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support has been temporarily thrown out operation of general clinical of balance.

Due to an unusual provision in the law, equal treatment is not accorded to all federally impacted districts. Larger school districts (35,000 or more students) are required to have at least 6 percent of their enrollment "federally connected." Smaller school districts need only have 3 percent of their students "federally connected" in order to qualify.

The size of the payment per pupil is calculated on the "local contribution rate." In principle it is intended to approximate the rate of current expenditures per child made from local sources of revenue for elementary and secondary education in comparable communities in the same State. If the local contribution rate is less than either the State average per pupil cost or the national average per pupil cost, then either the State or national average is used, whichever is greater.

The major portion of funds distributed are for category B students (those whose parents lived off but worked on Federal property). Public Law 874 expenditures have grown from a 1951 expenditure of $29 million to an estimated expenditure of $232,293,000 in 1963.

Public Law 815

This law provides for the construction of minimum school facilities in federally impacted areas. Assistance for Government construction of schools on Federal property is made in two instances: (1) where State statutes prohibit free public education for children residing on tax-free property, or (2) where a Federal installation is in an isolated area, not in reasonable proximity to a public school system.

Where local school districts are providing the educational opportunities, assistance for construction is authorized if, (1) there is an increase in the number of "federally connected" children, or (2) the local district is unable to provide adequate facilities.

Since the enactment of Public Law 815 in 1950, about $1.07 billion in Federal funds have been provided for school construction, providing classrooms for over 12 million children.

Higher education

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare: Land-grant colleges-68 land-grant colleges enroll about one-fifth of the total higher education enrollment in the United States. Funds for these colleges amounted to $10,774,000 in fiscal 1962. These funds were distributed partially on the basis of equal grants to all the States, but mostly on the basis of the State's population in relation to the Nation's total population.

National Science Foundation: This program was inaugurated in 1961 to provide general grants to higher education institutions to strengthen their science programs. Grants in 1962 totaled $3,731,000. The size of the grant is determined by the amount of basic research the institution has conducted with National Science Foundation funds. A maximum of $50,000 may be awarded to any single institution.

National Institutes of Health: In 1962, $78.3 million in grants was awarded by the NIH. Eighty-eight percent of these were training grants (used largely to pay professors' salaries) awarded to 126 institutions of higher education, the balance going to hospitals and nonprofit research centers. Approximately $11 million of the above total was designated for use in what the NIH designates as "undergraduate" teaching support (postbaccalaureate, pre-M.D. work and nursing).

NIH clinical research centers-$29.8 million provided each year for the support and



Other training grants: Public Health Service in 1962 approximately $1,200,000 of the total grants of this agency were used to support faculty salaries, supplies, equipment, and other expenditures in the teaching of public health programs; $1,173,000 was paid as a direct subsidy to the Nation's 12 schools of public health to help underwrite the cost

of education.

Office of Vocational Rehabilitation: This Office sponsors a program of training grants, which totaled $3,809,000 in 1962.

Disaster medicine: Interagency cooperation (Departments of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Public Health Service) for a specific mission is found in the so-called MEND program (medical education for national defense) which provided in 1962, $709,000 in grants to medical schools to support programs of their own aimed at acquainting medical students with techniques for handling mass casualties resulting from major


Elementary and secondary education

A total of $331,855,000 was expended by the Federal Government in fiscal 1962 in the support of elementary and secondary schools in the United States, and for the for Government-operated schools abroad children of servicemen and Federal employees serving overseas; $231,293,000 of this total represented support for the school districts and school construction under the

federally impacted areas program discussed above. Another $41,680,000 of the total comes from the Department of Defense funds for DOD schools abroad. There were 289 of these schools with 144,957 students and 6,000 teachers in 1962. The remainder of the total comes from several other Government agencies. The most extensive legislation in this area is the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, which is summarized below.

Vocational education

George-Barden and Smith-Hughes Acts: Smith-Hughes Act of 1917-Vocational education programs are conducted under the two acts mentioned above. Through these two programs the Office of Education distributed $52.2 million to the States in 1962 which, in turn, channeled the funds to the local communities.

The largest share of Federal funds for vocational education is allotted to agricultural training (approximately $13.5 million in 1962). In addition, some funds are allotted for training in the service industries. These funds provide a program called distributive education, with allotments for training in the marketing or merchandising of goods or services. Funds are also available for training in the fields of home economics, trade and industry, and practical nursing.

The amount of support provided for each

occupational category specified in these acts is fixed by formula, rather than by the need for training.

These two vocational education programs provide training for high school and post high school students and adults.

by the Commissioner. Payments resulting from such awards are made directly to the grantee. All other payments are made to the appropriate State agency. No State receives less than $10,000 annually.

This act provides grants to the States for (1) the expansion and improvement of vocational education and (2) part-time employment for youths who need the earnings from such employment to continue their vocational training on a full-time basis.

