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graphs. The final choice involves the exercise of common sense, hard thought, and a broad vision. The United States is called upon to decide whether (1) to form permanently defensive and offensive alliances with specific countries, (2) to co-operate temporarily in the future with this or that country or group of countries long enough to attain a specified worthy object, or (3) to take part in a League of Nations, or in some other type of world organization or world society,

It is almost certain, however, that our internationalism as far as it has been developed means that America shall lead the nations "in making human life safer, human endeavor loftier, human suffering less cruel, human toil more equitably rewarded, and human fraternity more real, more noble, and more sincere."12 It means leading the world in a just organization of the nations that shall safeguard all the social values that are found in nationalism and at the same time protect the nations from the worst forces that exist in any of them or any combination of them.

From liberty-loving and self-reliant Americanism to a world-loving and international Americanism is a broad sweep. Both extremes must be preserved inviolate and made continually to swing around the solid core of a co-operative and democratic nationstate. Both extremes lead to fatal weaknesses. The first, by itself, tends towards anarchism, autocracy, or materialism. The latter, by itself, becomes fanciful, visionary, and impracticable. The two extremes D. J. Hill, Americanism: What It Is, P. 191

have served to form with the inner core of Americanism a utilitarian idealism. Utility is almost an omnipresent standard in America. At times, it is true, we have paid a marked deference to material success. Americans have been commercial, however, rather than material in many of their activities. Behind the struggles for wealth have been sound hearts and clear minds. The overemphasis upon utilitarian tests has been disturbing but far from fatal. Sooner or later, whenever the crisis has come, the underlying idealism of the Americans has come to the surface with an alacrity and a strength that has set the nation right and surprised the world.



It is proper to close Part I with a statement of the racial elements of Americanism. Such an account will fittingly introduce Part II in which it is proposed to present some of the cultural backgrounds of the leading racial groups which have migrated to America.

It may be asserted that originally there were no native races on the American continent. The human race appeared first on the Euro-Asiatic continent. At an early date, peoples of Mongolian types migrated to America either by way of Europe when Europe and America were connected by land, or by way of the Pacific Ocean-having drifted across or, more probably, by way of Alaska when Asia and Alaska were connected by land. The original pioneers became the ancestors of the "mound-builders," who in turn were probably the ancestors of the American Indians. The first inhabitants of the territory now known as the United States were the early ancestors of the Indians.

About 1000 A. D., daring representatives of the Scandinavian races became the second discoverers of America. They were not ready, or not able, to make settlements. After having been discovered by unknown Mongolians, and by Scandinavians, America

was discovered the third time by Italian and Spanish navigators under the leadership of Columbus. It was these voyagers who opened America to European advancement and civilization. In this connection the first settlements were made by Spanish colonists-the second racial group (after the Mongolian) to become established in America. Being southerners, they settled in Florida, New Mexico, and California. They founded the first and oldest European towns in the United States-St. Augustine, Florida (1598); Chamita, New Mexico (1598); and Santa Fe, New Mexico (1605).

The English were the third race to settle permanently within the present boundaries of our national domain. Their early settlements in 1607, 1620, 1630 laid the foundations of those determining influences which gave the United States its characteristic tendencies.

The French established trading posts in the Mississippi River region, following the explorations of La Salle, in 1782. This territory remained in French hands until 1803, the year of the Louisiana Purchase. The Huguenots, the Puritans of France, came to America in the seventeenth century, settling chiefly in South Carolina, Virginia, and New York.

The Hollanders set up trading posts along the Hudson River in the decade following the exploration in 1609 of that river and established a colony which came into the hands of the English in 1664. In 1619, a few Negroes were brought to America by a Dutch trading-vessel. The traffic increased with the succeeding years. In 1790, the Negro

population of the country was 757,000, or 19 per cent of the entire population-a higher percentage than has since obtained. With the decreasing percentage, however, there has occurred a steady increase in absolute numbers until the race in this country now numbers 11,000,000.

The Swedes settled on the Delaware River in 1638, entered into conflicts with the Dutch, and finally became an English colony. This group represented the second Scandinavian movement to America. After the close of the Civil War the third, largest, and final Scandinavian migration began.

The Germans came from the Palatinate region in 1682 and the subsequent years at the behest of the agents of William Penn; Germantown was their chief settlement. The German migration, however, culminated in 1854 and 1882.

The Scotch-Irish migrated in the first half of the eighteenth century, and constituted the largest influx of any race to America in that century. They came chiefly to Philadelphia and Baltimore. They moved westward into the unsettled portions of Pennsylvania, crossed the mountains into Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee, and thence into the Middle West. Others of their numbers traversed the valleys into the Appalachian mountains and became the leading ancestors of the present-day southern mountaineers.

During the early years of the Republic, immigration averaged less than 10,000 per year. It is certain that not over 250,000 immigrants came to the

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