposes of Confederate leaders, will of course be eagerly sought after by the historian who shall fitly write the story of our time. Moreover, any thing tending to these ends must have present interest, especially that which may aid in forming a just conception of the chief personage to whom the Southern people intrusted the conduct of their ill-fated movement. Believing that I have possession of historical matter that may serve these purposes-that will indeed explain, in some measure, much that otherwise may appear inexplicable in the course of events, I am induced at this early day to venture upon a sketch of Jefferson Davis, at the risk of saying much that, just now, may not be acceptable to many-much that may wear the seeming of personal feelings.

It was Mr. Davis who sent to the Crimea a commission of three officers-one of whom was General M'Clellan, then a Captain of Cavalry, and another the present chief of the United States Military Engineer Corps-to study and report upon the state of the science of war and the condition of European armies. By the efforts of Mr. Davis likewise, four regiments were added to the regular army, two of which were cavalry, particularly valuable to the United States in the last four years. On the whole, it may be said that his administration of the War Office was received by the army and the people as able and successful, though indeed there were some who found in it strong traces of passion-decided traits of character, which gave cause for grave apprehension that he was unsuited for the place of Chief Magistrate of the new Confederation to a degree that must imperil success even with much larger resources than the Southern States could command.

JEFFERSON DAVIS received a military education. He was graduated at West Point in 1828, and, entering the army, served as a subaltern One example of these perilous qualities may in the First Regiment of Infantry until March, be seen in the course of Mr. Davis relative to 1833, when, on the formation of the First Regi- staff organization. The United States staff sysment of Dragoons, he was transferred to it, and tem then as now was substantially that of the became Adjutant. In 1835 he resigned his com- French army. It had worked with notable efmission, became a planter, and subsequently a ficiency during the Mexican war, while the politician in Mississippi, making his first ap- French staff had just gone through the Russian pearance on the stage of Federal politics in 1845, war with confessed superiority over that of the as a member of the House of Representatives. British army. But Jefferson Davis had enAt the outbreak of the war with Mexico, May, countered in the American staff officers perma1846, Mr. Davis promptly resigned his seat in nently attached who proved personally objecCongress, went to Mississippi, and raised a reg- tionable, and, on the other hand, officers of the iment of volunteer riflemen, which, under his line whom he wished to provide with staff pocommand, won signal distinction at Monterey sitions not within his disposal. Only a radical and Buena Vista. In 1847 he was tendered by change of organization would enable him to President Polk the grade of Brigadier-General gratify his wishes. With these motives to aniof Volunteers, which he declined. He then re- mate and color his views, ignoring American entered political life as a Senator in Congress, and yet more recent European experience, with in which high post he remained until his State specious arguments and dogmatic assertion, he withdrew from the Union in 1861, except dur- sought to induce Congress to throw aside the ing the period he was called to the Cabinet of permanent staff organization for one of details Mr. Pierce, as Secretary of War-that is, from on staff duty, such as existed in the British servMarch 4, 1853, to March 3, 1857. ice and had given such signal dissatisfaction there, showing that for the gratification of per

As Senator Mr. Davis unquestionably acquired a commanding influence, and was re-sonal aims, prejudices, or a spirit of nepotism he garded with marked respect. His speeches, always carefully prepared, breathed an air of conviction, and were gracefully and effectively spoken. He signalized himself particularly as

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was capable of subverting the organization of a vital branch of the army, which was approved by the experience of the military world.

It is the habit both here and abroad to speak of Mr. Davis as the very incarnation of the ideas, aims, and inspirations which led the Southern people into the course of disunion. On all sides we see ascribed to him the prominence-if not the

thought to be especially desirable at that juncture in their Chief Executive.

crime-of the arch-plotter who deeply contrived | regard him in the light of the peculiar leader or and resolutely inaugurated the revolution. So exponent of the movement, that he was elected prevalent is this notion that we fully appreciate Provisional President of the new Confederacy how difficult it will be to sketch him as one of by a bare majority, not because of any recogthe leaders of the Confederate States, in his true nized political leadership, but on account of his proportions, upon the historical canvas. Never- military education, experience, and reputation, theless the facts revealed by a mere glance at and for his acquaintance with military adminhis political antecedents during the eight years istration, for which it was supposed he had spepreceding secession mark him not as the cham-cial aptitudes; qualities and training which were pion of revolution, not as a fanatical sectional chief by any means, but as one who, keenly alive to the value of great national establishments, sought to foster them; as one, too, whose ambition evidently looked up to a larger sphere than that which should embrace a section rather than the whole Union. This was conspicuously the inspiration of his speech delivered in Maine, when there in pursuit of health, during the administration of Buchanan. Hence, too, after the election of Mr. Lincoln, and certain occurrences in South Carolina clearly portended her ultimate course, on the arrival of Mr. Davis in Washington in December, 1860, he was taken to Mr. Buchanan, and gave assurances that he would counsel moderation on the part of his section, and the exhaustion of all measures for accommodation, at least until after the 4th of March, 1861.