Appropriations may be used for: (a) vocational education for persons attending high school; (b) vocational education for persons who have finished or left high school and who are available for full-time study in preparation for entering the labor market; (c) vocational education for persons who have already entered the labor market and who need training or retraining to achieve stability or advancement in employment (exclusive of those covered by the Manpower Development and Training Act, Area Redevelopment Act, or the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, discussed below); (d) vocational education for persons who have academic, socioeconomic, or other handicaps that prevent them from succeeding in the regular vocational education program; (e) construction of area vocational education school facilities; (f) ancillary services and activities to assure quality in all the vocational education programs, such as teacher training, program evaluation, and special demonstration and experimental programs.

A State plan must be submitted and approved by the Commissioner. It must provide: (a) a designation of the administrating agency; (b) the policy and procedure of allotting funds for the areas mentioned above (a-f); (c) minimum qualifications for teachers, trainers, supervisors, etc.; (d) for the proper use and accounting of Federal funds, and the making of the required reports.

One-third of each State's allocation must be expended for adult vocational education training or the construction of area vocational education facilities.

All Federal vocational education payments are conditioned on the availability of matching funds from State and local sources. The State must expend at least the same amount on vocational education each succeeding year to be eligible for Federal assistance.

The act sets up an Advisory Council on Vocational Education to review the programs and make recommendations for improvement of those programs.

Work-study programs for vocational education students

The work-study program must be administered by a local educational agency. These programs provide employment to students (a) who have been accepted for full-time who are in good standing and in full-time vocational education, or, if already enrolled, attendance, (b) who need the earnings to continue their vocational education, (c) who are at least 15 years old, but not more than 21, and (d) who can maintain good standing in their vocational education program while employed under this program. The student may not work more than 15 hours a week while classes are in session, and student em

Both of the acts mentioned above require that each dollar of Federal money must be matched by a dollar of State and local money, ployment must be for the local educational

or a combination of both.

The most important pieces of legislation in this area is the Vocation Education Act of 1963.

The Vocation Education Act of 1963 Appropriations: For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1966, $177,500,000, and for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1967, and for each fiscal year thereafter, $225 million. Ten percent of the total appropriation is reserved for research and demonstration grants authorized

agency or some other public agency or institution. Local education agencies must expend at least as much in the year current as in the previous year to be eligible for Federal funds.

Appropriations: $50 million for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1966, and $35 million for the next 2 fiscal years.

State plan: The same fiscal and administrative procedures required for vocational education grants (discussed above) are also required under the work-study program.

Residential vocational education schools: Commissioner to make grants to public education agencies for the construction, equipment, and operation of such schools (including room, board, and other necessities), for youths at least 15 years old who need such schools for the full benefit of the vocational education program.

Manpower Development and Training Act The purpose of this act is to support public school adult vocational education programs. These activities include testing, counseling, and referral for training or retraining of unemployed or underemployed workers, with preference for the unemployed.

Arrangements for such training are channeled through the Office of Education and the State agency responsible for vocational education. The funds are provided on a 5050 matching basis, and training allowances are made for those who meet the following requirements: (a) Enrolled in an approved training course, (b) unemployed, (c) head of the household, and (d) have at least 3 years' experience in gainful employment. Training will vary with the needs of the community

and area.

Funds may go for reasonable charges for indirect expenses such as administration, utilities, and other overhead costs. Instructors' stipends, cost of instructional material, and expenditures for equipment are also covered.

Area Redevelopment Act

Very similar to the Manpower Development and Training Act, and administered through the Manpower Development and Training Act. In Area Redevelopment Act, matching funds are not required for vocational training programs, and only those areas selected by the Federal Government are eligible to receive funds.

Prisoner education: Operated by the Department of Justice, this program offers a general and vocational education program for inmates of Federal penitentiaries. Training ranges from the fundamentals of reading and writing to college and university exten

sion courses.

Indian vocation education: Provided by the Department of the Interior to adult Indians. In 1962, $4,250,000 was appropriated for funds to go directly to the student to cover tuition, related expenses, maintenance, and travel.

Miscellaneous programs include Rural Library Service at a cost of $7.5 million per year and provides books and bookmobiles for students and readers of all ages.

The Federal Government also expends $620,000 to provide, through the Printing House for the Blind at Louisville, Ky., reading and study materials for the blind.

Income from public land: This program distributes funds to the States to be used for public purposes of which education is a part. In 1962 these funds totaled $79,171,000. Of that total $27.2 million was paid through the Department of Agriculture to those States from which revenue had been derived from national forest lands.

An additional sum of $51.9 million was distributed to States and counties through the Bureau of Land Management of the Department of the Interior. This fund represented revenue derived from grazing permits, mining and mineral leases, revested and reconveyed lands in Oregon and California, and from the sale of public lands.

