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relatively steep. For this reason the boast and the literal meaning of her farms are most numerous and valuable ancient name, Cho-sen. To China she on the western slopes and coast. As owed her arts, her letters, her religion. some one has said, “Her geography pre- Whatever Korea learned from China determined her history: her face lies she passed on to Japan. Intellectually, toward China, her back toward Japan.” as well as physically, Korea stood be

Agriculture is the occupation of tween China and Japan until the openeighty per cent. of her people, and even ing of Japan to the Western world. now yields seventy per cent. of the We know the romantic story of value of her exports.

Japan's marvelously rapid assimilation Millet, older than the oldest legend; of Occidental practices and ideals of rice, introduced by the Chinese over administration and society. While this three thousand years ago; beans; peas; revolution was taking place in Japan, barley; cotton; tobacco; castor-oil Korea was in the hands of a regent, beans; and a variety of garden truck bigoted, conservative, unscrupulous, and were successfully grown long before proud. He believed himself and his the coming of the Japanese: but field- country invincible, and he had nothing grown ginseng was their only impor- but contempt for a neighbor who had tant export. Although its export value opened her doors to foreigners. When is more than ten times greater than his young son came to the throne, howin 1910, ginseng now ranks only fifth ever, Japan had no difficulty, in 1876, in importance. In 1917 it was in negotiating a treaty of peace and passed by rice, soya beans, cotton, fish, friendship, which ended forever the and hides. In the previous year both

isolation of the Hermit Kingdom. graphite and leather manufactures out- Later, under the able leadership of ranked it as an export.

Yuan-Shikai, subsequently the PresiAlmost all of the temperate fruits dent of China, with the help of the and nuts except apples are indigenous. Britisher, Sir John McLeavy Brown, The native persimmon, as large as an her customs and finances were reapple, is the most delicious of its kind formed. The streets of her capital were in the world. Apples are now grown

cleaned. A model farm was organized. for export, and quantities of excellent A powder-mill was erected. Still later pears, grapes, and peaches of foreign American capital and initiative built a ancestry are raised on modern and railroad and the telegraph. Mines were well-kept fruit-farms.

developed. An electric tramway, elecFrom time immemorial bullocks, pigs, tric lights, water-works, and telephone and small native horses have made service were given to the capital. easier the lot of the farmer; but don- Nevertheless, the important things keys were a luxury, and sheep were were left untouched. Judicial and exunknown. Intelligent travelers used to ecutive functions continued to be vested ask why sheep were not imported in in the same officials. The court was unorder to use the sparse grass of the speakably corrupt. Taxation, police serotherwise bare hills. The answer was vice, and the administration of justice that the tigers, wolves, and bears would were ruled by intrigue, bribery, and get them; the grass was needed for class interest. Prisons were infernos fuel; and, anyway, only the grass round in which guilty, innocent, and untried the graves was fit food. However, in prisoners often died from cold and hun1911, fifty sheep were imported, and in ger. Torture, flogging, slow strangula1916 the flock had increased to 289. In tion, and poison were not uncommon the country regions, game birds, espe- punishments. Except for a few mission cially Mongolian pheasants, ducks, and schools, education

denied the other aquatic birds, are very abundant. masses.

For three thousand years Korea lived In 1895, at the conclusion of the a literate and civilized life, sufficient Chino-Japanese War, Japan won the unto herself, with only occasional in- right to give Korea advice. Theoretterruptions from China and Japan of ically, at any rate, with her royal house the “Faultless Morning Calm,” her secure, her independence and her ter


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ritorial integrity guaranteed. Korea tage-ground of Japan to play fair and might do just as she saw fit about fol- to send over only products that were up lowing that “advice." But the victori- to standard. He abolished the objecous conclusion of the Russo-Japanese tionable Japanese tea-houses from the War ten years later ended this possibil- Chinko-kin, and the geisha girls were ity. By the terms of the Treaty of banished at the same time. But TerauPortsmouth and by subsequent agree- chi was needed in Japan. He succeeded ments Japan received actual control of Okuma as premier, and General HaseKorea's finances and diplomacy, her gawa became Governor-General of Kopostal service and telegraph, and of all rea. Reports of the “ill-health" of the her internal affairs. Marquis Ito, latter were coincident with reports of Japan's great constructive statesman, the uprisings, and no one was astonbecame resident-general and virtually ished when the office of military govan absolute monarch. In the four years ernor was abolished. Hasegawa's sucpreceding his assassination he effective- cessor, the civilian governor, Baron ly reorganized the Government, separat. Saito, was formerly minister of state in ing court and state revenues, giving as Tokio. He is a retired admiral, and in far as possible local powers of taxation his youth he served as naval attaché in and administration, reforming the Washington. courts and prisons, reorganizing and The foreign trade of Korea has more teaching the police, codifying the laws, than tripled since 1906, though her imcreating hospitals and schools, introduc- ports have not quite doubled. Of course ing sanitation and water into all cities, the World War caused a decrease in the and opening new communications by imports and a sudden jump in exports. water, by rail, and by roads.