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Unable, however, to comprehend the proportions of the struggle impending, or to realize that downright war for coercing the seceded States back into the Federal Union would be the result, Mr. Davis from the outset failed to avail himself of the resources of the cotton States to provide arms and munitions of war in the least degree adequate to the exigency. A just measure of his ideas of the state of affairs and of possible contingencies is to be found in the first orders sent to Europe for arms, which were for but ten thousand Enfield rifles. Ten thousand rifles with which to meet the shock of arms with a Power of such energies and resources as were wielded by his adversary! One in his place, of mere civil experience, might be partially excused for such a mistaken policy; but an educated soldier, with views enlarged by connection with the functions of Senator and War Minister, surely must be held to the severest accountability for such a fatal misconception of the situation.* At that time the Southern people were anxious that their Government should take their cotton and tobacco. There was a very large amount of foreign exchange also in possession of the banks, which I know was offered at favorable rates. There would have been little difficulty in exporting the cotton and tobacco, and quite as little in importing arms and supplies into Southern ports at that early stage of the blockade, as was shown by the ease with which the commercial operations of John Frazer and Co. (including their large voluntary importation of small-arms, artillery, and powder) were carried on, not to speak of the large commercial marine successfully engaged in running the blockade in 1863 and 1864.

It will be seen, too, that his course in open Senate accorded with this agreement. His set oration of the 21st January, 1861, was a welldigested, careful statement of the alleged causes or grievances which had driven the slave-labor States into the path which they considered they must surely take in the event of the triumph of aggressive sectionalism by the election of Mr. Lincoln; nevertheless it was conceived in a temperate spirit. Several of the Senators of his section had already spoken. Mr. Pugh, of Ohio, also had previously addressed the Senate in somewhat similar terms, with a lofty and fervid eloquence that no one who heard him can forget. The fact is, the people of the cotton States had gone far ahead of those of their leaders who had been so long their representatives at Washington as to be possessed with strong personal attachments for the life and associations there of national politicians, which they abdicated with extreme reluctance. The constituency of these gentlemen, ahead of their representatives, had been brought with remarkable unanimity to look upon a dissolution of the Union as their only means of relief from a state of political in-eral Secretary of War or otherwise. Hence if equality, which they believed was fraught with the political, social, and industrial subordination of the Southern to the Northern States. Mr. Davis, with higher, better-founded hopes for Federal preferment than any other Southern statesman, naturally was more reluctant to enter upon a movement that made that preferment impossible. His course, both as Secretary of War and Senator, we affirm, must acquit him of any tendency to extreme sectional sentiments, which made compromise under the Union impossible-disunion inevitable.

So little, in fact, did the Provisional Congress

The Provisional Congress made their legisla tion square implicitly with the wishes and views of Mr. Davis touching military matters, found reflected here and there in his Reports as Fed

provisions were not made by that body for an army organization and state of military preparation commensurate with the emergency, and such as a wise experienced statesman of military education and knowledge would devise, Mr. Davis is rightly responsible. Yet that legislation gives no traces of a proper conception of the measures which were really called for in a conflict with such an adversary as the Southern people had profoundly affronted and defied.

Mr. Toombs, then Secretary of State, claims that it was first proposed to send for 8000 rifles, and that only at his earnest suggestion the number was increased to 10,000.