Education of Government Personnel: These programs are carried on mainly by the Department of Defense. The Department of Defense programs fall into three categories: (a) Inservice professional training ($81.8 million in 1961), (b) Education in Government school ($116.4 million in 1962), (c) Training of military and civilian personnel in non

governmental educational institutions ($75.2 in international education are National million in 1963).

ROTC programs

Army: Largest ROTC program-The main purpose of the program is to provide some military training to college students without regard to the possibility of their future commissioning as officers.

Navy: (1) NROTC has the fundamental purpose of producing career officers. (2) Contract NROTC has the purpose of producing Reserve officers.

Air Force: Closely resembles the Army program.

Full-time programs at civilian institutions for uniformed personnel.

The Army supports the education of its uniformed personnel in the physical and social sciences, engineering, foreign area studies, and in management.

The Navy sends selected personnel to civilian institutions for a period of 1-3 years. Selected Air Force students working toward undergraduate and advanced degrees are assigned to universities through the Air Force Institute of Technology.

All three branches of the service make provisions for assignment of career officers to civilian institutions to enable them to earn their baccalaureate degrees.

Part-time academic programs: The Air Force Institute develops part-time programs designed to meet the educational needs of all branches of the service in all parts of the world.

Programs in international education Department of State: Under the authorization of the Fulbright-Hays Act to increase mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the peoples of other countries, the Department of State administered a number of international education programs in fiscal year 1962 at a cost of approximately $30.6 million. Other State Department programs include American-sponsored schools abroad, American studies and other special projects, an East-West Center, and a Bureau of International Educational

and Cultural Affairs.

The U.S. Information Agency spent approximately $10.1 million in 1962, in support of educational programs abroad consisting of teaching the English language, university to university affiliations, and American studies programs. The program is conducted through binational centers, community centers, information and cultural centers, radio and TV broadcasts, and contracts with private organizations.

Agency for International Development: Pursuant to its mission of rendering foreign economic assistance, AID administers specific projects designed to upgrade the education system of foreign countries. Its educational expenditures are estimated at $108 million, plus $98 million worth of foreign currency. AID also gives assistance to school systems in 20 countries for the purpose of teaching English as a second language ($1.8 million in 1962) and helps support American-sponsored schools abroad ($6,000,500 in 1962).

Peace Corps: The Peace Corps sends its personnel abroad to work in partnership with the people of other nations. The cost of training for these volunteers, and for research at American universities, was approximately $7.4 million in 1962.

Office of Education: The Office of Education assists both foreign organizations and governments and private American institutions and organizations through its conferences and reports in the field of education. It provides teaching aids and consultation for curriculum development in world affairs and foreign culture courses for the American system. Other organizations involved


Science Foundation, Atomic Energy Commission, NASA, National Institutes Health and the Department of Defense.


National Defense Education Act, as amended
Title I. General provisions.

Title II. Loans to students in institutions of higher education: Authorization: 1966, $179.3 million; 1967, $190 million; 1968, $195 million.

School contributions to the loan fund must be at least one-ninth of the Federal contribution.

Qualifications: For the student to receive a loan he must be in need of the loan to pursue the course of study, be capable of maintaining a good average have been accepted by the institution or already in the institution and maintaining a good average, and carrying at least one-half of the normal academic load.

Repayment: Students have a 10-year period in which to repay their loan, at 3 percent interest, from 1 year after the time they leave school. The time for repayment may be extended by the Commissioner for good


Colleges can receive loans to help them fulfill their share of the costs of the loans. The amount spent under this section cannot exceed $25 million a year and the loans must mature in less than 15 years.

The 1964 amendments provided for extension of the loan program to include accredited postsecondary business schools and technical institutes, public and nonprofit private institutions, extension to part-time students who carry at least half the academic workload, adding also a 3-year moratorium on their loan repayment; increases in the yearly limit of loans to graduate and professional students from $1,000 to $2,500, and increases the aggregate amount to $10,000. The undergraduate loan limit is still $1,000 yearly; extension of the cancellation loan privilege the 10 percent a year forgiveness feature to teachers in nonprofit private elementary and secondary schools, the establishment of superior academic background in any fields as the only special consideration for loans.

Title III. Financial assistance for strengthening instruction in science, mathematics, modern foreign languages, and other critical subjects:

Authorization: $90 million. Annual minimum allotment to a State-$50,000.

State plan: The State must set forth a plan under which the funds will be expended solely for (a) equipment necessary for teaching the subjects, and (b) minor remodeling of laboratories and other space used for such materials and equipment.

The 1964 amendments provide for expansion of the program to include English, reading, history, geography, and civics among the subjects for which equipment may be purchased from the 50-50 matching grants and from loans; the allotment of $20 million for the purchase of equipment; funds for the States to provide in-service training in the added fields.

Title IV. National defense fellowships: Number of fellowships: 3,000 in 1965, 6,000 in 1966, and 7,500 in 1967-68. Recipients must be studying for a Ph. D. or an equivalent degree, and planning to teach or to continue teaching in an institution of higher education.

