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should have access to the best and the most useful knowledge that is available.

The ideal of intellectual democracy in America is a nation of people, all of whom are well-grounded in the fundamental principles of individual and social living; broad in sympathies and vision; courageous yet kind; always achieving something for the weal of the race. To this end, the United States is officially spending $500,000,000 annually, employing 500,000 teachers, educating 20,000,000 individuals and building and socializing the public school, the most democratic institution in America.

In an intellectual democracy, education per se gives no one a right to feel a superiority over his fellow citizens. It gives one a sane and kindly vision which impels him to help others to obtain the same educational advantages which he has enjoyed. It does not permit him to use his education to play "smart tricks" upon his fellow beings, to exploit the unsophisticated, or to parade his superiority before the public. It increases his sense of obligation to help solve public problems.

(6) Industrial democracy is based on "the organization of the forces of the world about human values and not about things." It is opposed to an aristocracy of wealth. It believes that a financial autocracy and a political autocracy are equally bad and that the former must follow the downfall of the latter. It declares that wealth is power-social power. The most vital principles of industrial democracy that are being worked out in America are as follows:

(a) Human values are more important than material values.

(b) Property must never be used so that it blights the lives of individuals.

(c) The ideal situation is not equality of possession, but equal right by labor to obtain food, air, clothing, and the physical amenities of life.

(d) A reputation for honest dealing, for giving a dollar's worth for a dollar, for permanently pleasing and not repeatedly cheating the customer, for paying the employee not as low wages as he will take but as much as he earns.

(7) Social democracy means the socialization of all of the opportunities of life. Conservation of life and health, democratization of education, socialization of the production and consumption of economic goods are the fundamental elements.14

Social democracy involves acting together. The development of personality is the goal, but this evolution must keep within the lines set by the common good. There will be classes, but no one class shall rule.15 There will be class divisions but no insurmountable barriers between them. There will be a kingdom, not of “kings,” but of men. All the members of the group will share largely in the opportunities for developing the best personalities. 16

Social democracy is well illustrated in a letter that has just come to hand from one of the wounded. heroes of the Argonne. It is stated that in the

"Cf. W. Weyl, The New Democracy, p. 320.

J. J. Roche, Life of J. B. O'Reilly, (quoted by W. M. Talbot, Americanization, p. 2).

"Cf. J. H. Tufts, Our Democracy, p. 268.

trainloads of soldier boys who have been speeding homeward across the plains of our country "there is no mention of the Mayflower, no hint of ancestor worship, no reference to antecedents, no questioning about present financial or social status. If a fellow is a good scout and a square shooter, he is at once admitted into the great fraternity."

(8) Spiritual democracy releases the highest spiritual potentialities of man. His individual and social life flourish where his spirit is free. America is beginning to take time to give her spiritual life its rightful place.

Out of suffering is born spiritual democracy. W. L. Stidger tells of a lad who went through the battle of Belleau Wood. He came out, but terribly wounded. His face was ugly to look upon. "I may look awful," he said, "but I'm a new man inside. What I saw out there in the woods made me different, somehow. I saw a friend stand by his machine-gun, with a whole platoon of Germans sweeping down on him, and he never flinched. He fired that old gun until every bullet was gone and his gun was red-hot. I was lying in the grass where I could see it all. I saw them bayonet him. He fought to the last against fifty men, but thank God, he died a man; he died an American. I lay there and cried to see them kill him, but every time I think of that fellow it makes me want to be more of a man. When I get back home I'm going to give my life to some kind of Christian service. I'm going to do it because I saw that man die so bravely. If


he can die like that, in spite of my face, I can live like a man."

These types of democracy are in process of development in the United States. It is safe to say that the complete ideal in no case has been attained, but the ideals as a class indicate the nature and direction of the strivings of the American people.




The element of internationalism in Americanism received its initial recognition by Washington and Jefferson, who agreed that America should advance her commercial interests throughout the world but politically should hold herself aloof from entangling alliances. In any transactions that might arise with foreign powers, she should deal honestly and in good faith. Her main interest in those early days was in national self-building.

Monroe added a new factor. He pointed out that our political aims and structure were different from the prevailing types in Europe at that timeand thus gave a somewhat different reason for American aloofness. He went further and defined a type of political protectorate for the United States to assume over the democracies to her south. She was to safeguard them against any encroachments by European autocracies. She was not to meddle in European situations, and in return, the European nations were to refrain from meddling with the affairs of any of the American republics.

This principle was invoked in 1845 and 1848 by Polk and in 1870 by Grant. In 1865-1866, it was used to cause the French to withdraw from Mexico. In 1895, Cleveland clothed the Monroe Doctrine

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