Mr. Davis had been at West Point, and subsequently served for several years in the dragoons at a frontier post with a subaltern officer to whom it happened he became attached. About the time the former resigned his commission to turn planter in Mississippi, the latter was disabled by an accident, quit his border post likewise, went to his home, studied medicine, and turned parish doctor. Mr. Davis became in time a politician, Lieutenant Northrop a Catholic convert, but so eccentric and full of mental crotchets as to be generally regarded in Charleston as of unsound intellect, and unfit for the management of his own small affairs. He had not served long enough in the army, nor been thrown in connection with considerable operations, to acquire familiarity with military administration; neither had his retired habits of life, his cast of thought, or avocations in Charleston, brought him in relation with men engaged in large commercial affairs, or turned his mind to the study of such subjects, and in that way attained to that breadth of view and knowledge of general business details and of men which may make up for the want of professional bureau experience after a separation of twenty-five years from army life. This man, with whom Mr. Davis had no personal association since they were cavalry lieutenants together on the Indian frontier, he did not hesitate to make his chief of subsistence, nor scruple to intrust with the organization and administration of a bureau upon which the very existence of the Confederate armies must depend, and for the labors of which it is apparent the soundest practical order of intellect was essential. One member of Mr. Davis's Cabinet* at least knew the local repute of Dr. Northrop; and we assert that had the inquiry been made in Charleston, his pre-eminent unfitness would have been universally certified. As might be anticipated, his administration at once took all the characteristics of that unhealthy brain. Mr. Davis supported him, however, in every vagary, permitted him to override all opposition, and ignored the views and wishes of every army commander when, as was of daily occurrence, they chanced to differ from those of Colonel Northrop. Indeed, the crazy courses in which this man was suffered to indulge, to the mortal injury of every Confederate army, are incredible.

But we have not the space for their relation, which would fill a volume. One example must serve to illustrate the surprising character of an administration which made success impossible. All reinforcements, ammunition, ordnance, and the greater part of the quarter-masters' supplies were necessarily transported to the Confederate forces assembled at Manassas Junction by the Alexandria and Orange Railroad, which, of course, was thus tasked to the utmost tension of its resources. But another railroad, branching from it at Manassas, communicated with the most fertile region of Virginia, the famous Shenandoah Valley, which teemed with subsistence Mr. Memminger, Secretary of the Treasury.

that was also abundant in the adjoining counties of Fauquier and Loudon. Not required for the transportation of troops or ordnance supplies, that road was therefore available for the almost exclusive use of the Subsistence Department; and substantial supplies, we repeat, lay convenient to it, sufficient for all the forces the Confederates could possibly muster in that quarter. Nothing, indeed, could be more favorable for the Confederates than the arrangement of these two divergent roads. But all this was lost sight of by Colonel Northrop, who by some influence was led to determine that subsistence officers with General Beauregard should not draw their flour or meat either from the rich garners and stores of Loudon, Fauquier, or the valley counties. Forbidding his subordinates, imperatively and angrily, from purchasing supplies within easy reach and with ample means of otherwise idle transportation at hand, leaving them to fall into the hands of the enemy, he set other subordinates to gathering subsistence in the rear of the army, which he was obliged to send over the already overburdened Alexandria and Orange Railroad, for which he had to pay much more than such supplies could have been bought for in the Valley or in Loudon.* The consequences were that there was never in dépôt such a supply of subsistence as General Beauregard needed, and there was not one day's rations for the army at the time of the battle of Manassas (or Bull Run, as it is usually styled), nor more than forty-eight hours' supplies for weeks afterward of the material part of the ration. General Beauregard having urged the provision of a fortnight's supply for some twenty or twenty-five thousand men, Northrop fell into a passion, wrote to the General a letter of surpassing insolence, and at the same time relieved the staff officer from duty who, under General Beauregard's orders, had attempted to remove the evil. Mr. Davis, blind to the consequences, obdurately sustained this extraordinary conduct.

An army left habitually without supplies for more than twenty-four hours, and the wishes and views of whose commander in so vital a matter as its subsistence are offensively thwarted, it is needless to say, can have little mobility. Its commander can not have the power to handle it at will. This was signally the case with the Confederate army on the 21st of July, 1861. Want of subsistence rooted it fast to its dépôt, through which Colonel Northrop issued a daily dole sent up once in twenty-four hours by the Alexandria and Orange Railroad. Not was this state of affairs bettered as late as 17th August, when General Johnston, in a note to General Beauregard, wrote: “It is impossible, as the affairs of the Commissariat are now man◄ aged, to think of any other military course than a strictly defensive base."

Why such a man as Northrop was dragged forth from his seclusion, his favorite church po

Indeed, flour bought by speculators in the Valley and Loudon was carried to Richmond, sold to the Subsistence Bureau, and transported back to Manassas.

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