About one-third of the fellowships go to individuals accepted for graduate study approved by the Commissioner. The remainder go to those working for a Ph. D. in the subjects covered by the bill, but none for divinity students.

The fellowship is $2,000 for the first year, $2,200 for the second year, and $2,400 for the third year, plus $400 a year for each dependent.

The institution where the person is studying receives $2,500 a year less any amount they charged such person for tuition.

Title V. Guidance, counseling, and testing; identification and encouragement of able students:

higher education, through grants or contracts, for the operation of short-term or regular session institutes for advanced study, including study in the use of new materials, to improve the qualifications of persons (a) who are engaged in or preparing to engage in the teaching, or training of teachers of history, geography, modern foreign languages, reading, or English in elementary or secondary schools, (b) preparing to teach

Authorization: 1965, $24 million; 1966, disadvantaged youth, (c) are or are prepar$24.5 million; 1967-68, $30 million.

State plan: the plan must allow for (a) testing of public elementary and secondary students, public junior college and technical institute students, to identify students of outstanding ability, and (b) a program of guidance and counseling to advise students of the best courses of study.

Some $7,250,000 is provide for counseling and guidance centers and for short-term or regular session institutes for teachers interested in becoming counselors, or already counselors. There is a $75-a-week stipend for those attending these institutes.

Title VI. Language development: Provides support for institutes, language and area centers, language fellowships, and research and studies to improve the teaching of modern foreign languages at all levels of education. This includes the purchase of needed materials, such as textbooks, dictionaries, and recordings.

Appropriations: $13 million for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1965; $14 million for the next fiscal year; $16 million for the following fiscal year, and $18 million for the fiscal year

ending June 30, 1968.

Title VII. Research and experimentation in more effective utilization of television, radio, motion pictures, and related media for educational purposes:

Grants and contracts to foster research in the above areas as well as training teachers to utilize such media, and for research into the presentation of academic subject matter through these media.

The Commissioner shall make studies to ascertain the need for increased utilization of these media, catalog materials useful

in using such media, and should publish an annual report showing the projects carried out in this area, and the development of

these media in educational fields.

Advisory Committee on New Educational Media is established to review ideas and progress in this field.

Appropriation: $5 million each year up through the end of the fiscal year June 30, 1968.

Title VIII. Area vocational education programs (replaced by the Vocational Education Act of 1963-see above).

Title IX. Science Information Service: To be set up by the National Science Foundation to provide or to arrange for the provision of, indexing, abstracting, translating, and other services leading to a more effective dissemination of scientific information, and to undertake to develop new and improved methods, including mechanized systems, for making scientific information available.

Science Foundation Council to advise the Information Service set up by this title.

Appropriations: Such sums as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this title.

Title X. Miscellaneous provisions: Provides grants to State educational agencies to improve the adequacy and reliability of educational statistics and the methods of collecting, processing, and disseminating such data. In 1964, $1.8 million was spent.

Title XI. Institutes: Appropriations: $32,750,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1965, and for the three succeeding fiscal years, to enable the Commissioner to arrange with institutions of

ing to become library personnel in the elementary or secondary schools, (d) are or are preparing to become educational media specialists.

Persons who attend such institutes will receive a stipend of $75 a week plus $15 a week for each dependent.

Federal Communications Act Matching grants for modification, acquisition, or construction of educational televiof the Federal Communications Act. A maxision facilities are available under a provision mum of $32 million has been authorized by Congress for the 5-year period ending June 30, 1968.

Local and State educational agencies as well as institutions of higher education or nonprofit organizations may participate in this program. Applications must show that funds will be available for continued operation of such educational television facilities. In addition to 50 percent of the costs of new construction, grant payments can include up to 25 percent of the value of educational TV facilities already owned by the


The acquisition of TV receivers is specifically excluded under this program. Purchase of such equipment is, however, covered under title III of the National Defense Education Act.

The total amount of grant payments for construction of educational TV facilities within any State is limited to $1 million. The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965

Grants: (a) Basic grants-July 1, 1965 to June 30, 1968; (b) special incentive grants July 1, 1966, to June 30, 1968. Estimated appropriation, $1 billion.

Basic grants are provided for payment of one-half the State average per-pupil expenditure for children from families with an income below $2,000 a year. During the first year of the program the basic grant to local educational agencies may not be more than 30 percent of the sums budgeted by that agency for current expenditures of that year. The 50-percent Federal contribution is for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1966. After that, the percentage will be determined by the Congress. The same situation exists with the low-income factor of $2,000.

To receive Federal grants, the number of school-age children from families below the income factor must be 100 or 3 percent of the total number of school-age children.