In connection with agriculture, Japan It is perhaps worth while to stop a has increased greatly the area of arable moment to note that one of the great land, the quality of agricultural methobstacles to road and railway develop- ods used, and therefore both the quality ment in Korea in ante-Japanese days and the quantity of the products. In was the fact that many graves blocked. 1910, for example, about two and a half the way. To disturb a grave, whether million acres were added to the area of of father or remote ancestor, was the cultivated land, in 1916 about three and greatest of outrages. It was believed a half million more. that no matter how innocent were the Native Korean cotton is superior to descendants, yet disasters and punish- other Oriental cottons, but it does not ments were sure to come to them in con- compare with either American or Egypsequence of such violation.

tian cottons. Experiments were carried Nevertheless, the Japanese built the on at a station of the model farm with roads quite regardless of graves and in various imported seeds. It was found accordance only with principles of engi- that an American upland cotton, King's neering. Moreover, they robbed the Improved, gave the best results. Whergraves of treasures buried with the ever the soil is not suited to this cotton, dead, exhibiting them later with ar- the planting of the native variety is chæological enthusiasm not understood encouraged. It is much in demand for by the Koreans.

wadding. In six years the area devoted Ito was succeeded by Sone. Then to cotton has not quite doubled, but the came Terauchi, the marvelously efficient quantity has more than quadrupled, and minister of war during the period of the quality has vastly improved. the Russo-Japanese War. His adminis- The development in mining has been tration in Korea won for him the title great. Between 1910 and 1916 the total of the "Kitchener of the East." To him production has tripled. Fourteen times belongs the credit of sending the Jap- as much copper has been mined and anese hooligans in Korea right about sold. The net profit on coal steadily inface, and the enactment and enforce- creased each year until in 1915 it was ment of pure-food laws, compelling eleven times greater than in 1910. These some of his countrymen who were try- profits began to decrease in 1916, and ing to mulct the Koreans from the van- the reduction has continued.



In 1916 there were 1061 factories in numbers of Koreans are going to Japan Korea, 416 of them owned by Koreans; for higher education. in 1914 Koreans operated only 175 out The so-called Yang-bang schools, inof 640 factories. In other words, in tended to teach the upper classes more three years the Koreans gained control or less aristocratic occupations, such as of nearly forty instead of the former sericiculture, have been very successful. twenty-seven per cent. of the factories. They have been established in over a

Of course, this great increase in com- hundred different places. Every year merce and industry has compelled a there are several thousand students corresponding development in internal pursuing short courses, and in 1916 transportation, well better there were over two thousand enrolled equipped and more numerous ports. The for longer courses. mileage of railroads has increased over The old-fashioned native schools have seventy per cent. from 1910 to 1917. In not yet been disturbed, partly because the same length of time common roads there are not yet anything like enough have increased over eighty per cent. modern schools to take their place, and

In 1909 the Japanese established a partly because Japan in this instance government printing-office in Seul. seems to recognize the importance of is characteristic of the cosmopolitanism allowing them to develop from within. of Japan that she imported the machin- Many of these schools have added, apery from Germany, the electrical appli- parently voluntarily, the Japanese lanances from the United States, skilled guage and arithmetic to their course workmen from Japan, then adding a of study. hundred Korean women to the force. In the industrial school in Seul, under

Except near the northern border of the efficient direction of Doctor ToyoKorea, in some of the islands, and naga, there has developed an intelligent around the royal tombs, no trees were and successful effort to revive ancient left. Even the mountains were com- Korean arts, notably the manufacture pletely deforested. “Land of Treeless of the beautiful celadon pottery, gray, Mountains" became a

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with an underglaze design in white or Korea. Japan, however, has established self color. Exquisite pieces of this anforest schools and nurseries, and in cient ware exist in museums, many of 1911 an arbor day, April 3, the anni- them dug up from graves, but its creaversary of the death of the legendary tion was one of the lost Korean arts first Emperor of Japan. In 1911 over until its recent revival by the Japanese. four and one-half million trees were In the same school are also taught carplanted, and in six years a total of pentry, cabinet-making, weaving, paperseventy-seven million trees. In addition making,-in which the Koreans have to these, in the same period private per- always excelled,-iron-working, and sons have planted 260 million trees. soap manufacture.

At the time of the annexation Korea But in all of the schools Japanese is had only a hundred common schools for the language taught and spoken. fifteen thousand pupils. Now she has none of them do they teach the history over four hundred such schools, well of Korea. Yet written records extend equipped and modern, accommodating their civilization backward three thouseventy thousand pupils. In addition, sand years, and it was Korea who gave there are over sixty industrial and tech- Japan the culture, art, and religion that nical schools, and at least fifteen agri- she herself had acquired from China. cultural stations.

It must be acknowledged, however, It is frankly acknowledged by Japan that in the National Museum at Seul, , that the quality of the higher schools created by the Japanese, Mr. Suyumatin Korea does not yet compare with su, director, one may read the story of those of the same kind in Japan. The the glory of the ancient art of Korea in eagerness of the Koreans for more edu- painting and sculpture, in bronze, in cation is shown by the fact that the de- gold, in brass, and in pottery, arts that mand is always in excess of the accom- she lost when the Japanese vandal, modation provided. Moreover, great Hideyoshi, by proxy carried away her

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