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me, and I began to take my hat off to salient defects of Monroe and those of that “most superior person," George Wilson. Adams, and not Monroe, wrote Nathaniel, Earl Curzon.
the Monroe Doctrine. Monroe was eager Lord Curzon gave the Paris proceed- enough to take the credit for our most ings a wide berth. He was even less daring adventure in foreign affairs, in evidence than Winston Churchill or after the successful event. The story of Alfred, Lord Milner, the cold-blooded American advocacy of a League of Naprotégé of Joseph Chamberlain, of whom tions suggests a deadly parallel. A cenLabouchère was wont to say, "he has no tury ago, the vengeful spirit of Allied feelings and no failings.” Milner is a absolutism menaced popular governsort of iceberg carved into the semblance ments, just as Bolshevism menaced all of a human being. Balfour is a bland orderly government during the proboa-constrictor, with a deadly, danger- ceedings of the Council of Four. Monous hug. Curzon is a roaring furnace, roe's hesitancy, his timorous temperasputtering forth sparks against his pet ment, the unwillingness with which he aversions—the Japanese and the plain was drawn along by the logic of events people.
and the bolder and more experienced One afternoon at "the House of the hand of his secretary of state, John Flirt" Mr. Wilson, I am told, broached Quincy Adams, lend piquancy to the Pacific problems to Lloyd George. fact that the attempted assassination of George was very receptive. Quite as if his doctrine was reserved for the hand on the spur of the moment, he suggested of one whom the late Mr. Roosevelt asthe concentration of American and sailed for identically similar weaknesses British war-ships in the Pacific.
of character. “We can avoid trouble there by fore- Mr. Wilson propounded the Panthought,” said Lloyd George.
American Doctrine. The event was I am not in a position to state what carefully noted in the London foreign connection there is or is not between office, which does not forget earlier this conversation at "the House of the American unwillingness to participate in Flirt" and the decree of Daniels sending the Congress of Panama, or to associate the American fleet through the canal
Latin-American or European support into Pacific waters. Still, I was told in' with the maintenance of the Monroe Paris that Lord Curzon and Admiral Doctrine. The Monroe Doctrine was Jellicoe, with the indorsement of Win- always supposed to be strictly United ston Churchill, put this idea into the States policy until Mr. Wilson proposed head of Lloyd George. Whether or not his Pan-American Doctrine, and later the decision was made a matter of record sat in secret conclave with European by Sir Maurice Hankey, it is, of course, old masters at “the House of the Flirt." impossible to say. Lloyd George had The United States Senate, backed by his witness. Mr. Wilson was his own overwhelming American opinion, forced witness.
Mr. Wilson to put a specific Monroe It was in “the House of the Flirt” that Doctrine bone in his League of Nations the Monroe Doctrine was made to walk skeleton. The proposition, from any the plank by Woodrow Wilson. The angle, was absurd. To mention the doccircumstances belong to history.
trine at all in the body of the covenant The President has been compared to was to do the very thing that a long many historical personages: to Alexander succession of American administrations I of Russia, a smug lunatic, author of the had flatly refused to do. Sage senators, Holy Alliance and the chief contributing no wiser than Mr. Wilson, missed the cause of the promulgation of Monroe's point of the jest. The careful British. , Doctrine; and to James I, a learned, but who are supposed to lack a sense of bad-tempered, bigot. Curiously enough humor, caught the funny bone by the the gentlemen (and ladies) who spend knuckle and turned it into the very best so much time in digging up from the joke of the conference. biographies caricature counterparts of Mr. Wilson breathed his Monroe DoeMr. Wilson have so far failed to note trine difficulty into the wide-open ear of the striking resemblances between the Lord Robert Cecil. Lord Robert, long and loose-jointed, posed his patrician sued privately by the British delegation personality in an attitude of deep sym- to the British press, volunteered the folpathy. It was necessary to head off lowing interpretation: opposition within the League of Nations commission, where Léon Bourgeois, Article XXI makes it clear that the Baron Makino, and other delegates were Covenant is not intended to abrogate or pushing amendments contrary to the weaken any other agreements, so long as they Wilson-Cecil concordat.
are consistent with its own terms, into which “Leave that to me, Mr. President,” the Members of the League may have said Lord Robert. The President, very entered, or may enter hereafter, for the gladly, did' that little thing. Lord further assurance of peace. Such agreeRobert engineered through the com- ments include special treaties for compulsory mission a very select drafting committee arbitration, and military conventions that to mull over contentious motions, in- are purely defensive. In so far as the Monroe cluding Mr. Wilson's own Monroe Doc- Doctrine tends to the same end, whatever trine clause. Later, this committee validity it possesses cannot be affected by the presented to the full commission of Covenant. nineteen a small scrap of paper con
The Monroe Doctrine was proclaimed in taining the following words:
18131 in order to prevent the extension of Nothing in this Covenant shall be deemed
European absolutist principles to South to affect the validity of international en
America, but while it forbids interference by gagements such as treaties of arbitration or
individual European States in American
affairs, it can never be invoked to limit the acregional understandings like the Monroe
tion of the League of Nations, which is in its Doctrine for securing the maintenance of
nature world-wide, and therefore no more peace.
European than American. The principles M. Bourgeois asked for the paper. It of the League, as expressed in Article X, are was handed to him. The whiskered in fact the extension to the whole world of savant of France poised his pince-nez on the principles of President Monroe; while. the tip of his broad nose. He rumpled should any dispute as to the meaning of the his hair. He scratched his left cheek. latter ever arise between American and He pulled at his beard. He read aloud European Powers, the League is there to the thirty-two words twice over.
settle it. “But what does it mean?” he asked smiling Mr. Wilson.
Who wrote the Monroe Doctrine Lord Robert yawned, stretched his clause inserted in the League covenant? six-feet-six, and observed, with the Lord Curzon. He drew the clause, nearest thing to a grin:
Lord Robert Cecil trimmed it, Mr. Bal"Oddly enough, it means just what it four inserted an important word. says.”
Mr. Wilson "OK'd” it in “the House A few days later a communiqué, is- of the Flirt." 1 The Monroe Doctrine was proclaimed in the President's Message to Congress, December 2, 1823.
By A MY LOWELL
That sputter of rain, flipping the hedge-rows
Tinkle of drops on stretched silk.
by Charles Hanson Towne
When we went to the circus
We had seats by the door,
And a coach and four.
A shabby old carriage,
Trying to be grand, Painted up with gold figures,
Painted to beat the band.
In it sat a "princess,"
In cheap, tawdry lace,
And powder on her face.
I could see the clowns waiting
For their cues to come in. How solemn were their faces
In that strange, hellish din!
Great elephants stood near them,
Trained seals, and giraffes. Together they were waiting
For five thousand laughs.
Together they were waiting
For the signal to begin. One face haunts me yet,
A boyish harlequin,
With a grave, sad expression
Even beneath that paint; The deep eyes of a poet,
The thin cheeks of a saint.
Suddenly the band played,
And every one was off;
I heard a little cough,
And I saw a tiny smile come
Around his lips and eyes. But to me there was a tragedy
Beneath that pale disguise.