State plan: To receive a basic grant the agency must submit an application which has to be approved by its State educational agency. The State agency approves such application if it meets the requirements set forth by the State and is consistent with such basic criteria as the Commissioner may establish. The State plan should include: (a) assurances that payments will be used for projects and programs designed to meet the special educational need of educationally deprived children and have reasonable promise of substantially meeting those needs; (b) can have special educational services and arrangements (radio, TV, mobile educational units, etc.); (c) construction projects must be consistent with overall State plans; (d) programs worked out with local agencies, if such exist; (e) dissemination of

valuable information obtained to other teachers and interested persons.

The control of the funds must be in a public agency and the State must have an annual report of activities, mentioning the educational achievements of students participating in the program.

Special incentive grants will be made to school districts in which there is an increased average per-pupil expenditure, not counting any Federal aid. To qualify, the expenditure during the school year ending in 1965 must have been more than 105 percent of that ending in 1964, and the 1966 figure must be greater than 110 percent of the 1964 expenditure.

These funds may be used to cover all direct project expenses, including materials, supplies, and equipment. Where necessary, grant payments may also be used for construction of additional facilities, except athletic stadiums.

Title II. School library resources, textbooks, and other instructional materials: The act makes grants for the acquisition of school library resources, textbooks, and other printed and published instructional materials, including documents and audiovisual materials, for the use of children and teachers in public and private elementary and secondary schools. Such acquisition may be in the form of outright purchase or leasepurchase or straight lease.

Appropriation: $100 million for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1966, and for the 3 suc

ceeding fiscal years only such sums as may

be appropriated by the Congress. Appropriations will be allotted to the States pro rata on the basis of the number of children in each State enrolled in those schools.

for the approval of the Commissioner. Such State plan: The State must submit a plan (a) A State agency to be the sole agency for a plan must contain the following provisions: administering the plan; (b) funds must be expended solely for the purchase of library resources; (c) set forth the criteria for the allocation of these resources, based on need and provided on an equitable basis to the students in private schools; (d) set down the criteria for the selection of the resources (State will establish standards for school library resources); (e) assurances of appropriate fiscal control and that reports will be made to the Commissioner.

Federal funds cannot supplant State efforts in this area.

Title III. Supplementary educational centers and services:

Appropriations: $100 million for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1966, and for the 4 succeeding fiscal years only such sums as appropriated by the Congress. A minimum of $200,000 shall be allotted to each State.

Purpose: To provide needed educational services and to establish exemplary model school programs. Federal funds are to be used for the programs mentioned below for operational and maintenance costs. remedial instruction, (a) Counseling, health, social and recreational services.

(b) Academic services for continuing adult education.

(c) Developing exemplary programs for improvement or adoption of new educational programs.

(d) Specialized instruction for those interested in the sciences and foreign languages.

(e) Making available modern educational equipment and specially qualified personnel on a temporary basis to institutions.

(f) Developing TV programs for the classrooms.

(g) Special services for those in or from the rural areas, like mobile educational units.

Although the grant payments are made directly to the local school district, the amount

of such aid is charged against the State al- money to continue their higher education. lotment.

Title IV. Educational research and training:

Appropriations: $100 million over a 5-year period beginning the end of the fiscal year June 30, 1966, for the construction and operation of regional research facilities in the field of education.

The provision makes grants to institutions to assist the program. Students may work for the institution itself, or for a public or private nonprofit organization when the position is obtained through an arrangement between the institution and such an organization, and (a) the work is related to the student's educational objective, or (b) such work (i) will be in the public interest and is work which otherwise would not be provided, (ii) will not result in the displacement of employed workers or impair existing contracts for services, and (iii) will be governed by such conditions of employment as will be appropriate and reasonable in light of such factors as the type of work perTitle V. Grants to strengthen State de- formed, geographical region, and proficiency partments of education: of the employee.

Grants to be made to universities and colleges and other public or private agencies, for research, demonstrations, and surveys in the field of education, including such programs as: curriculum research, testing new educational ideas (e.g. audiovisual materials), and for improving the administration of education in the States.

The purpose of the title is to stimulate and assist States in strengthening the leadership resources of their State educational agencies, and to assist those agencies in the establishment and improvement of programs to identify and meet the educational needs of the States.

Appropriations: $25 million for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1966, and for the following 4 years only such sums as may be appropriated by the Congress.

Programs: (a) educational planning on a statewide basis; (b) recording, collecting, processing local educational data; (c) disseminating the information concerning the needs of the States; (d) to improve the quality of teacher preparation; (e) measuring of educational achievement of pupils.

Library Services and Construction Act Distribution of LSCA funds is in accordance with approved State plans. The State plan must set forth the criteria and procedure for approval of the construction projects, and such projects should be for areas presently without library facilities.

The project must be planned primarily as a public library and available for the use of the general public during normal library hours. While such a project could be combined with a school as a cofacility, such school use may not interfere with the regular public use of the facility.

All allocations must be matched by the States, based on proportionate per capita income. The maximum Federal share is fixed at 66 percent and the minimum at 33 percent. State allotments are set in relation to population. The minimum annual allotment to a State for library services is currently $100,000 and the minimum for construction is $80,000.

