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AT THE HAGUE
AND ITS BEARINGS ON INTERNATIONAL
LAW AND POLICY
FREDERICK W. HOLLS, D.C.L.
A MEMBER OF THE CONFERENCE FROM THE UNITED STATES
Justitia elevat gentem
LONDON: MACMILLAN & CO., LTD.
All rights reserved
BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.
J. S. Cushing & Co. - Berwick & Smith
To His Majesty
NICHOLAS THE SECOND
EMPEROR OF RUSSIA
THE AUGUST INITIATOR OF THE PEACE CONFERENCE
THIS VOLUME IS, BY PERMISSION
Most Respectfully Dedicated
THE Peace Conference at the Hague in 1899 has passed into history. From the time of its inception it has naturally been the object of much discussion, and of every variety of criticism. Of enthusiastic welcome it received but little, and even that little rarely came from leaders of thought or action. Its lofty aim did not save it from sarcasm, cynicism, and even condemnation. The good faith of the originating government was openly challenged or derided, at best the idea was patronizingly called an Utopian dream"-"a misprint on the page of history," according to the gloomy pessimism of a distinguished historian.
By a singular but well-nigh universal misconception of its object, it was at first persistently called the "Disarmament Conference," and the gradual abolition of armies and navies, as well as "eternal peace," was by implication assumed to be its ultimate object.
Accordingly, theoretical discussions on the abstract justice or injustice of warfare immediately arose, while hardly any preparatory work of value regarding the