Economic Opportunity Act Operation Head Start: A pre-school program for children from poverty-stricken families for training these children to bring them to a level sufficient for meaningful

participation in the classes of the first grade. In addition to the educational aspects, attention will be directed to the children's well-being. This will include physical examinations, medical check-ups, etc.

Adult basic education program: Administered by State educational agencies. This program is for the benefit of those adults (18 years of age and over) who don't have command of the English language.

Depending on local needs, the War on Poverty has made funds available to defray the costs incurred by public schools in providing basic educational skills. Grants will also be made to schools which can demonstrate new methods and improved materials to accomplish the desired results. All Adult Basic Education Program payments are made to the State education agency, which subsequently disburses appropriate sums to local school districts.

Work-study programs: To stimulate parttime employment for students who need the

fluence with its millions of readers who were not given all the facts.

Mr. de Carvalho points out that Israel is already tapping its water supply to the limit. One questions why the Arabs did not use this water to make the desert bloom for 2,000 years.

Time and again, Mr. de Carvalho points out that the Arabs are readying to invade and destroy Israel, but he stresses that the Arabs are afraid of Israeli attacks. Can Mr. de Carvalho quote a responsible Israeli Government official who has threatened to attack the Arabs as the Arab Government heads threaten Israel? Who should be afraid of whom? And should not the Israelis arm to defend themselves against heavy odds?

Among his peaceloving Arabs, Mr. de Carvalho quotes Ahmed Shukairy, whom he

Students cannot work more than 15 hours affectionately describes as a chubby Palestin

a week while classes are in session.

Students must come from low-income families and be in need of the earnings to continue their education. Students must be capable of maintaining a good average in their studies.

The Federal share of compensation will not exceed 90 percent; $412,500,000 has been appropriated for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1965, and for 1966-67 such sums as may be appropriated by the Congress.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964

There are two provisions of significance to education in this legislation. Title IV of the act provides assistance to school districts involved in desegregating school facilities. Title IV grants are available to local school districts for the purpose of providing school staff personnel with training in how to deal with the problems incident to desegregation. These inservice programs also cover employment of specialists in dealing with such problems.

Title VI withholds Federal-aid payments in any form from any organization which practices discrimination.

[blocks in formation]

Mr. HALPERN. Mr. Speaker, an article recently appearing in Life magazine, entitled "An Ancient Hatred Builds Toward War," failed to reflect accurately the nature and causes of the ArabIsraeli antipathy. I believe a cogent refutation has been advanced by a business executive of high repute, Mr. Ben Michtom, chairman of the board of Ideal Toy Co., which is located in the congressional district I am honored to repreI believe his analysis of this article would serve to edify my colleagues in Congress, and therefore I am pleased to bring it to their attention today:


Fair-minded readers of June 18, 1965, Life magazine must have been shocked by George de Carvalho's bias in his article: An Ancient Hatred Builds Toward War.

Still more shocking is Life's lead statement that the author is one of the few journalists who has covered the growing Arab-Israeli conflict from both sides. A resident of Beirut since 1962, he has acquired unique understanding of the Arab leadership.

In this objective article, Mr. de Carvalho quotes Arab leaders 17 times for a total of 98 lines of print-he quotes Israeli leaders seven times for a total of 17 lines. The Arabs quoted received almost six times the space the Israelis received. The resulting distortions are serious, becasue of Life's great in

ian lawyer. Why not mention that this Ahmed Shukairy was the noisiest Arab agitator and spokesman at the U.N. for years-a sword-rattler so virulent that Egypt had to recall him because he created U.N. hostility toward the Arabs?

The logic in Mr. de Carvalho's article would give all of Arabia to the Arabs to continue it as a desert, for the same reason that we should give all of Europe to Hungary because the Huns had overrun Europe 1,200 years ago. The truth is the present Arab countries were not countries at all. All of Arabia was a desert under the Ottoman rule-and the Jews who occupied that tiny part of it which is now Israel and Jordan were in their area just as long as the Arabs were in their areas.

Mr. de Carvalho failed to make clear that the Jews did not grab the land, but before the Arab invasion, the Jews actually bought from the Arabs at high prices every acre they occupied.

He omits mentioning that the Arabs at first approved the Balfour Declaration, in order to get the Jews to help them throw off the Turkish yoke, but Hitler and his inflammatory agent, the Grand Mufti, stirred the Arabs up to repudiate their approval.

Mr. de Carvalho states that the Arabs were

driven out of Israel by the Jews, whereas in These Israeli Arabs live better than does any fact the Jews urged the Arabs to stay and be protected-a quarter of a million did stay.

Arab outside of Israel. Those Arabs who were intimidated and left, were intimidated not by Jews but by Arabs. They joined the invading Arabs for the purpose of seizing, without compensation, the lands they had sold to

the Jews.

the Jews-who stood to defend their lives After the invading Arabs were defeated by and property-the Arab rulers (who had lured them to leave and attack Israel) refused to let the defeated Arabs be absorbed into the large Arabian countries (which in the past had supported whole civilizations). Instead they deliberately kept them in poverty on the frontiers of Israel, with no hope except what they could steal or pillage from across the border. One and a quarter million refugees have been kept in poverty for the propaganda ends of the Arab leaders, although the West and the United States have offered to finance their resettlement.

In the 1950's, Professor Loudermilk was subsidized by the United States to make a survey of the Jordan River Basin to plan a series of dams and irrigation projects for the benefit of Syria, Jordan, and Israel, allocating the water fairly among these three countries. Thus, the desert areas would become as fertile as Arizona under the Colorado River projects.

The United States, through its commissioner, Eric Johnston, offered to advance funds for this development which would not only enrich Jordan, Syria, and Israel, but would employ the refugees in the project. But the Arabs rejected this.

Meanwhile, Israel has planned no use of water in excess of her allocation under the Loudermilk plan, nor do her present plans envisage an increase.

Mr. de Carvalho says that the Jews have never made any conciliatory effort for peace and he refers to the United Nation's lengthy resolution made in 1948 which, among many other clauses (favoring the Israelis, which Mr. de Carvalho has entirely omitted), contains one clause (which he does quote), namely: "the refugees wishing to return to their homes and live in peace with their neighbors should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date, and compensation should be paid for the property of those choosing not to return."

Note, please, the words "wishing to live in peace with their neighbors." None of the refugees want to return to Israel in order to live in peace with their neighbors. They want to return to Israel for the purpose of destroying the host country of Israel, and have said so.

They should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date, and compensation should be paid for the property of those choosing not to return. Would any rightminded person say that in the present mood of the refugees it would be practicable for two and a half million Israelis to take in any major part of 1,246,585 hostile refugees?

Enough about the article. One could pick every line apart to show its shocking bias against a tried and true friend of the United States and of freedom. Instead, let me recapitulate the actual facts which you can verify in back numbers of Time magazine and the New York Times in the past 50 years. Life's reputation for fairness demands equal space to present the truth and the Israeli case.

Now that every U.S. President since Truman first recognized Israel has declared that Israel is vital to the free world, and now that the Prime Ministers of Jordan and of other Arab lands have met violent death by Arab assassins, it is timely for Life to reveal just what the background of the Arab-Israeli relations is, and what should be our position toward it.

Here are the facts:

Before World War I, the Arabian peninsula belonged neither to the Arabs nor to the Jews, but was part of the Ottoman Empire under the Turks. As a matter of military strategy, the British sent Colonel Lawrence to Arabia to encourage the sheiks, the leaders of the nomad tribes, to revolt. He promised they could get the Jews of the world to help if they would set off just a very small portion of the historic desert land, which had been inhabited by Jews, as a national home for the Jewish people. In this way, the Jews would pour in their money, their people and their skills to help the sheiks achieve independence.

The sheiks accepted this gladly, and the Balfour Declaration was issued by the British Parliament on November 2, 1917. On June 30, 1922, a joint resolution, the Lodge-Fish resolution (Senator Lodge and Representative Hamilton Fish), was unanimously

Mr. de Carvalho then states that Israel has rejected any resolution on refugee repatriation for 17 years. He does not mention that Israel (a) had agreed to accept 100,000 refugees as a starter; (b) had agreed on the principle of compensation for those who do not return; and (c) had offered to help subsidize their resettlement in Arab lands which need plenty of labor and skills to develop. This must be part of an overall adopted by both the U.S. Senate and House peace package, which would guarantee both Israel and the Arabs security from attack.

The Jews want to negotiate peace-a just peace-anywhere, even in Cairo, and to exchange guarantees.

The article admits that the Arabs have

consistently refused to negotiate. Are they

any more reasonable than China and North Vietnam, who challenge America's motives for the restoration of southeast Asia, and who even refuse to talk to us about it?

How can the Arabs know what the Jews are willing to do for peace guarantees, unless they get together and discuss it? What can Arabs lose by sitting around a table?

Mr. De Carvalho quotes Nasser, sympathetically: "What's the use of negotiation? We know Israel's stand. Israel has always defied the U.N. and refuses to carry out its resolutions." But Mr. De Carvalho omits to state that the Arabs have consistently defied the U.N. many more times, and on many more clauses in the very resolutions they accuse Israel of ignoring.

The author states, as though it is reasonable, that the Arabs refuse to negotiate because they say they have nothing to gain "Israel will neither shrink its narrow border nor repatriate the refugees." One must ask again: how do they know what the Jews will do until the Arabs talk to them? What have they to lose by discussion? And how do they know what guarantees each side is willing to offer to protect its promises, until they talk?

Consider Mr. de Carvalho's statement: "U.N. officials are scrupulously impartial." Then he quotes a U.N. observer as saying: "But when the Arabs do something wrong, it's usually stealing a sheep or picking fruit in Israel. When the Israelis act, it's usually to take over more land, or set up military positions." Which U.N. observer said that? The U.N. record is at complete variance with that inflammatory and false statement-except for the Arab observer who cannot be called scrupulously impartial.

of Representatives, favoring the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, thus endorsing the Balfour Declaration.

The French support of the national home concept. as stated by the Balfour Declaraparticipation in the Palestine Mandate by tion, was officially expressed by the French the Council of the League of Nations on July

24, 1922.

On the strength of the Balfour Declaration, and the hope it gave, the Jews helped the Arabs throw off the Turkish yoke, and Palestine was set aside. Incidentally, this then included Jordan.

After the Jews poured in their money, their people and their hopes, to make their area bloom by dredging harbors, building roads, orchards, farms and industries, along

came Hitler. He influenced the Grand Mufti to agitate against the Jews and to stir up the Arabs to demand cancellation of the promises made to the Jews.

It must be remembered that, in accord with the proviso of the Balfour Declaration to protect the rights of Arabs, every acre of land the Jews occupied was paid for by high prices to the Arabs. When the Arabs demanded return of this land, there was never any mention of refunding the money or compensating the Jews for what they had bought in good faith.

As a result of the increasing attacks and agitations by the Grand Mufti and his followers, the Arabs were inflamed and made the lot of the mandated power, Great Britain, very difficult. To appease them, she cut off Jordan from the land promised to the Jews.

Instead of being appeased, the Arabs increased their attacks on the now truncated area of Palestine, and no Jew's life was safe. The Arabs would bomb trucks, murder peaceful farmers. It got so bad that during the Hitler terror, the only country in the world which forbade any Jews, even a small quota, to enter was, ironically, Palestine. When the Jews saw themselves hemmed in with no help from the outside, they defended themselves

vigorously. vigorously. Unable to maintain the peace, the British threw this into the lap of the United Nations.

The United Nations again cut the boundaries of Palestine, and gave Israel a very tight little area in a new partition plan. The Arabs even denounced this partition. Then, when Britain finally said she would withdraw and let the Jews and Arabs solve the problem themselves, the 40 million Arabs sent troops to invade Israel and destroy the several hundred thousand Jews.

To their shock, the Jews resisted. They invited the Arabs in their area to stay, and offered to protect their lives and property. Many Arabs did stay-200,000 of them. Many Arabs Those hostile to the Jews, or influenced by the Grand Mufti, fled, swearing to destroy the Jews.

While the world watched with amazement, the Jews fought vigorously, rolled back the invaders and kept on rolling them until the Arabs found themselves in flight. Finally, when it looked as though there would be total collapse of the Arab forces, the United Nations persuaded the Jews to accept a truce. The Arabs agreed that this truce would be the forerunner of a permanent peace to be negotiated at the earliest possible moment.

But as soon as the Arabs obtained this truce and recovered their breath, they repudiated their pledge, demanded that Israel be destroyed, and refused even to help their own refugees. To this day, they refuse to negotiate such a peace.

They permitted the lot of the refugees to deteriorate. The United Nations and the United States, on several occasions, offered to advance funds to set up a Jordan River Water Authority, which would employ most of the Arabs. The United Nations and the

United States offered to finance develop

ments in Iraq and other areas, which would

employ all the rest of the Arabs and build up the economies of the Arabian peninsula (which once had supported millions in older and now extinct civilizations). The Arabs The supplies freely to reach these refugees. They persistently refused all such offers. Arabs have even refused to permit food and have placed devious obstacles in the way.

Israel has always favored economic assistance for underdeveloped Arab countries, but the Arab leaders themselves have shifted the emphasis to the acquisition of arms, frustrating aid for their oppressed people. Meantime, Israel offered even to take back 100,000 of these refugees which, of course, is equivation, and equivalent to the United States lent to 5 percent of their own total populaoffering to take in 10 million fanatical Rus

sian Communists.

Israel's role as a Western bastion in an area which is being increasingly penetrated by the Communists must receive fuller recognition as a matter of enlightened self-interest. Israel's program of aid and education to small and new nations of Asia and Africa, such as Burma, Ghana, French Congo is of priceless help to our free world. Israel is doing what great free powers cannot accomplish-she is winning these people to our


Now, 50 million Arabs-with 991⁄2 percent of the land, 99 9/10 percent of the natural resources, 99 percent of the cash, many times the armament and the ability to pay for still more armament, and with 98 percent of the people complain that they fear the 2 million industrious democratic Israelis. Why?

In accord with the Arab protective clause in the Balfour Declaration, and because Israel is a true democracy, in Israel rank-andfile Arabs enjoy more economic, civil, educational and political rights than in any Arab land. Israeli Arabs enjoy higher wages and living standards than those in any Arab land.

Many of the hostile Arabs, who fear the Israelis, keep and trade in slaves. They

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